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caird essays Vita Alice Mona ALISON (1852-1932) Alice Mona Henryson Caird. Novelist, essayist, critic, social reformer, ardent campaigner against vivisection , Mona Caird believed that marriage led many women into a virtual slavery, limiting their destiny and subordinating them to their partners. She became widely known after 1888 for advocating change in the marriage laws to grant women greater equality and more freedom. She warned of the essays comedy dangers of the authoritarian mix of creative-commons, eugenics and social dictatorship that was to emerge in divine comedy the next century: Mona Caird (ne Mona Alison, also called Alice Mona Henryson-Caird) (1854-1932) was a Scottish novelist and essayist whose feminist views sparked controversy in the late years of the 19th century. Her publications included Whom Nature Leadeth (1883) , The Wings of Azrael (1889) , Beyond the on why Pale: An Appeal on Behalf of the in dante's Victims of Vivisection (1897) , The Morality of Marriage, and discursive essay, Other Essays on the Status and Destiny of Woman (1897) . Mona Caird's friend Elizabeth A. Sharp stressed that though her writings about divine comedy marriage had met acute hostility, they did a great deal to on size 0 alter public attitudes on women’s rights.
She was born in Ryde on essays in dante's divine comedy the Isle of Wight, daughter of the 40-year-old John Alison, Midlothian inventor of vertical boilers and retorts, and science, the 19-year-old Matilda Ann Jane Hector. Too little is known about her parents. In Dante's Divine. Mona’s father may have hailed from Portobello or Duddingston. In amassing a substantial fortune he undoubtedly spent some of his life in Australia. Mona’s young mother was born in Sleswig-Holstein, in those days part of Denmark, Whether she was related to the Edinbugh legal and trading Hectors (like the research-papers surveyor of New Zealand and Canada, Sir James Hector of Kicking Horse fame) remains uncertain. Mona wrote stories and plays beginning in her early childhood, and was at essays in dante's comedy ease in French and German as well as English. She published her first novel, Lady Hetty , anonymously in 1875. After the Isle of Wight, Mona’s family moved on the strength of John Alison’s landholdings and investments, spending some time at discursive essay 0 Gatton Road, Reigate in Surrey during her early school years. Later, the family moved comfortably to take their place in central London at 90 Lancaster Gate, now the in dante's divine Thistle Hyde Park Hotel. Research-papers. In 1877, Mona Alison married farmer James Alexander Caird, the oldest son of in dante's divine comedy, eight children of the lamb to the slaughter analysis essay well-known agronomist of the day, Sir James Caird FRS.
Mona’s father-in-law was a few years younger than her own father. Sir James had been active in politics as MP for Dartmouth 1857-9, and essays in dante's divine, the Stirling Boroughs 1859-65, later becoming a member of the Inclosure Commission, of the Board of Agriculture, and thesis statements on stem cell, a Privy Councillor. Sir James was a widower, his wife Margaret Henryson, a distant descendant of the Scots poet, died in Nice in essays 1863 after twenty years of statements cell research, marriage. Sir James and his famiy came from Wigtownshire, and in dante's divine comedy, his own landholding in that county, at Casencary, he had purchased after his name as an agronomist was well-known. James Alexander Caird, Mona’s new husband, had been given charge of the farm management of the estate of about 2000 acres from empty moors to the lines of stakenets along the Cree estuary. The fourteenth century mansion was an oddly romantic range of buildings, notable for its two libraries, and discursive essay on size 0, as “ Woodbourne” had been used by Sir Walter Scott as a setting for his novel Guy Mannering . Essays In Dante's Divine. So on 19 December 1877 Mona Alison married James Alexander Caird of Cassencary , Creetown , Kirkcudbrightshire . He was eight years older than she was.
In her first year of thesis statements, marriage she joined the National Society for Women's Suffrage. James Alexander Caird was supportive of Mona’s independence, and although he lived mainly at Casencary, she spent only essays in dante's, a few weeks a year there, spending much of her time in statement you should London and travelling abroad. At the 1881 census the couple were together visiting Mona’s parents at 90 Lancaster Gate, along with an essays in dante's, older friend, Georgina Clarke. Statements On Stem Cell Research. The 1880s were the years of Mona Caird’s ascendancy. As a married woman, houseguest and comedy, hostess from her parent’s base in Lancaster Gate, she associated with a wide circle in the literary and social world of the time. A generation before Bloomsbury, its way of life first began to take shape around Hyde Park where the future Lytton Strachey, Vanessa Bell and Virginia Woolf might be seen in discursive on size 0 their perambulators.
With no real court influence in the decades of Queen Victoria’s withdrawal from society after Prince Albert’s death in 1861 the social life of London had come to be led by a series of society hostesses. Old aristocracy, intelligence, colonial money, industrial wealth and political power rubbed shoulders in conversation, ideas, gossip and wit. One of the leading hostesses of the day -just a few years older than Mona Caird- was the energetic and well connected Mary Lady Jeune, active in social issues through the Primrose League. Through Lady Jeune and others, Mona became a member of literary and political circles and expanded her knowledge of the humanities and science. Thomas Hardy regularly dined at Lady Jeune’s (staying there when in London) and was soon an admirer of in dante's comedy, Mona Caird’s work and ideas. Thomas Hardy 1840-1928 admired her work. In 1883 Mona Caird published the on size 0 first of two novels, Whom Nature Leadeth (1883) under the name G. Noel Hatton , but these were hardly noticed.
In 1884 the Cairds had their first and only child, Alister James. With due allowance for her new role as a mother, Mona continued to divide her time between London, Cassencary, and travel, between parents, husband and essays divine comedy, son, but generally leading an independent, intellectually stimulating life. Her marriage continued unspectacularly until James Alexander (once unkindly referred to as “No-one Caird”) died in 1921. Lamb Character Essay. After One That Wins (1887) was published under the name of Hatton, Mona Caird’s next writings were published in her own name, a name that suddenly came to prominence in 1888 when the Westminster Review printed her long article Marriage. Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902) The US women’s rights activist Elizabeth Cady Stanton saw Mona Caird’s views on in dante's divine comedy the subject taking shape: “Toward the last of February, 1888, we went again to London to interactive make a few farewell visits to comedy dear friends. We spent a few days with Mrs. Research And Cons Education. Mona Caird , who was then reading Karl Pearson's lectures on Woman, and expounding her views on marriage, which she afterward gave to the Westminister Review, and stirred the press to white heat both in England and America. Is Marriage a Failure? furnished the heading for divine our quack advertisements for a long time after. Mrs.
Caird was a very graceful, pleasing woman, and so gentle in manner and appearance that no one would deem her capable of hurling such thunderbolts at the long-suffering Saxon people.” Chapter XXIV Eighty Years And More: Reminiscences 1815-1897 (1898) Elizabeth Cady Stanton . In the Westminster Review , Mona Caird was passionate about the indignities women had to thesis on stem cell suffer in comedy marriage. Statement. The relative responsibilities of the sexes in essays divine marriage were demonstrably unfair. She called its present state a vexatious failure and advocated the equality and autonomy of marriage partners. The widely circulated Daily Telegraph responded with a syndicated series of its own: Is Marriage a Failure? which ran for statements cell three months and brought it thousands of letters from around the divine comedy world. Disturbed that her views had been misunderstood and sensationalised, Mona Caird published another Westminster Review article on thesis you should go to college Ideal Marriage at the end of the year. In it she looked forward to essays in dante's the day when “a mother’s affection will show itself, not in lamb to the slaughter industrious self-sacrifice, which reduces her to a pulpy nonentity, and generally ends in bringing a child to a similar condition ; but in a resolve to take the full advantage of all that science is busily providing for those who will accept her bounties.” Essays on The Emancipation of the Family came out in 1890: Meanwhile, the spirit of liberty among women is increasing rapidly, and as soon as an approach to economic independence gives them the power to refuse, without harsh penalty, the terms which men have hitherto been able to dictate to in dante's them, in and out of marriage, we shall have some just right to call ourselves a free people. It is then that marriage -at present a mere moldering branch of the patriarchal tree- must alter its nature and form” “The 'contract' can no longer remain unequal, when women have some say in the making of laws which they have to obey, and it remains to be seen how tight and irrevocable men will be willing to make the bond which they, too, must literally carry out” “In short, so amazing, so overwhelming are the demands made upon the woman, and so meager the rights granted to her, that the sense of the research-papers creative-commons stupendous injustice is almost swallowed by the sense of the stupendous absurdity, and essays comedy, -as fortunately often happens in the study of English law and English opinion- the stress of indignant feeling finds timely relief in a burst of laughter. Essay On Size 0. Equal rights for the two sexes; the comedy economic independence of women (hanging in a great measure on the progress of our industrial evolution); the establishment, rapid or gradual, as may prove desirable, of real freedom in the home- this at last would bring us to statements research the end of the patriarchal system. Essays In Dante's. May we speed the parting guest!
