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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of thesis, writing academic papers in analysis essay a variety of subjects relevant to thesis, the social sciences. This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. I Need. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in staples APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the simple reports APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an thesis, APA Essay Format. Mini Thesis. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is staples, a must in APA essay format . Coursework Help. It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date.
The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title). Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and staples thesis is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and mention the book reports methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in thesis APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Is A Statement. In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements.
When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from staples thesis a book. Use of quotations . APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks.
If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the simple margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for staples, headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the school seniors full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and thesis cited in for high school the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. It is also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. Thesis. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . Simple Book. APA Essay Template (Cick the staples thesis Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to i need help with, one inch; it’s recommended to thesis, use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. A Level Photography. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in staples rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website.
Your essay will come to you in simple reports the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Staples. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the help code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and staples thesis request the free add-ons that you need. We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders.
The paper#8217;s due date is pic microcontroller, fast approaching, you think about the work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and staples you spend hours staring at a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to strike while your friends are all out having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant. Coursework. P rof E ssays.com is staples, a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to write an A+ essay in APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back. Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the time of your life while we write an A+ paper for you and deliver it to what thesis statement, your inbox always on time! Learn More. Staples. Why choosing us to help? P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years. Thousands of students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and education. The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in essay prompts for high seniors us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders.
Your privacy is important to P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the staples thesis essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the i need help with depression sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format.
Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in staples thesis charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. With Depression. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the staples author or the year of publication is pic microcontroller thesis, already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the staples thesis stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the pic microcontroller thesis mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and staples web pages are in simple quotation marks.
Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in staples alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of a level photography coursework, publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order.
Article : Author, A. Staples. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. Prompts For High School Seniors. on-line source : Author, A. A. Staples Thesis. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on with depression the ideas that are presented below. Thesis. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories.
In the APA essay format it is of the pic microcontroller thesis utmost importance to use the staples thesis titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of pic microcontroller, which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in thesis APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the essay for high APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures.
You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the staples thesis full form is help depression, mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on thesis separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. What to remember with the APA essay writing format.
The main thrust of process analysis rubric, documenting guidelines is to staples thesis, avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of essay seniors, which is the staples American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. I Need Help. These types are enclosed in thesis a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. Process. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the staples student should always remember to i need help with, take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from.
APA essay format may sound tricky and staples thesis troublesome to some, but is actually an photography coursework, easy way to staples thesis, organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to what mini statement, structure the thesis flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and simple book guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in staples cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process.
This fundamental element of essay prompts seniors, writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is thesis, a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to thesis, expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Information on staples formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in pic microcontroller thesis documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for staples, all students’ academic papers.
In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and essay prompts for high seniors guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and staples spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity.
Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay. Thesis. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and thesis citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to what is a mini statement, remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the staples thesis body consumes 60% of the essay for high school seniors whole essay. P rof E ssays.com is staples thesis, professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format.
A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper. Though this is merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for reports, the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for staples thesis, your APA college essay format .
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How to Make a Resume: A Step-by-Step Guide (+30 Examples) For most people, writing a good resume is tough, and staples thesis, it takes time. And the pic microcontroller thesis worst part comes when you finally think that you have a great resume, but you're still not getting interviews. Wouldn't it be wonderful if you could figure out how to make a resume that would get you an thesis interview almost EVERY time you applied for a job? It is if you follow the process that I am about to share with you step-by-step.
And BEST of all, this resume writing process is quick, and it's proven to land you interviews. That's true even if you want to write your first resume and photography help, have no experience, or if you're a professional who wants to know how to write a resume that stands out. Here's what you're going to find: How to write a resume for a job with examples for every section. Thesis? Quick but little-known tips to follow to simple reports get up to 10x MORE INTERVIEWS. Staples? Answers to all of your questions about essay prompts for high school how to make the best resume for a job. How to create a resume online that you can track and staples, send to get more interviews. A checklist that will help you make sure you know how to prepare a great resume. Here's an example of how to make a good resume for work versus a great resume. What's the difference? Is it the photography help way it looks?
Not only. Thesis? We've optimized the sample resume on thesis the right to follow the advice that I will share with you in this article. So how do you make a resume? Let me show you step-by-step: Resume vs. CV. What's the thesis difference? Hello, blank page. Now, what? A resume is a document that showcases your work experience, education, and simple reports, skills so that you can apply for a job.
What's the difference between a resume and a CV? Curriculum Vitae (CV) is a Latin phrase meaning course of life and staples, is a document that entails much more than a resume. School? Not only is a CV longer than a resume, but it showcases accomplishments and experience in staples much greater detail. It's the ideal document for academics. So, knowing how to write an academic resume is depression knowing how to write a CV. If you need to know more, read our guide: CV vs.
Resume: What is the Difference? When to thesis Use Which (Examples) Once you know if you should write a CV or resume, it's time to choose the right format. How to Choose a Professional Resume Format. What does a resume look like? There are three types of professional resume formats: Most job seekers choose the reverse-chronological resume format.
Here's what a sample resume looks like written in the reverse-chronological format: Traditional Familiar to Recruiters. Experienced professionals can highlight skills. Career changers can emphasize transferrable skills. Uncommon and not as familiar to recruiters. Not suggested for entry-level job seekers. Entry-level job seekers can emphasize skills instead of experience. Recruiters may think you're hiding something.
Still not sure which professional resume format is best for you? Need to see examples of resumes with different layouts? Read our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How To Choose The Best One [Examples] Contact Information Is Not as Basic as It Seems. Despite the book professional resume format you choose, your contact information goes at the top. Here is how to write a resume contact section:
Adding your address is staples optional. It is no longer necessary to pic microcontroller add it to a modern resume. Staples Thesis? Plus, it might be better to exclude it if you are applying for a level photography help a job that isn’t local. Your email address should be professional which means: Choosing a sophisticated email provider. Not using your current work email. Staples? Instead, create a professional, private email address.
Avoiding email addresses from when you were in high school. It won’t amuse recruiters to see firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com . Depression? Okay, maybe it will amuse them a little bit, but they won’t call you for an interview. Adding URLs to your personal website or blog directs recruiters to your portfolio or extra work that you want to show without cluttering up your perfect resume. Pro Tip: Make sure you review your social media accounts to check for staples thesis unprofessional content. When you add a link to your social media profiles, make sure they're optimized to give recruiters the with best impression. Staples Thesis? Not sure how to optimize your LinkedIn profile to attract employers? Read our guide: How to is a Optimize Your LinkedIn Profile To Get More Jobs Here’s How the staples Best Candidates Start Their Resumes. Again, what does a resume look like? Well, you know that contact information comes first.
But what comes next? Education? Experience? Does it matter where you put things when you're deciding how to make a resume? The short answer is yes, it does matter. I Need Help With Depression? That's because your best stuff should go in the top third of your resume. And the best way to start any killer resume is with an thesis introduction to yourself. Think of it like this:
The top of your resume is the penthouse - the most important piece of real estate on the document. Essay Prompts School? But why? The average recruiter spends six seconds scanning your resume in between reading Facebook messages from grandma, drinking coffee, and deciding what's for lunch. She is looking for very specific information, and she is only going to look for it in thesis the top third of your resume. If you do not grab her attention - game over. That's why a creative resume summary or objective can save the day. Here's a sample resume:
What is a resume summary statement? A resume summary is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and skill set. Pic Microcontroller? It should also demonstrate why you'll be a valuable hire. Boyfriend Material experienced at laying coats over mud puddles, opening doors, and pulling out chairs. Charming, funny, and a great conversationalist seeking to leverage 10+ years of experience delivering anecdotes to entertain you through boring social events. Has an MA in hand holding and a license to cook romantic dinners.
What is a resume objective statement? A resume objective achieves the same thing as a resume summary. The difference is how you write one and who should use it. Experienced Chef interested in becoming a Zoo Keeper. Tons of experience with picky clients who need to be fed with the right food at thesis, the right time. Coursework? Want to apply my patience and understanding of complicated clients to staples taking care of angry lions at process essay, the Zoo. This candidate chose an effective resume objective over a summary because he is staples thesis changing his career from essay prompts for high school, chef to zookeeper. Either way, the point is to focus on the employer's needs and not your own.
Who should use an objective for a resume? Entry-level Applicants and Students Career Changers Professionals Targeting Specific Positions. You can also choose to thesis write something called a professional profile . When considering how to write a resume profile, think of essay for high school it as a hybrid that crosses elements of the objective and the summary. A good resume profile lists your qualifications, experience, and education regarding the company’s needs and thesis, values. It can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list with resume bullet points.
Wouldn't it be nice to have some resume examples of summaries tailored specifically to your profession? Read our guide: A Resume Summary That Will Get You The Job [7 Secret Steps] How to Write a Resume Experience Section That's More Than a List. The first section that should appear in the body of an excellent resume is the a level coursework help section that will best show off your skills and thesis, accomplishments. For most of you, that will probably be the a level experience section. Let's say you're learning how to make a student resume, or have little or no work experience. In that case, lead with your education or skills section. But do you know how to write a resume employment history?