Mona Caird’s “ A Defence of the So-Called Wild Women” followed in 1892. The pieces she wrote on marriage and thesis on why you should go to, women's issues in these years were collected together in 1897 in “ The Morality of Marriage and Other Essays on the Status and Destiny of Women” . At the same time, Mona Caird had continued to express herself through fiction. In the aftermath of the Westminster Review articles she published her next novel “ The Wing of Azrael” in 1889 under her own name. In Dante's Divine Comedy. It includes marital rape, and Viola Sedley murders her cruel husband in self-defence. A short story collection followed in 1891: “ A Romance of the Moors” . Creative-commons. In the title story, a widowed artist, Margaret Ellwood, advises a young couple to lead independent and essays divine, self-sufficient lives. In her well known short story The Yellow Drawing-Room of 1892 Vanora Haydon defies traditional notions of separate spheres for men and women.
Mona Caird’s best-known novel “Daughters of Danaus” appeared in 1894. In it Hadria Fullerton hopes to become a composer, but finds herself hemmed in by the family duties expected of her as a woman to her parents, husband and child. Daughters of thesis statements, Danaus -a modern edition. Behind all her writings, Mona Caird had been continuously pressing for votes for women, from her beginnings in the movement as a member of the National Society for Women's Suffrage to the Women's Franchise League , the Women's Emancipation Union , and the London Society for Women's Suffrage . Her essay Why Women Want the Franchise was read at the 1892 WEU Conference. In 1908 she published Militant Tactics and Woman's Suffrage and took part in the second Hyde Park demonstration. She was also an increasingly active opponent of vivisection, writing extensively on essays divine the subject, including The Sanctuary Of Mercy which appeared in thesis on stem 1895. In Dante's Comedy. In Beyond the Pale published by William Reeves in 1896 she wrote: “…S o that in civilised countries, at the present day, only the animals remain completely below the line; but they seem to be sinking even lower, to thesis statement you should college be pushed farther away from human mercy and protection, as the desire to further the essays in dante's divine interests of essay 0, humanity increases.
Our luckless dumb companions are doomed to suffer increasingly at the hands of man, who claims to be their moral superior, and proceeds to prove this superiority by torture and mutilation.” The question she posed in Beyond the Pale : Does anyone really believe that our race must seek its redemption in torture, its health and happiness by the infliction of anguish unspeakable? she developed in her play The Logicians: An episode in dialogue in 1902, where the characters argue opposing views on vivisection. Her views on vivisection formed a part of a letter she wrote to in dante's divine comedy the press in March 1897. But it was the fate of paper on the schools, powerless patients at the hands of men who could exercise absolute power in their own domain that worried her here: MRS. MONA CAIRD AND HOSPITAL EXPERIMENTS. TO THE EDITORS OF THE LIVERPOOL MERCURY. Gentlemen, - Will you accord me space in your columns to draw the attention of essays in dante's comedy, your readers to certain probable consequences of the Prince of Wales's hospital scheme? The scheme of thesis you should college, course is conceived in the most benevolent spirit; but what would its success involve? That the governing bodies of the hospitals and their medical staffs would be placed in a position of even more irresponsible power than that. which they occupy at present; and it is significant that, even as it is, so many scandals have arisen o that there is an increasing demand, on the part of those who have looked closely into the matter, for bringing the essays in dante's comedy hospitals more under the jurisdiction of the public. The hospital fund, on the other hand, -would entirely free the governing bodies from all necessity to creative-commons consider public opinion at all, and we know that these bodies have been much harassed by unwelcome criticism of divine comedy, late . Therefore their dearest ambition is, naturally, to thesis cell stand in a position which will enable them to snap their fingers at popular feeling. Now, such a position of absolute power is one that no body of men can enjoy with safety to those over whom it is exercised, or, for that matter, with safety to their own moral characters, for the temptations to abuse it are overwhelming, In the essays in dante's divine case we are considering, these temptations are of an especially dangerous and insidious kind. Medical men are presumably not more than human, and research-papers, it is not necessary to essays in dante's divine take a particularly harsh view of them in order to realise what I can only call the insanity of placing at statements research their mercy a number of poor, helpless, and ignorant people, who are utterly without means of essays divine, protest, even if they should know when their medical attendants are (perhaps) subjecting them to treatment for research-papers creative-commons purposes other than the cure of in dante's divine comedy, their ailments.
The doctor has his science as well as his patient to think of; he has his name and his living to make; and if he is an ardent student, the temptation to to the slaughter analysis essay swerve a little from the line of treatment best suited to the invalid, or to allow his recovery to be delayed for a time in order to glean a little wayside knowledge, must be overwhelmingly strong. And it would be so easy for the doctor to argue with himself that through a little pain and inconvenience to a one patient, he might save the divine lives of many, and, above all, make some discovery of value to science. But would the public give their money to thesis statement on why you should go to hospitals if they knew that it might be supporting such practices? If they render the hospitals independent of their opinion by essays means of this fund, what hope have they of even making an effective protest against such abuses, should there be reason to know or to fear that they exist? If this fund fulfil its ob ject of paying off the debts of the hospitals, the governing bodies can treat all subsequent objections of the thesis statement on why go to college public to essays in dante's divine the use of hospital patients for experimental purposes with scientific scorn. They do so now, but not quite so openly as they will hereafter. Statements Cell Research. Dr.
De Watteville, who, some years ago. Essays Comedy. wrote in the Standard, November 24, 1883, urging that subscribers should make the hospitals very comfortable for patients, in order to compensate them for having to be used as a clinical material (he uses the thesis statements on stem cell research term corpora vilia ) will, in time to come, have a large following; only then, the essays divine comedy I question of essay 0, comfort for divine the patients will be regarded as obsolete. The appeals will then be made for subscriptions solely on the ground that further medical knowledge is urgently needed. and that the beds for experimental patients are insufficient. The trend of medical feeling is at present all in this direction. Let us not forget the significant fact that a Bill to thesis on why you should go to college vivisect criminals was lately brought before the legislature of an American state, and only thrown out by a small majority. Essays Divine. The prevalence and awful nature of the vivisectional experiments in America on animals fully accounts for paper pros and cons in high schools this natural progress of sentiment; but we must not forget that we ourselves have animal vivisection in England, nay, in the medical schools attached to our very hospitals. Essays Comedy. I do not think that we can claim such radical superiority over the Americans as to feel perfectly secure that similar education may not in course of time lead to similar results in ourselves. At any rate, it can scarcely be denied that the perpetual familiarity with the idea of torturing sentient creatures for scientific ends, and the sight of their suffering, must inevitably tend to make the idea of sacrificing one human being for the good of the many, or of science, seem less heinous and less terrible. As a significant sign that many people are alive to this danger, a society has lately been started whose sole object is the creative-commons protection ofi hospital patients from such treatment. The matter is one of very grave public peril, and it is sad to think that our successors, perhaps fifty years hence, may have cause rather to curse than to bless the benevolent people who are coming forward so liberally to support what they believe to be a scheme of widespread beneficence. This misfortune could perhaps even yet be averted if public meetings could be held with the object of rousing attention to the subject, and of devising some means by which the public could safeguard their own rights. It ought to be possible to take some precaution by which they could prevent their money being put to purposes of which they disapproved, and to protect from possible illtreatment the essays divine comedy poor and helpless who trust themselves within the doors of our hospitals.
If only a powerful enough protest could be made, and the issues rendered sufficiently plain, thousands of intending subscribers might be induced to give their donations only on condition that the fund should be administered by certain bodies in which the public could have representatives, and under certain restrictions which vwould entirely obviate the danger to which attention has been drawn. Meanwhile no stone should be left unturned that may serve to bring the thesis statement danger home to the general public. MONA CAIRD. Cassercary, Creetown, N.B. -It was not fifty but a hundred years hence that the wave of Mona Caird’s warning broke across Liverpool: The Alder Hey organs scandal involved the unauthorised removal, retention, and disposal of human tissue, including children’s organs, during the period 1988 to 1995. In Dante's Divine. During this period organs were retained in more than 2,000 plastic formalin-filled containers containing body parts from around 850 infants. Research. These were later uncovered at Alder Hey Children's Hospital, Liverpool, during a public inquiry into the organ retention scandal. Mona Caird was a member of the Theosophical Society between 1904 and 1909. She saw her life energised by essays comedy twin engines of love and intelligence. Research-papers. For years she had warned of the dangers of a totalitarian, male-dominated approach to eugenics by the few, and essays, -worse still- of its passive acceptance by the many. The popular writings of research-papers, Grant Allen and in dante's, H.G. Thesis Statement You Should College. Wells were not to her taste, with their implied approval of women's subordination to the collective purpose of essays in dante's, mass-produced, state-controlled motherhood.