When you start writing a resume experience section you will want to staples thesis keep a few things in mind: Write your job history in reverse-chronological order - start with your current position. Include around six bullet points describing the scope of your responsibilities. Essay For High Seniors? Tailor each of these bullets points to reflect the skills listed in the job description. Follow the bullet point format (see below), and include facts and figures.
You should try to thesis include achievements that show your professional impact. Tell a career story that reinforces your professinal persona. Sample Resume Experience Entry: Spearhead a global brand strategy for our top performing product. Analyze market trends and recommend solutions resulting in book reports a 10% upswing in sales annually. Prepare Portfolio Deployment Plans. Thesis? Head up a team of 10+ marketing specialists.
Organize marketing materials. Responsible for brand strategy. Responsible for analyzing market trends. Help? Responsible for thesis a team of marketing specialists. Now, what if you have career gaps in your job history or a habit of job hopping? Let’s face it. Not all of us have a pristine job history. And it's difficult to know how to create a resume that addresses career gaps without cheating. One approach is to include a brief explanation next to each job. By briefly stating that your stay became short lived due to downsizing or relocation, you will reassure the simple book recruiter that you're not a risky candidate. Chronic career hoppers may be tempted to tamper with dates, leaving only the staples thesis years in their experience section:
Excluding the months makes it look like you worked a year instead of three months. But it's a dirty trick that employers know well, which makes it a big no, no. Pro Tip: Feel free to list “non-traditional” work in your experience section - like volunteer jobs or freelance work. Is Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. You should also write your education section of help your resume in reverse-chronological order, with your most recent degree appearing first. Usually, you will want to include the staples type of degree, your major, your university, and any honors or awards you received. You can skip your GPA. But if you're a recent college graduate who's making a student resume, it's okay to add your GPA if it's 3.5 or higher. You can also include a coursework narrative.
For professionals, the inclusion of a coursework narrative is another way to reinforce a professional persona. Do you know how to make a resume when you have a GED or didn't graduate? Not sure how to write a degree on a resume? We can help with that. Help With Depression? Check out thesis, our article: How To Put Your Education On A Resume [Tips Examples] Why You Need to i need with Focus on Your Skills Section.
When you consider how to make a good resume that stands out , it has everything to staples do with sprinkling your skills throughout your resume. But, it also makes sense to have a big section labeled “ SKILLS .” Use the key skills listed in the job description. This will also help you create a modern resume for a job that will pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. More about that later.
Recruiters should be able to see two things when they look at your skills for a resume: You have the skill set they want and i need, requested in the job post. You have extra skills that prove you are a valuable worker. Do you want to know how to make a great resume for a job that showcases the best resume skills? I thought so. Staples? Read our guide: What Skills To Put On a Resume [Examples + 6 Proven Tips] How to analysis Add Other Resume Sections While Making an thesis Effective Resume. Here are some additional resume sections you can consider adding if you don't feel the traditional resume sections are doing it for you. Students and fresh graduates - you may want to consider adding a separate section for awards or honors, or a section for extracurricular activities.
If you've got a technical background - you might want to consider an extra section for certificates, licenses, or software. Some professionals who have opted for making a resume for process essay work over an academic CV might still want to add a section for publications or conferences. Others may want to add a section that shows off their command of languages or other achievements and projects. Whatever you decide to add, just make sure that your additions don't overwhelm your resume. You still want everything to staples thesis fit onto photography coursework one page if possible. No One Adds a Hobbies Section, But It Works So Well. The hobbies section of a resume is optional. But, I recommend adding one if you have space.
Adding your interests shows off extra skills for a resume, makes your resume stand out, and gives the hiring manager a fuller image of staples you. Your interests are also a way to make yourself more attractive and memorable to your potential employer. You can always cut this section later if your resume is a level photography coursework help too long. Not convinced? Well, it's true. Adding a hobbies and thesis, interests section can boost a contemporary resume. Find out how: Best Examples Of Hobbies Interests To Put On A Resume (5 Tips) How to is a thesis statement Write a Perfect Resume Tailored to the Job Description. Did you know that R2D2 might run a scan on your resume before a human does?
On average, a corporate job offer attracts up to staples thesis 250 resumes . Of those, 4 to essay for high school seniors 6 candidates will get invited for staples thesis an interview. And only one person will get the job. With that many resumes to i need help with depression sift through, recruiters are using something called Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. The software compares your resume to the job description based on keywords. How to prepare a resume that will make it through ATS?
You need to staples tailor your resume. Tailoring a resume to the job description is adding keywords and information from the job offer. For starters, you're going to want to make a master resume. A master resume is an i need help updated version of all your work experience, skills, and accomplishments. When you sit down to staples write a tailored version of your resume, you will pick and choose material from your master resume to process analysis essay match the specific job for which you are applying.
To further tailor the content to the job description, you're going to add keywords that you find in staples the offer. Let's say you want to apply for a job as a copywriter. The job description says: Able to process analysis essay rubric work on several campaigns at once, sometimes under pressure and staples, often to tight deadlines. To tailor your basic resume, you will want to add some of the phrases verbatim to your experience section. For example: Work on what thesis several campaigns at thesis, once. To make it more powerful, you can add details such as the number of campaigns you can juggle at once. Here is an example of essay prompts school seniors a resume job description with all of the keywords highlighted along with a resume sample that we've tailored to match. Need more in-depth information about staples how to make a resume that's tailored to the job description? Need more resume samples? Read our guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description How to Prepare a Resume That Will Attract ANY Recruiter. If you're struggling with how to a level photography help make a good resume stand out, all you need to do is staples make things quantifiable.
Wherever possible. Everywhere. Analysis Rubric? Because using numbers gives the recruiter some tangible proof of an achievement. Here are some basic resume examples of achievements: The hiring manager now sees quantifiable, specific proof of your achievements. Using numbers also improves the readability of the staples thesis text, and draws the depression eye of the recruiter. No One Adds Achievements, But It Works So Well. Adding achievements to staples thesis your resume is an extremely effective way of selling your skills and experience. All you have to do is add your achievements as resume bullet points in a level photography coursework your experience section. You will want to use the staples PAR ( Problem Action Result ) Approach to writing your achievements: Here're a few right and i need with, wrong resume examples of thesis how to seniors write achievements:
Problem : My previous employer wanted to increase revenue. Action : I created a new marketing campaign on thesis Facebook. Result : We saw an increase in sales by simple reports 15% and thesis, an increase in revenue by 10%. Not sure how to quantify your achievements? Want more examples of accomplishments to put on i need with a contemporary resume?
Read our guide: Examples of Professional Achievements To Put On A Resume [3 Tips] Turn Boring Words Into Action Words - Here’s How. How many times have you used the phrase responsible for thesis in your experience section? More than once? You may want to consider mixing up your vocabulary. Overusing words and phrases like “responsible for” or “manage” is boring. Now, while you should avoid jargon and help with depression, empty words, action verbs can spice up your resume and make it stand out. Also, be sure to use the present tense when describing your current role. Here're a few before and after resume examples:
Pro Tip: Don't overdo it. You don't want to sound like a freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary. And avoid resume buzzwords like synergy. Staples? Trust me. The Best Candidates Know How to reports Show Their Career Progression. What makes a good resume?
CEO, Director, Manager - all you need is a big, impressive title, right? At this point, you probably figured out that knowing how to staples thesis build a resume goes far beyond listing fancy titles. What really matters, is whether those titles are backed up by a story of career progression. For example, describing yourself as a social media manager won’t be credible if all you did was the marketing for your parent’s pizza place. You have to show a steady progression into a management position. Is A Statement? Each former role should reinforce your place in the next one. Rather than repeating duties when you describe previous roles, write about the new tasks you took on when you advanced. Responsible for staples thesis the creation of a global brand strategy for a major category.
Prepare Category and Portfolio Deployment Plans. Analyze market trends and recommend solutions. Team Management (10 marketing specialists). Marketing Specialist / Senior Marketing Specialist: Planned and i need depression, implemented promotional campaigns. Cooperated with interactive agencies. Managed project budgets and timeline control. Researched information. Staples? Assisted during promotional campaigns. See how these responsibilities evolve?
What if you're a student and need to pic microcontroller know how to thesis make a resume with no experience. Read our dedicated guide on how to write a resume for students: The Complete Guide To Writing A Student Resume [13 Tips, Examples] How to Create a Resume That Draws Attention to Promotions. Highlighting your promotions shows potential employers that your previous supervisors valued your work performance. Even lateral moves suggest that you were able to handle diverse responsibilities. Here are a few ways to describe your promotions while writing a resume: Repeatedly recognized for top performance through fast-track promotions and selection for high-priority initiatives. Earned promotion following a superior performance, and demonstrated ability to quickly learn and master complex concepts. What if you moved up within the thesis same organization? You don’t have to mention the name of the same company more than once.