Grant Allen (1848-1899) H.G. Wells (1866-1946) She published a large illustrated volume of on Romantic Cities Of Provence in 1906, but her thoughts were never far from women’s increasingly militant struggle for the vote. She wrote approvingly in a special women’s suffrage supplement of the New Age in 1911 “These militant measures have, I think, brilliantly succeeded in bringing the subject in a few short years into research on the of sex education schools, the region of practical and essays divine comedy, immediate questions. The public has been forced at least to attend to the matter. Previously it was ignored, except by a few thinkers, and even these placed it in the category of the unessentials.
Every other question had to come first. Discursive Essay On Size. We have had to make enemies in divine comedy order to make friends. How far all the militant measures are justifiable is a different question, and not one to go into here. But it must be remembered that many things are justified to those who are politically weaponless -especially when they have patiently tried and tried quieter measures for nearly half a century -which would be unpardonable in thesis on why go to college those who possess political representation either as a class or as a sex. Alternatives are indeed difficult to suggest for essays divine weaponless fighters. Election work seems to offer the best hope, in unison with propagandist effort. But this has already been done on statement on why you should go to college a large scale. Essays In Dante's Comedy. Still further concentration in this direction might be perhaps advisable.
The difficulty in thesis statements cell research all these measures (other than the sensationally militant methods) is that they do not make much quick effect beyond their immediate radius of effort. The papers will not report the essays quieter kind of work. They want something exciting; something to enable the British householder to denounce “these disgraceful women,’’ and to suggest mediaeval methods for suppressing them. Analysis. One newspaper actually stated frankly that it was not possible to essays in dante's comedy give space to report quiet meetings and on stem, educational work which the public took no interest in. It was only militancy that was worth reporting. Essays In Dante's Divine. Yet women are urged to paper pros and cons education in high schools try quiet and constitutional measures as if this were to them quite a new idea! If they don’t make a noise they are told they obviously don’t want the franchise; if they do make a noise they are told they are not fit for it! Many no doubt have been alienated by militancy, but in any case the cause would never have made an inch of progress by the help of essays divine comedy, those who held it so cheaply and statements, understood it so little as to be turned aside because some of its advocates adopted measures which these luke-warm friends happened (rightly or wrongly) to disapprove.” For over a decade the in dante's Caird surname Mona was known by in London had differed from the Henryson-Caird name the rest of the ks3 family had now adopted and to which she deferred at Cassencary.
After old Sir James’s death in essays 1892 his children and grandchildren had become Henryson-Caird to belatedly honour their maternal connection. Mona continued to write as Mrs Caird. Her brother-in-law Robert Henryson-Caird was prominent on the Board of Management of the London Homeopathic Hospital in Great Ormond Street since 1904. He became Chairman of the hospital’s House Committee from 1908, and thesis statements cell research, supervised the building of the new wing and nurses’ home in the years that followed. In a late novel “ The Stones Of Sacrifice” in 1915 Mona Caird wrote of the bad results which come from women’s self-sacrifice. She herself was not the “pulpy nonenity” she’d feared seeing others become, but a woman who had led an intellectually stimulating life.
Her ideas about sexual equality were finally gaining acceptance and could be celebrated with other emancipated women in the Sesame, Pioneer and Lyceum Clubs to which she belonged. But at essays in dante's Cassencary that same year she was also Mrs Henryson Caird. As a wife and mother she regretted the death of cell research, local Private Robert Anderson of the King's Own Scottish Borderers, drowned in the Aegean Sea, age 20 when his troopship was sunk on the way to Gallipoli. The Kirkcudbrightshire Advertiser reported: “The death of this young soldier has brought many letters of sympathy to his father and mother. Among these are two from Mr and in dante's, Mrs Henryson-Caird of Cassencary, and their son, Captain A.J. Henryson-Caird. Mr Henryson-Caird says he and Mrs Henryson-Caird can never forget the deep debt of gratitude they owed to the deceased soldier for what he did towards saving the life of statement you should go to, their son at the time of the Solway boating accident (when the Sirius was burned).
They felt very much for Mr and Mrs Anderson, and offered their sincerest sympathy.” Ann Heilmann of the essays University of Bradford, in her Mona Caird (1854-1932): wild woman, new woman, and early radical feminist critic of marriage and motherhood points out some of these strains and thesis statements cell, paradoxes in her life: “Judging from in dante's divine her critique of motherhood in lamb character analysis her writings, she must have faced considerable difficulties with taking up a maternal role in her life. Whether the nervous breakdown she seems to essays in dante's divine comedy have suffered sometime in the early 1890s resulted from an overwhelming sense of conflicting desires and discursive on size 0, duties, can only be surmised. Essays In Dante's Divine Comedy. Not surprisingly, she was not considered to analysis essay be a good mother. There are pictures of father and son; none of mother and child. Her son's bedroom, although charmingly organised, was situated at the opposite end of the mansion - in the guest wing. In Dante's Divine Comedy. One of the few anecdotes the family remembers about essay on size 0 her is that when her son left for the First World War, she presented him with a phial of poison, urging him to in dante's divine swallow it in case of injury or captivity. What from her anti-militaristic and fiercely realistic perspective may well have been intended as a last resort against horrific suffering, was interpreted as the ultimate gesture of cynical indifference. Alister James did not follow his mother's advice and returned from the war as a major, albeit with substantial injuries.
The frail and timid-looking child had developed into a man who stood for the exact opposite essay, of everything his mother represented. She forbade her gamekeeper to set traps and snares; her son's one professed interest was shooting. ” Mona’s husband died in in dante's divine comedy 1921. You Should Go To. Ann Heilmann comments “Whether she regretted her choice of essays in dante's, partner must remain open to thesis research speculation. Essays In Dante's Comedy. Acquaintances of the couple may have held the belief, voiced by one, that because James was a most unassertive person , their marriage must have been happy enough. A family anecdote records that at a dinner party a guest once stated that while everybody was aware of what Mrs Caird thought about interactive papers ks3 marriage, Mr Caird's views were sadly unknown.
Significantly, his answer has not been handed down. Caird's fiction provides the only clues to the existence of marital problems in her life. In her novels, she provided a brilliantly prosaic script for marital breakdown: simple incompatibility, all the in dante's more tragic for its banality.” Mona Caird’s last work, “ The Great Wave” appeared in 1931. It is a social science fiction in which she warns against the racist policies of negative eugenics, and their too ready acceptance by on stem cell research modern women with votes at their disposal. In her novel the male eugenicists plan and manage their marriages in strict accord with reproductive purposes, advocate the vivisection of animals and lower humans such as criminals and essays in dante's divine comedy, rule their immediate circle of supporters just as autocratically as they propose to govern state affairs. And despite their overt misogyny, they have a huge female following. Paper And Cons In High Schools. Prophetic to the last, Mona Caird died at in dante's divine comedy Hampstead in 1932. Thesis Statement On Why You Should College. “It is only by love, led by knowledge, that the world can be saved. We are all actors in this great and essays divine comedy, mysterious tragedy, and our hope is in each other.” –Mona Caird 1888.
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Essay about Dante s Divine Comedy - Good and Evil in The Inferno -- Di
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Digital Publishing Annotation Use Cases. This document is also available in this non-normative format: ePub. This document describes the set of use cases generated for Annotation and Social Reading within the essays in dante's divine, W3C Digital Publishing Interest Group, in coordination with the Open Annotation Community Group. This section describes the status of interactive science papers ks3, this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. Essays Divine Comedy? A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at http://www.w3.org/TR/. This document was published by the Digital Publishing Interest Group as an Interest Group Note. If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to firstname.lastname@example.org (subscribe, archives). All comments are welcome. Publication as an Interest Group Note does not imply endorsement by the W3C Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at lamb to the, any time.
It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress. The disclosure obligations of the Participants of this group are described in the charter. This section is non-normative. Annotation is a pervasive activity when reading or otherwise engaging with publications. In the physical world, highlighting and sticky notes are common paradigms for marking up and associating one's own content with the work being read, and many digital solutions exist in the same space. Essays In Dante's Divine Comedy? These digital solutions are, however, not interoperable between systems, even when there is only one user with multiple devices. This document lays out the research-papers, use cases for annotations on digital publications, as envisioned by the W3C Digital Publishing Interest Group, the W3C Open Annotation Community Group and the International Digital Publishing Forum. The use cases are provided as a means to drive forwards the conversation about divine comedy, standards in this arena.
The use cases are divided into five sections: annotations that target only the entire publication, annotations that target a particular part of a publication, more complex annotations, the publication of annotations and finally use cases that are directly related to accessibility. 2.1 Annotations Targeting the Full Publication. A user wishes to write a comment about a particular publication, such as a single issue of a comic or a single book title. The comment is lamb character essay written in plain text or basic HTML, either on essays in dante's the reading platform (such as a web browser or reading system, henceforth user agent) or in the content provider's platform. Lamb To The Character Analysis Essay? The user wishes other readers to be able to see the comment linked to the publication, and potentially before they purchase or download it, as well as afterwards.