It will make even the staples thesis best resume look messy. Is A Thesis Statement? Here’s what to staples do instead: COMPANY NAME City, State, 2001 to Present. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Here's a Quick Tip on photography coursework How Make Your Resume Easy to Read. Need to know how to make a resume easy for a recruiter to read?
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Up to 45% of recruiters will reject resumes without cover letters. So, even if you know how to write a resume, you can forget about thesis landing the essay job if you don't send a cover letter. Your cover letter or application letter is where you can expand upon thesis things that you need to process essay keep brief on your resume. It also needs to staples thesis be tailored to the job for process rubric which you are applying. As for thesis resume references, they're the one thing you truly don't need anymore. So, lose the pic microcontroller phrase references upon request. Okay, so you need a cover letter.
But do you know how to staples write an is a mini thesis statement application letter? And better yet, how do you write a convincing one? Read our guide: How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] Why Sending a Personal Message Can Be a Big Win. When you send your resume to a general email address like firstname.lastname@example.org , your resume is entering a swamp of thesis identical messages from other candidates. One thing you can do to differentiate your message is to try to find out the simple book reports name of the thesis person who will be reading your resume and send them a personal email. This is not the best solution in every case. Book? You will need to decide if a hiring manager will see the gesture as clever or creepy.
Pro Tip : If you use our resume builder, ( create your resume here ) you have the option to publish your resume and send a link to staples employers. Sending a link will allow you to track views and downloads so that you know how well your resume is performing. Want to i need help with depression send a personal message but can't find the staples thesis hiring manager's email address? Need to know how to write a resume email? We've got you covered: How To Email Your Resume To Get More Replies From Employers Once you've sent your resume, it's a good idea to track it.
You can install a free sales tool like Mixmax or YesWare to help you. Knowing if recruiters have opened and read your email will enable you to follow-up promptly or find different email addresses. Your resume is your passport to job interviews. And knowing how to make a resume for a job is the first step on any career path. So, take the time and energy to think about how to write a resume well and is a thesis, how to tailor it to thesis the job description. If you can do that, you're well on analysis essay rubric your way to the next level - the interview. Bonus: Check out thesis, our ultimate checklist of 56 things you need to do before you send your resume. How many have you missed?
Download: “Resume 101 Checklist.” Are there any great resume writing tips we need to include in the article? Do you have any questions about how to make a resume for your position? Add a comment. I Need? I’ll be happy to answer. Natalie is a writer at staples thesis, Uptowork. She loves writing about for high school seniors resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.
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The Chrysalids Summary and Analysis of Chapters 1-3. David recounts the day when he began to have doubts about the world he lives in. On this day, David is about ten years old, and staples thesis, decides to go off by himself to play in an area beyond the bank. The bank is a border that exists at the edge of David’s town, a large and long hill that runs off into the distance. Simple. David is thesis, unsure of i need help with, whether the bank was made by the Old People or is instead a natural formation. David chooses one part of the bank to slide down in one area where there is a sand gully, landing in some soft sand below.
While he is doing this, a young girl, Sophie Wender, pops out of the bushes and surprises David. Sophie is a little younger than David, with a small sunburned face, brown dungarees, and hair tied up on either side of staples thesis, her head with yellow ribbons. While David is puzzled that he has never met Sophie before, due to the fact that all of the community children in for high school seniors, his village know each other; nevertheless, he invites Sophie to staples thesis, slide down the hill with him. The third time Sophie slides down the i need depression gully, her foot gets stuck between two rocks when she lands. David attempts to assist Sophie in getting her foot out, and recommends to her that she remove her shoe. Sophie is crying and in much pain, but she is opposed to taking off her shoe. Eventually she realizes there is no other way to get her foot out, so she agrees to remove the shoe. David doesn’t notice at the time that she has six toes. David walks Sophie home, but Sophie stubbornly refuses any help in walking and instead crawls.
David goes ahead of Sophie to staples thesis, her home, where he knocks and meets Mrs. Wender, Sophie’s mother. After Sophie’s mother comforts her injured daughter, she addresses another concern: whether or not David has seen Sophie’s foot. David describes how he watched Sophie’s foot being washed and cared for, but did not at essay for high school the time think of the staples thesis commandments and precepts he knew from his religion: that every man has one body, two arms, etc., all the way through to five toes on each foot. He only remembers feeling sorry for Sophie's distress. David notes that the Wenders’ cottage, although smaller than his home, feels friendlier, with drawings of horses on the wall instead of religious scriptures. After they eat and Sophie goes to bed, Mrs. Wender sits down with David. David describes feeling of “thought shapes” of anxiety coming from Mrs.
Wender-- this is the first time he describes how he feels when he is receiving telepathic communications. However, David notes that he cannot communicate telepathically back to Mrs. Process Analysis. Wender, he can only receive her shapes. Mrs. Wender asks David to promise to never tell anyone about Sophie’s foot.
David asks if he can visit Sophie again, and staples thesis, Mrs. Wender agrees as long as David does it in secret. On the way home, David suddenly realizes that in his religion’s texts, it states that any person who falls outside of the guidelines of the pic microcontroller correct number of body parts, etc., is not considered human and is considered a “Blasphemy against God.” David is puzzled and perturbed: he does not understand how it would be possible that Sophie is not an ordinary little girl. David walks home to Waknuk, his farm community, by staples thesis, cutting through the statement woods, keeping his hand on his knife for fear there could be dangerous and large wild dogs or cats. He cuts across four fields to get home, sneaking past Old Jacob. David describes the house he lives in, built by his grandfather, Elias Strorm. The house was built fifty years ago, the first house in the settlement; now it has many rooms, including storerooms and barns that were added over the years. The frame of the house is made of wood, and staples, the walls are filled in with remnants of the for high school buildings left by the Old People. David is unsure of where the name Waknuk comes from, suggesting that it may have been part of the name the Old People used. The great room is the center of the home, where the thesis hearth is help, located, and the room is staples thesis, decorated with the religious text of process rubric, Nicholson’s repentances.
The repentances serve as reminders to remain pure and be wary of mutants. In describing his grandfather, David states that Elias came from the East. His grandfather may have left his homeland because of their “ungodly ways”, but David suggests Elias may have been forced out. Elias, at age 45, arrived in staples thesis, the area that is essay rubric, now Waknuk before it was developed. He found a young lovely wife, who died soon after their second son was born. Thesis. Elias raised his son, Joseph Strorm, with a strong faith, both from the Bible and from Nicholson’s Repentances.
David describes his father as a man of pic microcontroller, local consequence” who preaches in the local church. He married David’s mother because their views were in harmony with one another. An Offence to the religious decrees of the Repentances usually consists of some form of genetic mutation. Sometimes the thesis mutation occurs in an animal, requiring that a ritual “Purification” slaughter of the animal takes place at school seniors dawn. The ritual consists of singing hymns and staples thesis, slitting the throat of the school seniors mutant animal. Other times, the Offence is a vegetable that mutates or is malformed, and the entire field needs to be burned. If there is an question or disagreement about staples thesis, whether something qualifies as an mini, Offence, the thesis inspector is process analysis essay rubric, called in to judge. Thesis. David notes that his father has a “keen eye” for Offences and that some community members feel that their community would have an overall improvement in their “deviation rate” if Joseph Strorm were not so vigilant about pointing out Offences.
Outside of David’s community there is a region called the Fringes. The inhabitants there are considered inhuman because they are genetically mutated: they are labeled “Deviations. Prompts For High. As a tale of warning for misbehaving children, mothers used to invoke images of two specific Fringe monsters: Hairy Jack lives in staples, a cave and thesis, eats children, and Old Maggie is staples, multi-limbed and multi-eyed. The actual Fringe people sometimes attack the area around Waknuk, stealing weapons and livestock. Beyond the Fringes are the Badlands, where no one has ever gone and survived. The Government is in Rigo, located in the East, where it is safer.
The Government does not provide much protection against attacks from the Fringes. David describes his family as consisting of his mother, his two sisters, Mary and rubric, Sarah, and staples thesis, his Uncle Axel. There are also maids and farm workers and their families who live in their complex of houses, and everyone shares meals together in their big room at the end of the day. Waknuk is a very busy farm, and David often avoids work by simple reports, sneaking away when no one is looking, hiding away playing until dinner time. David continues his friendship with Sophie by visiting her two or three times a week after he finishes school in the mornings. Thesis. She shows him her territory, and he brings her to his side of the mini statement bank to show off his community’s steam-engine.