Anna is reading Alice in Wonderland online and, using a tool built into the provider's website, comments that she really loves the way the book is written. In Dante's Comedy? She then shares this with her friend, Ben. On The Pros Of Sex Education Schools? Ben is essays reading a Manga comic on a mobile device. He comments that it is helping him to learn Japanese and publishes this comment for anyone to read online. A user wishes to organize their personal digital library by tagging the publications that they have access to. The tag could be either drawn from a list of terms (a taxonomy) or free text (sometimes called a folksonomy). Lamb Slaughter Character? User agents encountering such an annotation must be aware of the difference between a tag and a comment, even though both might be modeled as an annotation.
Tags are typically rendered separately and very differently from short textual comments, such as in a tag cloud or list. The user then wishes to view their library partitioned via the tags. The user may wish to essays share their tags with other users to help the recipient categorize their own library, or find publications of mutual interest. Colleen has a collection of works of thesis statements on stem, various types in her library about chemistry, science fiction and the renaissance. She tags each work with what they are about, and whether she enjoyed reading them or not. David tags an online poem about his home town with the URI for the location from Wikipedia.
He publishes this annotation so that others can find it. 2.1.3 Structured Review of a Publication. A user wishes to provide a structured review of a particular publication, including pre-defined fields such as star ratings for divine comedy, quality, cost, entertainment or other domain-specific information. The review could also include a full text description, such as the comment in the first use case. Interactive Papers Ks3? The definition of the divine, fields would be retailer, publisher or domain-specific. In the scholarly domain, this could be expected to research-papers creative-commons provide a distributed and standardized peer-review system, rather than the current use of vendor-specific interfaces.
In the commercial sector, it could help to standardize such features as product reviews across sites. Emily has read a textbook and provides a review of divine comedy, it online to help her classmates and creative-commons other students. She gives it ratings on value for money, ease of use, ease of understanding, and comedy overall quality, plus a long form description of the work. On Size? Fabio is reviewing a scholarly article for an academic publisher. In Dante's Divine Comedy? The publisher requires various fields to lamb slaughter essay be completed, such as relevance to the journal, novelty of the research, and quality of the experiments described. He also provides a discussion about the paper and how it relates to the field.
2.1.4 Textual Comment Maintained Separately from essays divine, Annotation Document. A user wishes to link an existing web resource, such as a blog post, to thesis statements research the particular publication that it is about. In Dante's Comedy? The comment could be any online resource, in science papers ks3, any format. The user wishes other readers to be able to see the resource linked to the publication, and in dante's comedy potentially before they purchase or download it as well as afterwards. Gretchen uses a common blog hosting platform to write a comment about a work she has read for a book club, and then her user agent annotates the book with the link to the blog post. She then shares the annotation with the members of her book club. Harry has written a long blog post about the features of a digitized medieval manuscript. The manuscript is available via a dedicated website, and he links the blog post to the website's publication via an annotation in a personal note taking system. 2.1.5 Comment and/or Publication are Multimedia Resources. A user wishes to comment on on the and cons education in high an online resource by means of recording a short video on essays her phone and uploading it either just the audio track, or the statement on why you should college, entire video stream. Divine? The resource may also be of any format, including audio, video, image or any other data.
The user wishes other consumers to be able to view their video when interacting with the commented on research paper on the education in high schools resource. Ingrid uses a mobile device to take a video of herself discussing a work that she has just read for a book club. She posts the video to a commonly used video sharing platform, and then her user agent annotates the book with the link to the video. She then shares the annotation with the members of her book club. Jeremy has recorded a professor speaking about the divine, features visible in an image of a map. To The Slaughter Analysis? The map is available via a dedicated website, and the professor hosts the audio recording of his lecture. Harry links the audio stream to the map for the benefit of other students. 2.1.6 Annotated Resource is an Annotation. A user wishes to reply to essays an existing annotation with her own comments in a threaded discussion. The existing annotation has been made and published by another user, using a different user agent. The reply may also be a tag on essay 0 the existing annotation in essays in dante's comedy, order to add to a combined moderation score, to classify it under some agreed upon science papers, scheme, or to add keywords to aid in discovery.
Karen replies to in dante's comedy a comment on thesis statements cell research a news video to say that she agrees with the in dante's, original commenter, and provides additional evidence towards the points discussed. Luis tags a comment in an online discussion forum that contains offensive material to aid the moderators in keeping the discussion on topic and friendly. A user wishes to contribute their experience in the form of science papers, a comment, and wishes to remain known as the essays in dante's divine comedy, author of that content and annotation that links it to the publication. The annotation must record its provenance, including the user's identity, when and lamb slaughter essay how the annotation was created, and for what purpose. This provenance is important for appropriate display of the annotation, filtering or ordering of annotations, maintaining and assigning credit for essays in dante's, annotations, determining allowed usage of the annotation, and thesis statement on why college many other similar requirements. Desirable metadata features: Creator's identity and information Creation time Creation tool Purpose of the in dante's comedy, annotation.
Examples: tagging, describing, commenting, identifying, bookmarking, highlighting. Intended Audience. Note: This could based on any information known about the user, such as age, reading ability, accessibility requirements. Category or Subject. Examples: Astronomy, Chemistry, Education, History, Technology, Sports Identity of original Annotation of which the current one is a copy Licensing and/or Rights statements. Note that many of thesis on stem research, these features are desirable for the body and target resources as well. Madeleine annotates a short story that she has read for an online class, and submits the annotation into the coursework system.
The system keeps track of essays comedy, her identity for credit towards the class, when it was created to ensure that her work was submitted on time, the fact that it was created externally rather than within the coursework system, and other attributes. Nigel discovers a typo in an online encyclopedia entry that is not able to be edited by users directly. He annotates the entry with the typo and research pros education in high schools gives the correction. The system records the provenance of the in dante's divine comedy, annotation and adds him into its reputation system, which generates an automatic scoreboard for character analysis, users and essays divine articles. 2.1.8 Annotation has Multiple, Independent Comments and/or Tags. A user wishes to on why go to associate multiple resources at the same time with a publication, where the resources are independent of each other. The resources might be a comment and several tags added by the user to the publication at the same time. Essays In Dante's Comedy? Alternatively, tags might be extracted from the research and cons education in high, comment's text by in dante's, an automatic process and added to research of sex the annotation about the publication after the user agent confirms their relevance. Olivia exports her reviews from her user agent, which include both her comments and the tags assigned to essays comedy the publication when she was doing the review.
Peter is reading a romance novel online and comments about the papers ks3, use of a particular character. The user agent proposes 3 semantic tags from the comment, of which he accepts two. These tags are added to divine comedy the annotation along with the comment. 2.2 Annotations Targeting Specific Segments of Publications. 2.2.1 Bookmarking Current Reading Position. A user wishes to have their user agent record the location they have read up to in the publication, either with a manual or automatic bookmark. This bookmark should be positioned at a particular point within the statement on why you should college, publication, such as a page or an offset within the character stream. The placement of the bookmark might be automatic (the user agent always moves the bookmark as the user reads) or manual (the user moves the bookmark as they desire).
When using the platform again, the user wishes to optionally start reading from the bookmarked position. The user also wishes to in dante's divine share this position with others to show how far through the character analysis essay, publication they have progressed. This might be publically shared for bragging rights, shared semi-publically such as a reading group or class, or shared privately between platforms that the user has access to in order to maintain the position between devices. Qitarah is reading a fantasy book as she commutes to in dante's divine comedy work on the train every day. When she closes her mobile device, her reading system automatically bookmarks where she was reading so she can resume from that position when she gets the train home in the evening. Rangi is creative-commons studying for an exam and creates bookmarks in essays in dante's, his textbooks and interactive ks3 required reading documents at home. He also studies on campus and needs access to those bookmarks from the school's computers.
He does not want other students to see his bookmarks, as he is competitive and wants to be the top of the class. A user wishes to divine comedy highlight a span of text in a publication for you should go to college, emphasis. The exact nature of the presentation of essays divine, that emphasis may or may not be important to maintain, this use case assumes that it is thesis statements on stem cell research not. The emphasis might be to mark a passage of particular importance, a typo or other mistake, something to cite in essays in dante's divine comedy, another document, to bring to the attention of other readers, or to mark two such selections for comparison. The user may wish to share the highlight, and certainly wishes it to be accessible on multiple platforms to which she has access. In this use case there is no requirement to provide a comment or body of the annotation, simply to record a highlighted span of lamb to the slaughter character, text. Siobhan is essays in dante's divine preparing to publish a newspaper article and is doing background research.
She highlights various sections of thesis statement on why, other publications in order to in dante's divine comedy later come back to them and decide if she should include them as quotes in the article or not. Thomas is research-papers proofreading his own term paper and essays in dante's comedy highlights areas that he needs to work on. Research And Cons In High? He does this on a mobile device, but later needs to see those highlights in his word processing software. A user wishes to make a comment about a particular span of text. This is the most intuitive use case for annotation of digital publications, and thus the area in which interoperability has the highest impact. The comment is essays comedy textual, but may have additional markup in HTML to discursive on size 0 provide style formatting, layout or linking. The Annotation should be sharable, as per divine comedy the other use cases. Umeko works for the government and is researching a particular topic. Science Papers? She highlights sections of text in various publications and makes personal notes about them. She then uses visualization software to pull all of the notes together to organize her research.
Vladimir reads a news article online that he knows contains misinformation. He leaves a comment to this effect, associated with the part of the comedy, article that is not well founded. 2.2.4 Annotating Embedded Resources. A user wishes to make a comment about a particular resource that is research-papers creative-commons embedded as part of the publication, such as an comedy image or video. In the general case, the user would expect to lamb slaughter analysis essay somehow select the embedded resource and then launch the interface for comedy, adding comments in the same way as commenting on discursive 0 text. The embedded resource may be of any media type, but for this use case must be rendered directly as part of the publication. Whitney is reading a comic and comments on a particular image that it is much darker than the other cells in the publication. Essays Divine? Xavier is reading a white paper that includes an embedded dataset. He tags the dataset with a semantic URI identifying the subject matter of the dataset, which is different to discursive on size the paper as a whole. 2.2.5 Annotating Parts of Embedded Resources.
A user wishes to annotate a particular part of an embedded resource, such as a rectangular section of an image or a particular time range of an embedded video file. The annotation should be rendered using this information, rather than simply attached to the embedded resource itself. The embedded resource may be of any media type, but must be rendered by the reading system. Essays In Dante's Divine Comedy? Thus video, image, audio and similar are in scope for science papers, this use case, but not stylesheets or scripts which are not rendered directly. Annotations on audio files may present additional rendering challenges, compared to ones with a visual component. The user then wishes to in dante's comedy share the annotation with others. The parts of resources to be annotated include: Character position in an embedded text or data stream Time position within an audio or video stream x/y points in an area such as an image or video x/y/z points in a volume such as a 3d object Character ranges within a text or data stream Time ranges within an lamb slaughter analysis audio or video stream Areas within an image, including rectangular, circular and polygonal areas Volumes within a 3d object. Yadira is teaching a class on divine comedy physics and annotates part of an embedded video within the electronic textbook, delineating the time range that she wants to use as an example. Thesis Statements On Stem Cell Research? She then shares this annotation, and in dante's divine others that are similar, before the class so her students can watch them.
Zahir is reading an online magazine about thesis go to college, fashion and annotates part of one of the essays comedy, images that depicts a particular style he wishes to replicate in his own work. 2.2.6 Annotating Alt Text of Embedded Resources. A user wishes to on size 0 write a comment about a resource embedded within the publication, and to associate it with alternate, accessible representations of that resource, such as the essays in dante's divine comedy, alt text/long desc provided. The comment may be only about part of the alternate representation, and thus segments of the thesis on stem cell research, alternate representation must be able to be selected. The alternate representation may or may not have its own URI or other identity; it may exist solely in an attribute of essays divine, a particular HTML document.
Ahmed is concious of accessibility and research paper of sex in high schools annotates the depiction of a friend in a photograph, and in dante's divine comedy wants to research paper on the pros education in high align that annotation with the divine, name of the person in the textual description of the photograph in his school yearbook. The text description is provided in the alt text of the image element. Bianca is annotating a video. She associates his comments about slaughter character, linguistics with both the divine comedy, time range of the research-papers creative-commons, video, but also the accessible text transcription of the speeches. 2.2.7 Annotation Comparing Segments within a Publication.
A user wishes to annotate two or more parts of a publication, embedded resources, or part of an embedded resource, in order to compare or contrast the targets. In Dante's Divine? This may be to point out inconsistencies in research paper and cons of sex, the content or rendering, to essays divine comedy make a note about two similar or related passages, or to on stem link part of an embedded resource to where it is referenced in divine, the text. Craig is studying a book for an English class and highlights the sections where the research-papers creative-commons, author is talking about the essays in dante's divine, age of a character, to demonstrate that the author is inconsistent. He makes the case in to the character, the comment that this is intentional. Dee highlights areas in charts within a scientific article that demonstrate a particular fact related to her own work. She comments with a personal note to this effect. 2.2.8 Annotation Comparing Segments between Publications.
A user wishes to annotate two or more parts of in dante's, different publications in discursive, order to compare or contrast the targets. This may be to make a note about two similar or related passages such as plagiarism, or to link part of an embedded resource to where it is referenced elsewhere. For example, the essays divine, user may wish to link appearances of the same character in multiple books, popular references to prior works, or examples of passages that contradict each other in scholarly literature. Enrique discovers three news articles about the same event which give very different accounts. He selects the essay 0, disagreeing numbers given in each, and comments that he believes the lowest of the three and gives his rationale. Faith is linking the transcriptions of song lyrics, published in various anthologies, together based on obscure references to particular real world people. She tags the segments with the comedy, person's identity in Wikipedia. A user wishes to annotate a digital publication in one format and have the annotation appear for different representations of the same resource.
For example, an annotation created on an EPUB should also be rendered on the equivalent PDF or HTML page. Research-papers? The annotation can be either on the publication level, or anchored to a particular part of the text. Annotations on embedded resources (such as images) that are embedded without identity in alternate representations are not considered in scope, for essays in dante's comedy, example annotating a part of an image in an HTML page which is then embedded within the PDF representation of the page. Gerard is reading a book on motorsports that is published both online and reproduced as a PDF. He publishes an annotation about a span of text in the HTML version, and expects that it will appear in his tablet based reading platform after synchronization, where the interactive, same article is a PDF. Hailee reviews a scholarly article in a dedicated client on her computer, where the article is a print-ready PDF. Divine Comedy? The same review should be also linked to the article in the publisher's online HTML based system. A user wishes to annotate part of a publication for which she has multiple editions, or that is updated regularly, and have those annotations persist between versions of the same publication. Research Paper On The Pros And Cons Of Sex Schools? If the publisher provides a new version of in dante's comedy, a publication, known to happen silently at times for various reasons, then the annotations about the publication should be available on this new version rather than equally silently disappearing. Discursive? As with any annotation that should be presented with more than just the resource it was created for, cross versioning allows for a wider audience and thus is divine a potential target for spammers. Ichiro wishes to annotate the pros and cons of sex, first line of Hamlet in essays in dante's divine comedy, such a way that it should appear on papers ks3 all of the copies of the play that the user has access to, rather than just the essays in dante's, particular version that was open when the annotation was created.
Jacinta is a teacher who wishes to interactive papers annotate a text book in such as way that her annotations are visible to her students even though they do not have the exact same version, but instead have acquired it from different retailers. This use case is particularly challenging to essays in dante's divine comedy solve in environments in which identifiers for the work, rather than the research paper and cons of sex education in high schools, particular version, do not exist. A user wishes to essays in dante's comedy associate a particular style with an annotation, either for the comment or the delineation of the target of the annotation. The style should include any rendering attributes available, such as background or text color, border color and other attributes, font size, and so forth. When colors or styles associated with annotations are meaningful to an individual, to a particular group, or just generally, a text label should be able to be associated with the annotation drawn from a list of terms (taxonomy) or free text, in order to assist with accessbility. Ken draws a bounding box on an image of the creative-commons, night sky, and wishes to ensure that his client in the future will draw the divine, box in bright green to discursive on size stand out, and certainly not to draw it in the default black which would be unable to be seen. Lynda highlights parts of a non-fiction text in two colors that have meaning to her; red strikethrough is statements that she disagrees with, and green background is for statements that she does agree with. These styles must be maintained for the highlights to be of any use in in dante's comedy, the future. 2.3.4 Maintaining Annotation Layout. A user wishes for their annotations to be presented at a particular location on the page, such that the layout of the annotations doesn't interfere with the reading of the publication.
For example, annotations could be styled as a particular height and width, and then put into the margins of the discursive on size, page or over top of in dante's divine comedy, other white space. Annotations could be visually ordered such that reading them in lamb to the character, the presented order gave a better experience than reading them in in dante's comedy, the order of the targets within the publication. Thesis On Why Go To? Thirdly, the layout could be used for organization of thoughts concerning the publication by moving all of the essays divine comedy, related annotations together spatially. Papers? The location could be expressed as CSS absolute or relative positioning. Maurice is reading a fixed-layout work and positions his annotations above whitespace in the text with arrows to the character span that they refer to. By doing this, he means to ensure that they do not interfere with other consumers' reading of the content while still having his comments visible.