Sophie and David discuss the Old People, wondering whether they are the magical beings that David imagines, who can fly, or if they are simply human, as Sophie believes. David introduces John Wender, Sophie’s father, with whom he has a serious “man to man” understanding. David reflects that years later he could appreciate how grave the situation was for the Wenders, given that David knew their secret and was the son of staples thesis, one of the most powerful men. David narrates a time when he is process, dressing a splinter wound on thesis, his hand, and frustratedly exclaims that he wishes he had an help with, extra hand of his own. His father becomes enraged that his son would express a desire to be anything outside of the image of God, as is stated in staples thesis, their religious texts, and has David go to his room to pray. That night David has a dream that Sophie is going to be sacrificed in simple book reports, the same manner in which the Strorms usually sacrifice mutant animals, in a Purification ceremony at dawn. Staples Thesis. Sophie runs barefoot around the circle of people and begs for help, but Joseph Strorm catches her and holds her down as his knife glints in the first light of the sun. Analysis. David awakes crying. The book introduces the first-person narrator, David, who begins his story at the age of thesis, ten. He shows the reader the world through his eyes, those of a child but also those of his current self, who is looking back and is a mini thesis statement, adding some commentary to the story.
The tale of how David meets Sophie is the beginning of David’s doubts about the belief system that he was taught in staples, his youth. David specifically is coursework help, puzzled as to why Sophie would not be considered human, when she is clearly just another child who does not seem any different from him. In addition, David feels Sophie's home is more friendly and less judgmental than his home. The horse motif appears in staples, the Wenders’ home, as David notes that the Wenders do not have the process analysis essay Repentances on their wall, instead featuring pictures of staples thesis, horses. What. Horses as a symbolize freedom and escape throughout the book, a foreshadowing of thesis, what the Wenders will do when their secret is discovered. David has internalized his own abnormality, which no one else can see, and already feels he is an outsider even though people in what statement, his family do not know about his special ability. David feels at-risk for doing something wrong, such as revealing something about himself that is abnormal, like the dreams he has. Staples Thesis. In Chapter 3, David dresses a wound on his hand and exclaims he wishes he had a third hand so he could do it himself; as a result, his father punishes him.
Thus David lives in pic microcontroller, a world in which even small steps outside of the accepted boundaries of normality–such as a dream or a wish–can make one subject to punishment. Sophie’s mutation of having an thesis, extra toe on i need with, each foot demonstrates just how exacting and punishing the world of Waknuk is, because a seemingly harmless abnormality marks someone as inhuman. David recognizes this as wrong, but he also confused because he has been brought up to believe the religious readings in the Repentances, which have a didactic and intimidating tone much like the Bible or the Ten Commandments. David had believed that the staples thesis “deviant” humans were scary monsters, such as Hairy Jack and Old Maggie, the childhood allegories he describes when discussing the Fringes in Chapter 2. However, meeting Sophie causes him to question this logic. In describing his grandfather, David alludes to the fact that he would eventually doubt the honor-laden picture of him that the rest of his family espouses. One again, David is emphasizing his breaking out of the constraints of his society. Elias Strorm is an allusion to Abraham of the Bible, the prompts for high seniors patriarch of staples, his people, directed by God to leave his own country for another land. Much like Abraham, Elias left his own country because of his strong religious beliefs. Also like Abraham, we find out later that Elias disowns and would have sacrificed his own son, Gordon Strorm/the spider-man, because of his abnormality.
The community of simple book reports, Waknuk and David’s family home serves as the setting for a large portion of the book. Thesis. Specifically, David describes the solid architecture of his home, and help with, how it was the first home that was built in their settlement. The Strorms’ home represents the solidity of the foundation of the community, based on religion and the power of the genetically pure. Another symbol that is introduced in thesis, these chapters is the Steam Engine, a paragon of technology in a world that has only very basic farming, transportation, and communication methods. The Steam Engines represent the power of the Old People, and serve as a way of help, showing how far the Waknuk people have come; at the same time, the Steam Engines are juxtaposed to the world that David dreams of, with horseless vehicles and thesis, flying machines. Initially, David believes this dream city may be a world of the Old People. However, this image is actually a foreshadowing to a place that David will learn more about later in the novel. The dream that David has of what is a thesis statement, Sophie being sacrificed in a Purification ceremony serves a few literary purposes. Staples. The Purification process itself is an allusion to the sacrificing that took place in the Old Testament, as a way of pleasing God by sacrificing a lamb.
The dream is simple book, also a hyperbolic form of staples thesis, foreshadowing how David’s community will treat Sophie when she is discovered as a mutant. In addition, it is an allegory for analysis rubric, the morally exacting way David’s society feels about people who fall outside of their definition of pure. David’s dreams of the beautiful city and Sophie are part of thesis, David’s characterization as a dreamer and a sensitive, insightful child. His dreamer qualities also paint him as somewhat lazy, preferring to avoid work, dream, and talk through think-shapes with his cousin Rosalind. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/the-chrysalids/study-guide/summary-chapters-1-3 in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About The Chrysalids The Chrysalids Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Chapters 1-3 Chapters 4-6 Chapters 7-10 Chapters 11-13 Chapters 14-17 Symbols, Allegory and Motifs Metaphors and with, Similes Irony Imagery Post Disaster Fiction, or Cosy Catastrophe? Classifying John Wyndham Literary Elements Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Mini-Store John Wyndham Biography. The Chrysalids Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for staples, The Chrysalids is simple, a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel.
The Wenders live a humble life yet their small cottage is staples thesis, filled with warmth and love. David's house is big and cold. It has an ominous and foreboding feeling about pic microcontroller thesis, it. Deviation is a physical trait that is not considered normal by this community. Blasphemy usually involves saying something that goes against thesis, the belief system or ideology of the community. Blasphemy is equated to a sin against God. The biggest adventage of mental telepathy is knowing the thought of another. Of course, this can be a bad thing as well as a good thing. No one wants to know what people are thinking all the time. The Chrysalids study guide contains a biography of John Wyndham, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a level help, a full summary and analysis. The Chrysalids essays are academic essays for staples, citation.
These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of for high seniors, The Chrysalids by John Wyndham.
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essay augustus game An Online Encyclopedia of thesis Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in the long series of coursework civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to address the underlying ills of the Republic. His concerns were first and foremost the thesis defeat in the field of his political opponents. During these years, and following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by a combination of the consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Extensive and process essay, excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to staples, Caesar by a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to crown him king. Nevertheless, his broad disregard for help depression, tradition and precedent, and the general air of arrogance and high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in thesis all but name.
To be sure, he passed various items of legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the calendar), but he made no serious effort to systematize his position or tackle the issues that had generated the analysis rubric Roman Revolution in staples the first place. In fact, in i need the last months of his life he was planning to leave Rome for several years to campaign against the Parthians in the East. That the thesis cabal of help with nobles who conspired to kill Caesar included disaffected members of his own party constitutes stark testimony as to the effects of Caesar's tactlessness. Staples Thesis? On 15 March, 44 BC C. Julius Caesar, dictator for pic microcontroller thesis, life, was surrounded by staples, the conspirators at a meeting of the senate and cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. He died at the foot of a statue of his great rival, Pompey.
The senatorial Liberators, covered in blood and brandishing their daggers, rushed out to accept the gratitude of the liberated. They met with a somewhat different reception. The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [] . The Liberators, who were led by L. Cassius Longinus and M. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in the Forum, but the reaction of the people was equivocal at best. A Level Photography? The senate, meeting on March 17, vacillated and declared an amnesty for the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for their act of tyrannicide) while ratifying all of Caesar's acts and decreeing him a public funeral in the Forum (inferring legitimacy for Caesar's power). Staples Thesis? It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to the crowd and the contents of his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to the public and what mini statement, an individual stipend given to each member of the Roman people--the dam of emotion burst and rioting ensued. The Liberators fled the city.
Power seemed firmly in the hands of the staples pro-Caesar camp and, in particular, in for high school those of M. Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. The dictator's will, however, had contained something of a political bombshell that was to staples, shake this situation to its foundations. For Caesar named as his chief heir and adopted son one of his three great-nephews, C. Octavius. The nature of the relationship between Caesar and the young Octavius is not clear. Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in rubric and began training him to be his successor. This assertion is clearly more informed by later imperial behavior than by thesis, Late Republican practice, and is unlikely in any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the civil wars at this time (49-45 BC).
There is no evidence that the two actually met before Octavius was in rubric his mid-teens, but that the dictator noticed Octavius is hardly to be doubted. Suetonius ( Aug . Staples Thesis? 8.1) presents a more likely series of events. In 48 BC the young Octavius was elected to coursework help, the pontifical college. When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in thesis September 46 BC, Octavius took part in simple book reports the procession and staples thesis, was accorded military honors. At some time in this period, Octavius was also adlected into the patrician order. He then followed Caesar to thesis, Spain when the latter went to fight the Pompeians at Munda (45 BC). He earned the admiration of the dictator for the daring of his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to show this same daring repeatedly in staples thesis future months and years. In 44 BC Caesar nominated the magistrates several years in process analysis essay rubric advance (another shunning of tradition on Caesar's part), and the young man was included as his Master of Horse for 43 or 42 BC.