Nadia is a publisher and essays in dante's comedy lays out the author's annotations on a novel in such a way that they aid the reader in understanding how the author was thinking about his characters. She expects that the annotations will remain where they are placed, as this is important to the user's experience. 2.3.5 Recording State of Changing, Online Resources. A user wishes to statements cell research annotate the publication as it appears with dynamic resources in a particular state, or in terms of the web architecture, given a particular representation. Essays In Dante's Divine Comedy? Resources on the web may change their representation over time or may have multiple representations at the same time via content negotiation. The URI of the resource alone is thus not sufficient to determine the representation that was delivered to science papers ks3 the annotator, and additional information such as the essays in dante's divine comedy, time of the request and statement college the HTTP headers sent must be recorded. Owen annotates an online travel publication that is frequently updated with the latest information, such as the prices of hotel rooms and essays divine comedy the quality of restaurants in the area. He wants his annotation to be associated with the current state of the work, and not necessarily any future state. On Size? Petra is essays in dante's comedy reading a book that dynamically embeds images via a service. The JPG format that is used by a particular publication is rendered with too high a compression level, and it is hard to understand compared to research paper of sex education schools the original PNG format. She thus wishes to comment only on the JPG that it is hard to see, rather than on the PNG which shares the same negotiable URI.
2.3.6 Recording State of essays, User Manipulated Resources. A user wishes to annotate a publication with embedded, dynamic resources. These resources are able to be manipulated by the user, rather than via the HTTP protocol or simple change over time. Some number of manipulations must be performed in order for the target of the annotation to on why college be visible or understandable, regardless of the accuracy of the essays comedy, description of the target segment. The consuming user agent should then be able to reproduce these manipulations in order to interactive ks3 allow a third party to essays comedy see the resource as annotated. Quinn is studying a publication that embeds a 3 dimensional model of a protein structure that can be rotated, panned and zoomed. In one particular orientation a certain feature is easily visible, whereas from other viewpoints it is not. He wishes for his annotation on the feature to be displayed with that same view to research-papers creative-commons make it easier for the consumer to understand. Ramona highlights some text in a page that is responsive to user interactions and in dante's divine preferences. The text is a dynamic transcription of a medieval manuscript, where her options change how the abbreviations and essay spelling are presented from either exactly how they appear on the page to what a modern reader would understand.
She wishes to annotate the expanded text, as she thinks the editor has made a mistake with a particular revision. This use case is particularly challenging to solve in the generic case rather than with media specific solutions. 2.3.7 Annotation has a Choice of Multiple, Dependent Bodies or Targets. A user wishes to annotate a publication or part thereof with multiple options for the body or target. The options are thus dependent on each other, and only one of the essays in dante's divine comedy, options should be displayed to the user.
This might include translations of the same comment, alternative formats for the same content, and alternative URLs that all make the same content available. Solomon speaks both Japanese and English, and lamb essay wishes to provide translations of his comment in both languages. He teaches English as a foreign language in in dante's divine comedy, Japan, and his students should be able to choose whether to view it in thesis on why you should, one language or the other. Teynika annotates a paper that is published in multiple locations, however the representations are identical. Divine Comedy? One copy is in a subject based repository, the lamb to the character analysis, other in her institutional repository.
She wishes to explicitly link both of the targets to ensure her annotation can be presented along with at least one copy of the paper from the most convenient location to the consumer. 2.3.8 Annotation has Multiple, Dynamically Defined Targets. A user wishes to target segments of a resource that appear more than once in that resource, termed here a repeated segment. The user does not necessarily know the exact number of times the repeated segment appears in the resource; the comedy, interpretation of the interactive science papers ks3, annotation is understood to be independent of the number of instances of the repeated segment. Ulrich, a copy editor, creates an essays comedy annotation proposing a correction to replace all instances of the discursive essay on size 0, string pleaf'd with the string pleas'd.
Essentially the annotation is proposing a search and replace operation of the sort ubiquitous in modern word processing systems. Veronica, a manufacturer, wishes to annotate all products of a certain class in his products database with a note that these items will go on essays comedy sale next week for 15% off for 2 weeks only. 2.3.9 Determination of lamb slaughter character analysis, Annotation Validity after Target is Modified. A user annotates a publication with a correction to the text. The publisher then acts upon this annotation to correct the in dante's divine comedy, mistake, or in the scholarly field potentially to retract the publication from the scientific record. After the correction has been made, the annotation no longer applies to the publication and hence should not be displayed. To The Character Analysis Essay? It may be important not to delete the annotation, such that the user gets credit in some system for reporting the correction. The system that maintains the annotation may not be connected to the system that publishes the publication, and hence might not be able to be updated. Wesley annotates a gaming manual with a correction as to which controls are needed to perform a particular move. In Dante's Divine? The publisher re-issues a new copy of the research-papers creative-commons, manual after the correction has been made to in dante's avoid other users having the same frustration.
Quinn's annotation should not appear on the new version. Xena annotates a typo in how her name is spelt (two 'n's instead of one) in creative-commons, a book about the research in her field. Once the second 'n' has been removed, the annotation should be considered resolved and no longer displayed. This use case is particularly challenging to solve in the generic case rather than within specific systems that understand the motivation of the annotation and when it has been resolved. 2.3.10 Determination of Annotation Validity for Embedded Resources.
A user annotates an embedded resource, such as an image, which is used in essays, several places within a publication. The annotation is only valid, or relevant, when additional restrictions are in place and should not be displayed when those restrictions are not true. Yasir reads a publication in which the same headshot photograph is used for two different people and wants to annotate the photograph to say that it is wrong when used on page 1, but not have the annotation displayed when the photograph is research on the and cons used correctly on page 3. Zoe wishes to essays in dante's comment that a company logo should only be used in the header on interactive ks3 every page, but nowhere else. 2.4.1 Sets of Annotations for a Publication. A publisher has one or more sets of annotations about a publication and wishes to supply those annotations along with the publication. Alternatively, a user might wish to supply their own annotations as a set for other users.
These annotations could be comments by the author (in the same vein as DVD extras commentary), from famous readers, or simply pointers to related works. In an education setting, this functionality could be used to essays divine provide additional commentaries on lamb to the slaughter essay a text book or other publication that are intended to assist the student in understanding the material. The set(s) could also be sold separately as an upgrade package for the publication. The order of the annotations may be important, for example to read the publication in chronological rather than narrative order, or by in dante's, following the order of a class lectures rather than the order of the chapters in the text book. The metadata about the collection of annotations is lamb to the character also important, such as who packaged them together and for what purpose. Anya works for a publishing house and has transformed the author's commentary on their steampunk novel into a set of annotations for sale. The company wishes to have them available as an add-on for customers that have already bought the novel, and comedy also in a bundle for new sales. Bob is a PhD student studying a famous detective story set in London. He works out a walking route that takes the user through all of the research-papers creative-commons, locations in the book in an optimal fashion, which is in dante's divine not the same order as the narrative, and papers wants to publish his annotations about the locations in that sequence. A user wishes to save the annotation that they have created in order to retrieve it later, regardless of whether it is finished or not.
The Annotation should be given a unique and resolvable identifier. The user may wish to save the annotation in their own system, rather than the system which provides the resource being annotated. The user may equally wish to save the annotation in multiple systems. The annotation should persist in local storage if the user is offline, and be persisted globally once the connection is re-established. Essays Divine Comedy? In the interim, a locally unique identifier should be assigned to the annotation. Papers? Multiple copies of the annotation should reference each other, if possible. Catherine writes an annotation about an astronomy publication and wants to save it both in her own system and remotely for others. Doug writes an annotation about Greek mythology which becomes popular and is syndicated widely across many systems after its initial publication online. The syndicated copies refer back to the original source, which he uses for credit towards promotion. 2.4.3 User or System Initiated Transfers between Systems. Either the user or the system requests that all or some subset of annotations that are maintained be transferred to another system.
If the user requests it, then this enables an in dante's divine comedy export functionality such that the user's annotations can be exported to another platform or device. Thesis Statement On Why You Should College? If the system requests it, then this enables a synchronization functionality where the user's annotations will be maintained in multiple locations for ease of use and preservation, or aggregation for analysis. Both such cases should use the same mechanism. Eileen has two devices that are on the same network. The devices are set to synchronize her annotations whenever they detect each other. Frank has written a lot of annotations on a plane trip while offline. When he gets home, he manually requests that his device upload all of the annotations to a preferred server. 2.4.4 Annotation (or Part) is not Published Openly. A user wishes to keep their annotations or personal notes private, or only share with a small group of people such as a reading group, academic research group or only with a set of friends in a social network.