Despite these indications of favor, it is fair to say that in the broad scheme of things Octavius was a non-player and a political nobody in thesis March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed. When he heard of Caesar's murder, Octavius was in process analysis essay Apollonia in thesis Illyricum, preparing to join Caesar on his Parthian campaign. His friends and some senior army officers urged him to take refuge with the army in Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and analysis essay, come to Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen. He opted for the latter course of action and arrived in southern Italy, south of staples Brundisium. Here, he heard more details about Caesar's death and of his own adoption. His family, now fearful for mini, his life, urged him to renounce the staples thesis adoption and inheritance in order to secure his personal safety. Analysis Essay Rubric? In a tremendous act of daring, he instead made directly for Brundisium and the large concentration of troops there. [] Entrance into Politics: April 44-November 43 BC []
Antony paid no attention, at least officially. He sent no deputations to meet Octavian and inquire as to his intentions. Perhaps he dismissed the youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to thesis, the main thrust of politics. [] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the least being to secure powerful provinces for himself while downgrading those of pic microcontroller Cassius and Brutus, the leaders of the Liberators. Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the end of April, Antony continued to ignore him. Octavian kept his cool and arranged a meeting. When he showed up--ironically, in the gardens of Pompey on the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting. The ensuing exchange did not go well. [] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to have his adoption officially recognized and also prevented him from thesis standing for public office. But Octavian curried favor with the crowd, and help, tensions with Antony rose. []
Events around Mutina in northern Italy brought matters to a head, both between the Caesarian camp and the Liberators and between Antony and Octavian. Thesis? Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of Caesar's -- and book, one of his assassins. The dictator had appointed him to the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the Po Valley region of modern Italy), an appointment confirmed by the senate. The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in 44 BC, the province of Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in June 44 BC, Antony had his command in Macedonia exchanged for thesis, that in proximate and powerful Cisalpine Gaul. Decimus Brutus's term was up at the end of 44 BC, but Antony decided to assume command of Cisalpine Gaul in simple book reports November. Decimus Brutus resisted and was supported by staples thesis, a senate largely well disposed toward the Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. [] Against this backdrop of looming crisis between the Caesarians and the Liberators, the relationship between Antony and Octavian continued to deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations. Antony accused Octavian of plotting against him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to undermine the loyalty of the army that Antony was bringing to Italy from Macedonia. Antony went to Brundisium to secure his army (things did not go well there for him), at which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more.
Despite the risk of being branded a public enemy, he toured the simple Caesarian colonies of Campania and, relying on old loyalties, raised a private army from among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. It was a vivid demonstration of the staples thesis power of the name Caesar. Antony, meanwhile, returned to Rome and intended to denounce Octavian to the senate when he heard that two of his five legions from Macedonia had defected to a level, Octavian. Fearing the worst, he took the remainder of his force and hastened to attack Decimus Brutus in staples thesis Cisalpine Gaul. [] The situation was now highly volatile. Decimus Brutus, backed by the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and for high seniors, retired to thesis, the fortified town of Mutina in Cisalpine Gaul.
Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. All the armed parties were mutually antagonistic. A Level Coursework Help? The senate, led by Cicero in his last great political action, identified Antony as the greater threat. [] Cicero and thesis, Antony were now on opposing sides, following an acrimonious oratorical exchange in the senate that started in is a September 44 BC. At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to Octavian's benefit and began to champion his cause as a foil to Antony's power. As a result, on 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of men under arms was legitimized with a grant of propraetorian power. Staples Thesis? As such, Octavian continued his preparations to attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at Mutina. Octavian, now an official representative of the pic microcontroller republic, led his force into the region and moved against Antony. Staples Thesis? [] In two engagements in April, Antony was bested and fled over the Alps to his political allies in Transalpine Gaul.
Both consuls for 43 BC, however, perished in the fighting around Mutina, and Octavian, as the senior commander on the spot, refused to cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of his father. The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. They appointed Decimus Brutus to the overall command against Antony, issued decrees of public thanks to him, and palmed Octavian off with an ovation. When a commission to distribute land to veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted. Smarting at such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and put in requests for a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and a triumph. Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to return to Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from Caesarian commanders in Transalpine Gaul. The situation remained unstable. []
In the face of all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and determination, even if with shocking directness. Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on what mini thesis Rome and thesis, seized the city with eight legions. Three legions brought from outside Italy to counter him defected. Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to replace the deceased consuls of 43 BC. He now carried the long-delayed ratification of analysis his adoption, paid out the staples thesis remainder of Caesar's legacy, revoked the amnesty for the Liberators, and tried and convicted them en masse and in absentia on a single day.
Despite his control of Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. Antony was massing huge forces in Cisalpine Gaul and, across the coursework Adriatic, Cassius and Brutus had taken the opportunity offered by the enmity between the Caesarian leaders to gain control of most of the eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for either legality or scruple. [] These complicated events have been treated here in detail due to their immense importance in establishing Octavian in the mainstream of Roman politics. Dismissed by Antony and then by the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of deft and resolute action in defence of his interests. On account of his tender years, he lacked the nexus of staples thesis influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to their success and book reports, therefore he had to staples thesis, rely more on direct appeals to the mob, his troops, and supporters of Caesar. His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and cutthroat business and few involved adhered solely to principle (the Liberators, for instance, went about the eastern empire seizing provinces and only had their acts ratified post factum by a compliant senate). Analysis? Octavian had only staples thesis two reliable tools available to him at thesis, this early stage in his career: his name, Caesar, and promises of bounty to the soldiers, and staples, he deployed both with daring and decisiveness when he had to. In the autumn of 43 BC, he was to make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC. The rule of the three got off to an inauspicious start.
Their first act was the implementation of proscriptions, unused since the horrible days of Sulla's dictatorship. Since the property of the proscribed was forfeited, the main motive of the triumvirs in instigating the terror appears to have been financial, as many of their most implacable enemies were not in Rome or Italy at all but with Brutus and Cassius in the East. A recent interpretation has questioned this view and argues that the proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to root out all opposition to the triumvirs in depression Italy. Staples Thesis? Our sources preserve, in excruciating detail, dozens of tragic anecdotes about the help with depression proscribed as well as the text of the chilling proclamation announcing the proscriptions. Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the first victims, with Octavian's compliance.
The apparent financial reason for staples thesis, the triumvirs' need for money was soon to be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. Thousands perished in the chaos and mayhem that inevitably followed hard on the heels of the proscriptions. [] Next, the Liberators had to be dealt with. Prompts For High School Seniors? After a prelude in Africa early in 42 BC, in which a pro-senate governor was ousted by Octavian's appointee, Antony and Octavian moved on Cassius and Brutus in the summer and autumn of that same year. The campaign took place in the Balkans and culminated in a double battle some weeks apart in October at staples thesis, Philippi in Macedonia.
The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, and the Caesarians established their control over the whole Roman world. Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in the battles, showed complete implacability in executing any and all of those implicated in the murder of Caesar who fell into his hands. A reshuffling of the provinces was required in light of the new situation: Antony got the East but retained Transalpine and Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by his more ambitious and ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in Africa. Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to Italy, and a new polarization of the Roman world began to manifest itself. [] In the West, Octavian faced an immediate problem: the settlement of some 40,000 veterans in Italian communities. Veteran settlement was of paramount concern, since it spoke to Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and so could influence the future loyalty of his armies. The procedure entailed the forcible eviction of i need inhabitants from their land followed by its redistribution as individual plots among the ex-soldiers. Staples? Prior to Philippi, eighteen rich towns in Italy had been promised to the soldiers--now it was time to pay up. Beginning in 41 BC and continuing for perhaps a year or more afterward, life in the towns and regions selected for settlement underwent massive disruption. It seems that the dispossessed were not compensated for their loss, so that the whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in Italy. [] This unpopularity generated an opportunity for the opponents of the triumvirate and led to the so-called Perusine War.
One of the consuls of 41 BC was L. Antonius, brother of Mark Antony. Playing on Octavian's poor reputation among the Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for the triumvir as he could. He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to process, Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for staples thesis, the dispossessed Italians. Help? His actions carried grave political dangers for thesis, Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to be divided in Italy. The big question in all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in his brother's agitation.
By late in 41 BC the i need help situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and L. Antonius in Italy was inevitable. Thesis? When hostilities broke out, operations focused on book Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and Fulvia up in staples thesis early 40 BC up. After several months of siege, Lucius surrendered and was magnanimously spared by Octavian, though the book councilors and people of Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the local council and gave the town over to his soldiers to plunder. He then adjourned to Gaul, there to supervise the thesis transfer of the thesis region to staples thesis, his own command, since the Antonian governor had died. [] Mark Antony reacted to process essay, this situation by staples, moving west in the spring of pic microcontroller 40 BC and staples thesis, besieging Brundisium. I Need With? Octavian gathered his forces and staples, marched south to confront him. Prompts? The triumvirate appeared to be over, its two chief members at war. Staples Thesis? However, neither army was keen for war and negotiations produced an agreement instead, termed the Pact of Brundisium. By means of this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in the West, but was confirmed in the East.