Even if the user wishes to keep their annotations private, the divine comedy, ability to transfer the annotations between devices is desirable, so that they be used regardless of the particular reading platform. The user may also wish to keep only some aspect of the research-papers creative-commons, annotation private, for example the comment should be protected, while the annotation graph can be shared openly, or vice versa. Regular web based authentication and authorization structures should be used to essays in dante's divine comedy enable this functionality in an online environment to science ks3 ensure interoperability. Gabby publishes her annotation on the effects of a particular pharmaceutical product in an authenticated environment in which only her and her colleagues can see it. Hadrien publishes his annotation openly so that other systems can see the linkage between the resources, but the comment itself is protected by an authentication system and paywall. 2.4.5 Publication (or Part) is not Published Openly. A user wishes to annotate a resource the essays comedy, she has access to, but requires authentication and/or authorization to view or annotate. The annotation should not circumvent or allow the circumvention of this DRM, for example by reproducing the content of the target publication. Isabelle annotates a closed access journal article that she has access to while at university. When she is travelling, she no longer has access to the article as the system uses the IP range of her institution to determine availability.
Jason works for the closed access journal publisher and is concerned that the annotation Elana made quotes some of the protected text, and if someone were to annotate the entire text, it would break their authorization model. 2.4.6 User is Notified when Annotations are Created. A user wishes to be informed when a resource, or set of resources, is interactive science annotated. They do not necessarily want to have the annotation sent to them, just be alerted to the existence of essays in dante's divine comedy, new annotations. The notification should be pushed to the user's agent, rather than requiring active participation on the user's behalf. Katelynn is a reporter for a newspaper, and wishes to keep track of when her articles are commented on so that she can either update the content or reply to discussion. Luke is interested in a topic in a wiki, and wants to be notified whenever another user comments on the pages so he can ensure his knowledge is up to date.
2.5 Accessibility and Internationalization. 2.5.1 Using Annotation for Contributing Accessibility Information. An annotation provider (personal or retailer) wishes to provide annotations that give additional information about resources for the purposes of accessibility. Mary annotates an image with an audio file that records her description of the image. Research On The Pros And Cons Schools? This audio file can then simply be played by a user agent to a visually impaired user. Nathan annotates the text transcription of a segment of video to the appropriate place in the video stream. The transcription can be displayed to essays someone unable to hear the audio part of the video, or when the user agent does not have sound capability. Users need to easily become aware of and essay 0 find highlights or annotations, particularly when using a screen reader, a small screen, or seeking sparse annotations in a lengthy work. Olga is reading a long work about essays in dante's comedy, warfare that is not heavily annotated.
She wishes to skip ahead to the next interesting section, and thus needs to have some way to visualize the location of the annotations that others have made on the work. Pedro is using a screen reader, and wishes to have the option to listen to the annotations when they are available or to skip past them. Whenever the system encounters an annotation it gives an audio clue that tapping the screen will prompt the device to pause reading to slaughter character convey the essays in dante's comedy, content of the annotation. 2.5.3 Using Annotation for Contributing Internationalization Information. A user wishes to provide internationalization information for a document that they don't control, such as a translation for lamb to the slaughter analysis essay, a particularly complex phrase, or whether automated translation systems should explicitly not translate a given phrase. Questa has implemented a machine translation system that generates reliable Dutch translations and has it scheduled to run on commonly updated English-language sites, before publishing to a well-known annotation server in the Netherlands. Reece is a scholar in Ancient Greek, and routinely provides translations for divine comedy, online texts when they have been transcribed from museum objects.
He wishes to make his translations available to both the museums and anyone who visits their online exhibitions. The following requirements are summarized from the essay 0, use cases presented above.
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Essay about Dante s Divine Comedy - Good and Evil in The Inferno -- Di
The BP Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico essay. This report discusses the issue of concern because an oil spill is considered to be a disaster for both for human beings and the environment. Essays Divine Comedy. The BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is thesis statements on stem cell no exception. The oil spill affected both human beings and the environment, polluting and damaging vast areas of the adjacent territories and the large populations of wildlife. The BP oil spill caused a serious damage not only to the marine life, but also to the human factor, including wild inhabitants, fishing and tourism industry in the Gulf of Mexico (Tangley, 2010). Essays. A large number of factors, including Petroleum toxicity, Corexit dispersant usage and essay, oxygen depletion can be viewed as the major causes of the essays in dante's divine disaster which led to the negative impact on ecological system (Smithsona Venette, 2013). In this paper, the major risk management issues, which illustrate the lamb to the slaughter case, are identified. Among these risk management issues are slow response to the crisis, as the oil spill took several weeks to stop.
The results of risk management assessment demonstrate that loss prevention measures in the case of the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 were in place to prevent the essays oil spillage starting and the proper cost containment steps were taken to manage the cost of the required clean-up operations, recovery procedures to promote business continuation, many days had been lost. Second, the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico demonstrated poor governance of essay on size 0 organization as the company lacked the effective crisis plan. Thus, the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico case can be used to teach people lesson how to effectively use risk management and crisis management practices in addressing unexpected disasters. To manage the crisis, a special plan should be developed and tested. Any company should six stages of crisis management to remain successful on the competitive market. The company€™s leaders should demonstrate their remarkable leadership capabilities, serving their companies, employees and communities. The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most valuable territories because of the in dante's divine comedy availability of the great variety of marine life, including fish, shrimp and lamb slaughter character essay, other species. Comedy. The coasts of the Gulf of Mexico are the best place for seabirds€™ nests and research-papers, turtles€™ nesting. However, the most valuable treasure for economic development of the country is the richest reserve of oil and natural gas. Essays. In general, there are more than 4,000 offshore rigs in the Gulf of Mexico designed for drilling gas and oil (Chiang et al., 2010).
According to researchers, €śmany people who live in the five U.S. states that border the Gulf of Mexico (Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida) depend on the Gulf for jobs and survival€ť(Chiang et al., 2010, p. 5). One more important function of the Gulf of thesis statement on why go to Mexico is the growing fishing industry that provides over 1.3 pounds of fish and shellfish each year. This information helps to better understand the negative consequences of the comedy BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico that occurred on April 20, 2010. The negative effects from oil spill have been widely discussed in scientific literature. These effects include species-specific effects, effects on the near shore environment, serious trophic effects through oil contamination of thesis college sediments, various site-specific effects, and the effects on drilling discharges (Lin Mendelssohn, 2012). Based on recent research findings, €śthe BP oil spill in the Gulf of divine Mexico that followed the explosion of the exploration platform Deepwater Horizon on 20 April 2010 was the largest accidental oil spill€ť in America that requires finding the proper solutions to develop effective risk management practices. It is lamb analysis essay very important to find out essays in dante's comedy, €śif an accident of this size could have been expected€ť (Acton, 2013, p. 501).
The general aims of the analysis presented in this paper include: providing an overview of the key facts surrounding the case identification of the go to major risk management issues identified in the case Comparing and essays, contrast the way in which these three risk management issues were dealt with by the firm(s) involved with material presented in the course or other reference material dealing with the concepts or issues that the case illustrates Assessment of the effectiveness with which the crisis, created as a result of the failures in to the character analysis essay, risk management evident in the case, were managed Identification of the essays in dante's divine lessons that can be learned from the case, providing conclusions and the nature of research-papers any control procedures and/or risk treatment systems that should have been implemented or where failures occurred. This report is significant for assessment of the key risk management issues that are associated with the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The BP€™s handling of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill that occurred in essays in dante's divine comedy, 2010 teaches people some important crisis management lessons. Actually, the work on oil platforms is automated, but human errors often occur on these structures (Smithsona Venette, 2013).
According to researchers, these oil drilling rigs are considered to thesis statement, be the largest movable human-made structures in the world, as such €śthey have become virtual cities afloat that will always have minor equipment failure and human error, not to mention working in essays, hurricane-prone environments€ť (Ostrom Wilhelmsen, 2012, p. 23). The Deepwater Horizon platform is no exception, as it has a long history of oil spillages and fires that occurred before the oil spillage of 2010. Research-papers. The Deepwater platform operates day and night; therefore, some problems with equipment may appear on a regular basis. This report is aimed at giving explanation of some important risk management practices that should be taken into consideration by other companies to avoid negative consequences, similar to essays comedy, the Deepwater Horizon platform€™s disaster. Case Study Description of the essay 0 key facts surrounding the case. The BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is considered to be the €ślargest accidental marine oil spill in the history of petroleum industry, being 8%-31% larger in volume that the previous largest oil spill, the Ixtos I oil spill€ť (Holland Schemwell, 2014, p. 23). Divine Comedy. The BP oil disaster is often called the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. It occurred on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Actually, the BP oil spill can be viewed as the worst environmental disaster in America. The BP oil spill occurred near Mississippi River Delta, as a result of a deep-sea floor oil gusher, which was made by the massive explosion of the Deepwater Horizon platform, one of the most efficient and effective semi-submersible drilling rigs in the Gulf of Mexico. It has been found that oil slick coverage was approximately 2,500 square miles in the Gulf of Mexico region.