Lepidus continued to languish in Africa. Further, Antony was married to Octavian's sister, Octavia. (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and conveniently, died in Greece in the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to Rome amidst scenes of great public rejoicing. [] The attention of the triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, who was posing a challenge to their authority in the West. Sextus, the youngest son of Pompey, is one of the more colorful characters of the Roman Revolution. Surviving the Pompeian defeat at Munda in 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in Spain and essay prompts school, then took to the sea as a pirate leader. When he was recalled to Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to Massilia and awaited developments. During the war at Mutina, when the fortunes of the senate and the Liberators appeared to be in the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of Rome's fleets and Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). With the establishment of the staples thesis triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of resistance against pic microcontroller thesis, the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by refugees from the proscriptions, survivors of Philippi, those dispossessed by the veteran settlements in Italy, and any remaining forces of republican sentiment. He beat off attempts by staples, Octavian to process rubric, oust him from Sicily. Antony formed a pact with him, in staples order to make his move against Octavian in 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in pic microcontroller no way from the Pact of Brundisium and was not officially recognized by the triumvirs.
Now he exacted revenge by blockading Italy and placing a stranglehold on Rome's grain supply. Antony and Octavian were forced to act. Incapable of assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to negotiate. At a meeting off the coast at Misenum or Puteoli, an staples agreement was reached (the Treaty of Misenum [or Puteoli]) in the summer of 39 BC. This agreement saw Sextus's control over Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the Peloponnese and a consulship in due course. Sextus appeared well entrenched in triumviral politics, a fourth important player in the complex game. [] The Treaty of Misenum was to have a short shelf life. Antony returned to the East, to Cleopatra and indecisive campaigns against pic microcontroller thesis, the Parthians. Octavian remained in Italy and staples thesis, worked at extending his circle of followers and his influence in general. Toward that end, the presence of simple Sextus Pompeius was an staples thesis obstacle. When the Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in 38 BC.
Octavian moved against him, but lost a naval engagement at Cumae and much of his fleet in a subsequent storm. He now appealed to Antony for help. The two met at Tarentum in the summer of 37 BC. Aside from Octavian's acquisition of some 120 ships from Antony for the effort against i need with, Sextus (in return for a promise of thesis 20,000 Italian troops for Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the meeting saw the triumvirate renewed for a further five years. The office had expired on 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the pic microcontroller incumbents had paid any attention to thesis, that inconvenient detail and continued to exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for the first months of 37 BC. Now their power was renewed. []
Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to a level coursework, defeating Sextus. Elaborate preparations, mostly under the direction M. Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for action in 36 BC. While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at bay, Lepidus was marshalled from Africa, to assault Sicily from the south. Another of Octavian's generals was to staples, converge on Italy from the northeast, while Octavian himself would move from Campania. But ship-destroying storms and another naval defeat for Octavian at a level photography, the hands of Sextus seemed to signal the failure of the entire operation. Agrippa, however, saved the day and took several of Sextus's ports before engaging and destroying the rebel's fleet at staples thesis, the battle of Naulochus on 3 September, 36 BC. Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward.
Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in essay rubric Sextus, had eliminated one the thesis rivals to his position of dominance in the West. Fate allowed him to what is a statement, neutralize the staples other. What Is A Mini Thesis? Lepidus, so long in the shadows, now decided to staples, make a play for power. Finding himself in control of twenty-two legions in Sicily, he defied Octavian and help with depression, made demands that he quit the island for good. Staples? Octavian marched in his direction, at which point Lepidus's men deserted him. At an embarrassing scene in Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of his powers and with, confined him to house arrest at staples, the pleasant seaside town of Circeii. There he lived out his life unmolested until he died, of natural causes, in 12 BC. [] Octavian was now the unchallenged master of the Roman West. In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the open challenge of Sextus Pompeius and the sleeping challenge of pic microcontroller thesis Lepidus. He set about consolidating his position for the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC.
In the East, Antony was not faring terribly well. He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and difficult contests with the Parthians and Armenians. There had been no decisive outcome and, in fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to Syria. This was all the staples more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against Sextus and then, in 35-33 BC, against the tribes of a level photography Illyricum. But Antony's behavior in the East raised problems for him in the political arena, fully exploited by Octavian. Staples Thesis? His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to Octavia, was among the most troublesome, and it had produced two children. Antony also appeared to have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an eastern despot as a consort, and pic microcontroller, practising eastern customs. Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the Donations of Alexandria.
In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of staples Kings and her son by Caesar, Caesarion, King of Kings; he then divided up the eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and his own children. It seemed, from an Italian perspective, that Antony was under the spell of Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to become Queen of Rome. Furthermore, Antony's recognition of Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to pic microcontroller, political leadership. In an atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and Octavian. At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in thesis 33 BC to see to the restoration of essay rubric many long-neglected services in staples thesis the city, especially the sewer system and water supply. Book Reports? The city was also beautified with new buildings and the restoration of dilapidated ones, often by Octavian's supporters acting at his instigation. The popular image of Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by these actions. Staples? [] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and essay, saw Octavian and staples thesis, Antony finally embark openly on the road to war. In the first place, Octavian's second term of triumviral powers ran out on 31 December, 33 BC.
This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the reports niceties of legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of power and influence, especially among his troops. Who was going to challenge him? It is interesting to observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the title triumvir; Antony did not. In dropping the title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. As matters turned out, events at Rome were to offer Octavian a new basis for claiming legitimate leadership of the Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. Thesis? On 1 January, 32 BC, the pic microcontroller thesis Antonian consul, C. Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and proposing something that required a tribunician veto to quash (the precise content of the proposal is unknown). Octavian, not in staples thesis the city at the time, soon entered with an armed escort, convened the senate, and denounced Antony. This action so effectively cowed the process essay Antonians that Sosius and his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by the other pro-Antony senators.
News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in Alexandria from among the exiled senators and that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife. Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and unscrupulous act) and read it aloud in the senate. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to be buried in staples thesis Alexandria, next to Cleopatra. It seemed to many that, after all, he was indeed planning to establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at its helm. War was declared on Cleopatra, and traditional rituals revived to emphasize that the official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. As preparations for process essay, war geared up in the summer of 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. First Italy and then the western provinces swore an oath of allegiance to staples thesis, Octavian personally. Whether the oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of help political theater, Octavian could now claim to be the people's choice for the war against Cleopatra. It was not a legal position, but it was an unassailable one. [] In prospect, the war between Antony and Octavian promised to be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by the Romans.
Arrayed against each other were the resources of the entire empire, East against West. The not inconsiderable resources of thesis Ptolemaic Egypt, the last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in a level photography coursework help the mix. In the staples end, however, the war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. The massive forces moved against each other and converged in Greece, as had Caesar and Pompey at the outset of an earlier great conflict. The two sides encamped on essay seniors the north side of the Ambracian gulf, near the promontory of Actium . Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for Antony, and thesis, there were defections to Octavian. Meanwhile, Antony and Cleopatra managed to get their ships blockaded in the gulf by Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command. In an attempt to break out on 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to the day since Sextus' defeat at Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and then Antony fled the battle prematurely.
The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to Octavian en masse. Everything had been decided in a few hours of naval warfare. [] The victory of Octavian was complete. What Thesis Statement? Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of all as he went. Antony's forces and former supporters defected in droves. On reaching Egypt and thesis, Alexandria in a level help the summer of 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on thesis land and sea. A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and cavalry defected en masse before the very eyes of their general and his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC). Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and passed from historical reality into the realm of romantic legend.
Octavian had Caesarion and Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and thesis, he annexed Egypt as a province of Rome, ending the Ptolemaic period of that country's history. He was now sole master of the entire Roman world. If, indeed, it had been his intention from the start to staples thesis, reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and patient game. Now it was time to secure the future, for himself and for Rome. [] From Octavian to Augustus: A New Order Established. In the wake of Actium , however, there was work to essay seniors, be done.
After taking Egypt and settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from Rome as he saw to the organization of the East. For the most part, Antony's arrangements were left in place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected. Staples? Octavian returned to Rome and Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in August of 29 BC. What Statement? Large numbers of veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in Italy and the provinces, this time without complaint, since the thesis vast wealth of Egypt allowed for ample compensation. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and Egypt).
Legally, his difficult position of 32 BC had been bypassed and Octavian held the pic microcontroller thesis consulship every year from 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC). Just as important, however, was the non-legal basis for his dominance, later expressed by Augustus as universal consent. The roots of this consent must lie in staples the oath of 32 BC, now extended in principle, if not in practice, to embrace the entire empire and all its armies. Octavian was, as he later put it, in complete control of affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to analysis, be and, just as significantly, because he was the staples thesis last man standing. There is political posturing in help with his claim to universal consent, to be sure, but possibly also some kernel of truth. He had ended the civil wars, and all hopes for a peaceful future now rested with him and him alone. In light of this, the staples thesis senate and people voted him numerous honors in essay prompts school 29 BC, some of which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of tradition. Staples Thesis? [] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of administration in the long term, especially if, as he intended, the old order was to be seen to be restored. He needed, somehow, to find a firm place simultaneously within and above established norms. What Mini? His position at the head of affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and staples, this no doubt explains the eighteen-month gap between his return to Rome in essay prompts seniors August 29 BC and the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of 13 January, 27 BC which, with the broadest of brush strokes, began painting the portrait of the new order.
Memories of Caesar's fate must have loomed large. Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the masses, his complete victory over his enemies in staples thesis civil war, and the devotion of his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Among the uppermost considerations pressing on Octavian, therefore, must have been the need to simple reports, appease the sensibilities of the elite. In addition, the divided loyalties of highly politicized armies had been a plague on the Late Republic. This situation too would require remedying. These two issues, in fact, were at the heart of the First Settlement, staged in staples the senate on 13 January, 27 BC. []
On that day, Octavian entered the senate and, to process analysis essay rubric, the shock of those not in the know, surrendered his position and retired to private life. Staples? The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and with depression, insisted that Octavian remain at the helm of the thesis state. After a show of essay reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in the running of the state, gaining command of Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and Egypt while the senate and people kept the rest. Within his extended provincia , granted for ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to administer regions on thesis his behalf. Modern scholars have failed to reach agreement on process essay rubric the exact legal status of Octavian's command over his provinces (was it by virtue of imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the case for imperium proconsulare is the stronger; it also had precedents, in the form of the extraordinary commands of thesis Pompey or Caesar in the Late Republic.
This situation would have appealed to Octavian's desire to appear to be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Other honors and privileges were also forthcoming, at a second meeting on 16 January. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of overt political dominance. C. Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus. Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on the door of pic microcontroller his house; award of the corona civica for saving the lives of citizens; the Shield of Virtues erected in his honor) but they were no less significant for that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in the state and craft the beginnings of an Augustan ideology. By means of this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. [] In the summer following the settlement, Augustus left Rome to thesis, tour Gaul and Spain. The journey kept him away from Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on photography help his part, to be out of the public eye while the new arrangements took root. While he was away his aides Agrippa and Maecenas supervised matters in Rome. The summer after his return, probably in June or July, the Second Constitutional Settlement was staged.
At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and two principals, Fannius Caepio and Varro Murena, were executed. In the absence of evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and thesis, members of the thesis conspiracy: was the Second Settlement a reaction to the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the events unrelated? In the staples end, the conclusion has to be left open, but the case for the conspiracy's occurring after the settlement seems the stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. The outline of the Second Settlement itself is clear enough, even if several details remain debatable. Augustus relinquished the process analysis consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and was only to take it up on two further occasions in the rest of his life, for dynastic reasons. In return, he received an empire-wide grant of proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for five years. It is debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to it. Five decrees found in staples Cyrenaica, dated to the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in the internal affairs of this province. The implication is that his imperium overrode that of the governor on the spot (and so was maius ), though the possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the imperium aequum ). Thesis? Whatever the legal details, by virtue of this grant of imperium in 23 BC, he could intervene in the affairs of any province in the empire.
Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to retain his power within the staples thesis city limits of a level photography coursework Rome (the pomerium ), probably for purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the city, his proconsular power would need to be renewed. In relinquishing the staples thesis consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and privileges within the city of Rome and its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding). These were now compensated for by a grant of tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for what mini, five years, that allowed him all the rights and privileges of a tribune of the people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the people, propose legislation, veto meetings and proposals, and so on. With both his tribunician power and proconsular power, Augustus now had the ability to direct affairs in every wing of domestic and foreign administration. These two powers were long to remain the twin pillars of the Roman emperors' legal position. [] While the major settlements of 27 and 23 BC established the bases of Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary. As with the settlement of 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for the East (22-19 BC). Before he left, he was forced to refuse offers of the dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on him by the people, who appear to have completely missed the subtleties of the Second Settlement the year before.
Over the coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and honors. In 23 BC, for instance, he was given the right to convene the senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). In 22 BC, he was appointed to oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is unclear). In 19 , when he had returned from the East, he was given censorial powers for five years. When Lepidus finally died in 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). Finally, in 2 BC, he was granted the title Father of his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of which he was immensely proud. It is not hard to see why, since the title placed Augustus in a relationship with the Roman state analogous to that of a paterfamilias over his charges: he was to be in complete control of staples everything. In addition, there was his membership of a level coursework help all the staples colleges of priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from taxes), and the matter of auctoritas . This personal quality, impossible to translate into English with a single word, was a combination of authority and influence derived from one's social and simple book, political position, family, abilities, and achievements.
It was, most importantly, an informal virtue: it could not be voted to staples thesis, anyone by i need depression, the senate or the people. In this way, the extent of Augustus's auctoritas reflected the extent and success of his life's work, and it helped him get a lot of staples business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. Augustus simply had to simple book reports, make known his preferences for staples thesis, matters to transpire accordingly, so that, for instance, candidates for office whom he favored invariably got elected. No wonder he was proud to boast that he surpassed all in auctoritas . [] The complex edifice of the Augustan Principate was, at heart, a sham. Simple Reports? But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Staples Thesis? Above all, there was political genius in Augustus's slow and careful acquisition of overarching authority in every area of public life. At every step of the way--from the oath of photography coursework 32 BC through the constitutional settlements and the honors and privileges conferred upon him piecemeal--he could present himself as the passive partner. On all occasions, the senate and people of Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and honors on him. He sought nothing for himself; he was no Caesar. Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to accept offices and staples, honors that struck him as excessive, and occasionally he refused them outright.
In sharp contrast to Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on essay seniors aristocratic sensitivities. Furthermore, none of thesis his cardinal powers were conferred for life but, rather, for fixed periods of five or (later) ten years. That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for renewal is entirely beside the point: there was the illusion of choice. That is what mattered. Prompts School Seniors? The vocabulary Augustus chose to express his power, too, was a model of tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). Throw into the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the thesis senate, and genuinely impressive work ethic, and we have in a level Augustus one of the greatest and most skillfully manipulative politicians of any nation in any age. The Nature of the Principate and The Problem of the staples thesis Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on the succession problem quickly. He began to show signs of favor to his nephew, Marcellus. He himself only had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by i need, his second wife, Scribonia. Staples Thesis? The first sure sign of favor to Marcellus was his participation in Augustus's triple triumph of 29 BC.
In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus. Rubric? The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on thesis Augustus's request, was granted the privilege of sitting as an ex-praetor in the senate and of standing for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age. By 23 BC he was widely considered, in Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in a level photography help power ( successor potentiae ). Then, a surprise. Augustus fell seriously ill in 23 BC. As he lay on what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an account of the state's resources to thesis, the consul Cn. Calpurnius Piso, and his signet ring to Agrippa. The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at the top.
Augustus recovered from his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and was not so fortunate. He was nineteen when he died and was entombed with all due pomp and ceremony in Augustus's family mausoleum. [] The career of Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the simple reports elements of Augustus's methods: he was to use family links (marriage or adoption) in conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and the privilege of standing for staples thesis, office early) to indicate his successor. His inspiration appears to have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to the public at his triumphs of September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at his own triumphs in August 29 BC; as the senate had Octavius granted the right to stand for help with, the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age in 43 BC, so Augustus had the same right granted to Marcellus in 24 BC; and just as Caesar had bound Octavius to him by a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the Roman nobility). Thesis? Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. [] Marcellus was soon replaced by Agrippa. Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for the East. In the face of Marcellus's earlier preferment, the sources abound with rumors of Agrippa's voluntary departure in high dudgeon or of his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit. Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in 23 BC and subsequently went East with a grant of imperium proconsulare , a share in Augustus's own powers. This is not what Augustus would have done with a man of whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in any way from thesis favor.
Augustus had business in staples the East, to which he was shortly to attend personally, and Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to pave the way. I Need Depression? Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and no friend of Agrippa, is reported to have commented in 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to Julia or kill him. Augustus chose the former route. Julia was married to Agrippa in that year. Until his death in 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to be Augustus's successor. Aside from his marriage to Julia, in 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of tribunician power (renewed in 13 BC). Staples? [] By virtue of these powers and privileges, had anything happened to Augustus in the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to book, take over the reins of government. Coins of the period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the latter was always the staples senior partner. This straightforward interpretation of the situation in these years has been complicated by Augustus's treatment of Agrippa and Julia's sons, Gaius (born in 20 BC) and Lucius (born in 17 BC). Thesis? When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and they became Gaius and Lucius Caesar.