It has been reported that there were huge underwater oil plumes invisible at the surface. Science. As a result of the massive explosion, there were many victims of this disaster; including 11 workers killed during the explosion and 17 men seriously injured (Holland Schemwell, 2014). On the essays in dante's divine 15th of July, 2010, the gushing wellhead was capped, but the Deepwater Horizon platform released over 4.9 million barrels or 780,000 m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico (Griggs, 2011). This fact means that as a result of the explosion, over 53,000 barrels of oil were spilled each day of the interactive ks3 accident (from July 10 till July 15) before the workers could cap the well. The experts state that for 87 days, the oil continued to flow to the waters of the Gulf of Mexico, causing serious damage to the environment and local economy. In other words, crude oil was flowing into the estuaries, marshes and beaches of three states affected by divine comedy, the spillage – Alabama, Louisiana and Mississippi (Griggs, 2011). The U.S. government declared that the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico can be regarded as a national disaster. As a rule, an area contaminated by oil, is thesis go to closely connected with the in dante's whole character of the affected environment. The free spilling of oil leads to research-papers, a wide range of negative consequences, including €śthe spread by wind and essays in dante's, wave€ť (Bai Bai, 2014, p. 363). Discursive Essay On Size. The oil spillage from the essays Deepwater Horizon platform floating on the surface could evaporate through air and sun, spreading over the water surface. As a result, oil spillage affected the environment, including the wildlife.
Identification of three major risk management issues illustrated by the case. The BP oil spill in the Gulf of interactive papers Mexico that occurred in 2010 gives an opportunity to essays in dante's divine comedy, identify three major risk management issues, which can be assessed by experts as significant risk management lessons. One of the key risk management issues is that €śthe oil spill took some weeks to stop€ť (Hopkin, 2012, p. 175). Paper On The And Cons In High. Although the results of risk management assessment show that loss prevention measures in the case of the BP oil spill were in place to prevent the oil spillage starting and essays in dante's divine comedy, the proper cost containment steps were taken to manage the cost of the required clean-up operations, recovery procedures to promote business continuation, much time had been lost. According to Paul Hopkin (2012), €śit is, perhaps, the case that the damage limitation measures were not as robust as may have been required€ť(p. 175). Besides, the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico has raised serious risk management issues regarding the governance of paper and cons schools organization involved in the case. Risk management and governance in the BP organization are separate activities, which have their own committees and divine, organize their own processes to achieve the discursive on size 0 established goals. According to researchers, €śthe BP oil spill disaster has clearly shown that the board has to own both the comedy general governance of the organization and its many and varied risk activities€ť (Wright et al., 2013, p. Research-papers. 16). Essays In Dante's. As a result, the disaster created an enormous financial crisis, leading to poor reputation of the BP organization.
According to Otto Lerbinger (2012), €śits image as a leader in deep sea technology was shattered, as well as its professed dedication to corporate social responsibility and the environment€ť(p. 24). Now the organization needs to use the proper strategies aimed at interactive science restoring its reputation in order to successfully operate in the Gulf of Mexico. Based on the US federal government report that was issued in essays in dante's comedy, 2011 after investigation of the key causes of the disaster, the following failures were identified: Poor risk management practices Last-minute changes in decision making (Anastas et al., 2010) Failure to adequately observe and to the slaughter character analysis essay, effectively respond to essays in dante's divine, critical indicators that were identified on the platform Inadequate and insufficient well control response €śInsufficient emergency bridge response training by employees responsible€ť (Guinness Walpole, 2012, p. 227). Comparing and contrast the way in which these three risk management issues were dealt with by the firm(s) involved with material presented in the course or other reference material dealing with the concepts or issues that the case illustrates. In the lamb to the slaughter analysis case discussed in in dante's, this paper, the BP failed to research paper of sex education, avoid certain management errors that led to massive damage to the environment and caused considerable harm to people. The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon platform rig can be viewed as an example of €śa designation that is essays in dante's divine comedy a prevailing contention of government and other reports on the disaster€ť (Lerbinger, 2012, p. 24). The disaster in the Gulf of Mexico that occurred in 2010 was caused by certain management failures both by the organization (the BP Company) and its contractors (Transocean and Halliburton).
Risk management practices were influenced by the wrong decision making associated with some technological problems. According to the material presented in essay on size 0, the course lectures, the risk management cycle involves several stages, which help an organization to essays in dante's, manage risks: Identification, Quantification, Risk assessment, Risk treatment, Monitoring, Risk context. These stages are interrelated (Business Risk Management Week 2, 2014, p. Interactive Papers Ks3. 2). Based on the established components of risk management process, it is possible to avoid negative consequences of disasters in essays in dante's comedy, all spheres of statement on why college human activity, including oil and gas industry. In the Deepwater Horizon platform, many events led to essays in dante's, the disaster because inadequate risk management practices were ineffective in slaughter character, that situation. In the case of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, €śthe behaviors and attitudes of leaders have been disappointing at best and irresponsible at worst€ť (Corkindale, 2010, p.1). In this crisis, some leadership skills have been misunderstood by the key players. The BP are responsible for the environmental disaster, but the BP CEO Tony Hayward demonstrated some failures in leadership practices, providing control over the €śorganizational culture that sanctioned extreme risk-taking, ignored expert advice, overlooked warnings about safety issues and hid facts€ť (Corkindale, 2010, p.1).
The BP leaders failed to respond to the disaster with sufficient speed and attention. Actually, this failure was a result of the inconsistent organizational culture. Assessment of the effectiveness with which the crisis, created as a result of the failures in risk management evident in the case, was managed. The effectiveness with which the crisis of the Deepwater Horizon platform, created as a result of the failures in risk management is evident in this case. There are six stages of crisis management, including €śavoiding the crisis, preparing to manage the crisis, recognizing the crisis, containing the comedy crisis, resolving the crisis and profiting from the crisis€ť (Business Risk Management Week 3, 2014, p. 1).
The Deepwater Horizon platform€™s governance did not include all the science above mentioned stages in its crisis management. In the Deepwater Horizon platform, there were serious problems with governance as the essays divine Company failed to examine all possible scenarios, assess all possible consequences and identify the cost of prevention of lamb slaughter analysis these negative consequences. The response to essays divine, the crisis was not planned in creative-commons, a proper way. This fact means the BP Company failed to use the appropriate strategies to avoid the crisis. Because of the explosion on the Deepwater Horizon offshore drilling platform, over 5 million barrels of oil were sent into the waters of the Gulf of Mexico. In Dante's. This fact proves that the lamb to the slaughter analysis company failed to essays in dante's comedy, avoid the crisis. According to researchers, the research paper on the pros of sex education in high BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is an example of in dante's a €ścompany without crisis planning€ť (Cox, 2012, p. 87). The BP disaster was an unexpected event, which required the implementation of the effective crisis planning. According to Charles E. Cox (2012), €śBP€™s advantage was that, even without a crisis plan, the character essay company had billions of dollars in the bank and enough cash reserves to manage its way through the in dante's comedy crisis and take steps to rebuild its reputation€ť (p. Statement On Why College. 88). Undoubtedly, the impact of the BP disaster was enormous because of the lack of the crisis planning.
Nevertheless, the divine comedy BP governance managed to take some reasonably decisive action, using the media and public relations to address the issue of concern and demonstrate the company€™s response to the disaster. The team to respond to the crisis was formed, but there were some failures as well. To The Slaughter Character Analysis. Mishandled communication influences the company€™s response and the company€™s reputation. The BP hired 2500 people on order to organize and essays in dante's comedy, conduct cleaning efforts in the states: Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi and Florida (Anastas et al., 2010). As a result, the company was judged by the success the discursive essay BP had in dealing with this disaster.
The company employed many people to collect oil and protect the comedy shore line from pollution. This strategy to address the crisis was effective only when sea was calm (Pennington-Gray et al., 2012). Thus, it is necessary to conclude that pollution from the essay on size activities of offshore companies leads to degradation of the marine environment. In those regions where major disasters take place, pollution can lead to the most devastating consequences both on the environment and human beings. The Deepwater Horizon disaster is one of the examples that can be used to teach some lessons. The key lessons that can be learned from the case are connected with risk management practices. The Deepwater Platform was operating under the essays in dante's divine BP contract (British Petroleum, the well-known multinational corporation headquartered in the UK). The discharge of oil had negative impact on the region, caused serious damage to fisheries and lamb to the slaughter analysis, marine habitants, bringing to light the risks of deep water oil and essays divine comedy, gas drilling. The lessons that can be learned from the case give an opportunity to other companies to avoid negative consequences of the crisis and discursive essay on size 0, develop, maintain and implement effective crisis management practices.
One of the in dante's most important strategies to manage crisis is to implement a well-developed crisis plan, provide effective control procedures and paper education, risk treatment systems that must be developed and implemented in the areas, where failures occur frequently. In addition, the essays company€™s leaders should demonstrate their remarkable leadership capabilities, serving their companies, employees and communities.