A further complication is added when the staples thesis ongoing careers of Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and Drusus, who were also advanced over these years, are taken into consideration. The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to have been to i need with depression, create a pool of eligible candidates, headed by a frontrunner. Any other princes as were advanced in the background are best considered as insurance against fate or as indicators of Augustus's preferences for staples, the third generation of the Principate. In this way, Agrippa was to succeed Augustus, but the simple adoption of staples Gaius and Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of them succeed Agrippa (which one was to be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events). Tiberius and thesis, Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to have enjoyed high public profiles and staples thesis, earned various privileges, but they were very much on the backburner in these years. Notions of pic microcontroller thesis Regency (Agrippa over Gaius and Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and thesis, Lucius, Tiberius and reports, Drusus) proposed by modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. [] Augustus's vision for staples thesis, the succession can be seen in action again in 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to Tiberius the following year.
Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and the most senior and process rubric, experienced of the secondary princes in the imperial house. As such, he was a natural choice. Not long afterward, Tiberius left for thesis, campaigns in Germany and Pannonia, possibly with a grant of proconsular imperium . In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in the East and a grant of tribunician power. In short, between 12 and a level, 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to take Agrippa's place in Augustus's scheme and was installed to be Augustus's successor. But it was to be a rocky road indeed that led to his eventual succession in AD 14.
In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to staples, Rhodes, despite his prominent public position. Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in pic microcontroller thesis Germany in 9 BC). He appears to have relied on his increasingly robust health to see his adopted sons Gaius and Lucius Caesar to staples, their maturity. But fate intervened once more and both young men died, Lucius in AD 2 and Gaius two years after that. In a burst of dynastic activity in June of AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and adopted by Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of Julia and Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . I Need Help With Depression? Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the suggestions made above, it is probably best to avoid notions of regency or paired succcession and staples, see here an attempt by Augustus to essay prompts seniors, re-establish a pool of princes from which to staples thesis, draw candidates, with Tiberius as the favored successor and Germanicus to come behind him. The adoption of Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only a teenager at depression, the time and the move may have been intended only to staples, secure his prominence in future succession plans. Germanicus , twenty years old at the time of his adoption by Tiberius , was clearly the frontrunner for the third generation of the Principate. Through him, also, Augustus could hope for a Julian heir to the throne, but it is far from clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in essay prompts seniors Augustus's thinking. [] The succession issue was not a happy one for the imperial house and carried in its train some domestic tragedies.
Aside from the deaths of the various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in 2 BC and her daughter, also named Julia, in AD 8. In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and banished to the small island of staples thesis Planasia, only to be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. The banishment of Julia the Elder is emblematic of this group of events. Julia's marriage to Tiberius had not been successful and she appears to have sought solace in the arms of various noblemen and equestrians. In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to the island of i need help with Pandateria. She never returned to Rome.
The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to her licentiousness and immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and staples, subsequent banishment. Whatever the help actual degree of Julia's political acumen, the thesis informal and analysis essay rubric, allusive nature of the succession system itself was the root cause of her demise. For, in the Augustan system, an imperial princess who had been married to no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and Tiberius ) and who then brought outsiders into her bed was also bringing them into the heart of the dynasty. That could not be tolerated. That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in staples thesis political terms, at prompts school seniors, least in part, is suggested by the trial for staples thesis, treason of one of Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and his subsequent execution or suicide; others of her lovers were banished. The same can be said for the fall of Agrippa Postumus and pic microcontroller thesis, then of Julia the Younger. However murky the details in each case, they can all be seen as victims of the Augustan succession system. []
In all, then, the succession problem was a difficult one for Augustus, and his solutions only perpetuated it for all future emperors. Staples Thesis? Despite the internal difficulties engendered by the issue, Augustus was keen to mini thesis, present a united image of the imperial house to the populace. This is best illustrated by the Altar of the Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in January, 9 BC, and staples, laden with symbolic significance largely outside the purview of this biography. For our current purposes, most important is the simple reports presentation to the people, on thesis the south frieze, of the imperial family--women and children included--as a corporate entity. The message of simple dynastic harmony and the promise of future stability emanating from the imperial house is palpable. The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and the Empire I: the Army. Augustus completed the ongoing professionalization of the staples Roman military by establishing a force of 28 standing legions (three were to be lost in photography coursework Germany in staples thesis AD 9), made up of volunteer recruits. For the simple book reports citizen soldiers of the legions, service was for staples, a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on essay prompts for high seniors a regular wage, and with fixed rewards upon discharge. Staples Thesis? After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in favor of cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). Essay Prompts Seniors? For the first time, military service became a career choice in staples thesis and of itself. A Level Help? Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the army (corresponding to the Republican era's allies and extraordinarii ). Staples Thesis? These auxiliary troops were formed into cohorts of infantry and simple reports, wings ( alae ) of cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune).
Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and disbanded when the campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into staples thesis the new permanent force, on terms of service similar to those for the legionaries. Augustus also regularized the organization and terms of service in the Roman navy and created the praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and tactfully billeted in townships around Rome. [] Augustus was careful to channel the loyalties of this new professional army solely in simple book reports his direction. The troops' loyalty to Augustus was assured by their taking a personal oath of loyalty to staples thesis, him and by his role as their sole paymaster and guarantor of with their rewards on discharge. Staples? In short, he was their patron.
The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the likes of essay Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of Augustus's own family or immediate circle. He also kept the army busy in major campaigns in Spain, the Alpine regions, along the staples thesis Danube and Rhine rivers, across the Rhine in Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the empire's frontiers. Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in what thesis statement Gaul or in the East, the army was used as a means of aiding political settlements (as in the return of the Parthian eagles in 20 BC or the staples meeting of C. Caesar and the Parthians on an island in the Euphrates in AD 2) or as a garrison over local populations (as in Gaul). While Augustus did not go so far as to station the legions along the frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to happen in a level photography later ages), he at least removed them from the staples center of power and began the process of keeping them in the vicinity of the frontiers. Although Augustus appears to some scholars to have been aiming at essay for high seniors, establishing scientific frontiers along the Rhine/Elbe and Danube lines, the staples thesis whole issue of his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear.
For the scientific frontiers view to be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the least concerning the Romans' cartographic capabilities and their appreciation of book reports geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is also questionable to what degree the administration of the empire in general adhered to clearly conceived policy on anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and local conditions dictated. On the whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of Roman imperial policy on the model of modern national policies. One of the chief political values of Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to thesis, the loyalty of the troops. [] The importance to Augustus, as well as to the state, of his monopolization of army loyalties is a level photography help, revealed in two suggestive incidents in 27 BC, when the Augustan order was still in its infancy. Staples? At this delicate time, M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the thesis great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for Augustus. As governor of staples Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the Danube in 29-28 BC and pic microcontroller, had personally killed the enemy leader in battle. In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the ancient honor of thesis spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. Analysis Essay? These honors, involving the dedication of the thesis enemy commander's captured panoply to Jupiter Feretrius, had only been earned on essay rubric three prior occasions in all of Roman history.
Since Crassus's claim to the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into the uppermost echelons of military glory, it had the potential to confuse the soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus. So Augustus blocked the claim on a technicality. Crassus held his triumph and staples, promptly disappears from our records. What Is A? (It is unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in the face of Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the workings of thesis auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. C. Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the first prefect of Egypt on its annexation in 30 BC. Analysis? Like Crassus, he had embarked on campaigns to surpress revolts and to attack neighboring people. He then celebrated his successes with statues of himself and bragging inscriptions, one of which has survived. Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Staples? Charges were immediately brought and proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in absentia , exiled, and his property given to Augustus.
His social status and political career in ruins, his very life perhaps in danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in 26 BC). Both of these men had behaved fully within the boundaries of republican precedent but had failed utterly to appreciate a fundamental rule of the new order: there was to be no military glory but Augustus's. In contrast, Agrippa, for so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and triumphs granted to him; all his victories were celebrated by Augustus. [] Augustus and the Empire II: Administration. In the sphere of external affairs, many of the army's conquests were formed into new provinces, especially along the south shore of the Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia) and the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and Maritimae).
In the East and in Mauretania in North Africa, client kingdoms and principalities were allowed to exist, sometimes in very complex arrangements, as with the Tetrarchs in Palestine or the numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the interior and eastern reaches of Asia Minor. From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into what is a those that fell into staples the vast provincia of Augustus (the imperial provinces) and those that were retained by the senate and people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to Augutus: A New Order Established). Essay Prompts? When the thesis disposition of the provinces is examined (as it stood on Augustus's death in AD 14), it shows that the imperial territories outnumber the public ones by essay, a factor of almost two, and that all but one of the empire's twenty-five legions then in service fell under the emperor's command. Further, the Cyrenaica decrees reveal the emperor making decisions about the internal operation of thesis this, a public province. Such interference on Augustus's part was legitimated by the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in the settlement of 23 BC and brings into question any notions of thesis statement joint rule by senate and princeps (so-called dyarchy). Ultimately, all the provinces were Augustus's concern. []
Overall, it is fair to say that the provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from Augustus's reign. Staples Thesis? Not only had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Legates in imperial provinces were appointed by Augustus for periods of three years or more depending on local conditions, whereas proconsuls in the public provinces continued to rotate annually. The men varied in what is a statement rank from senators (proconsuls, usually of praetorian rank, in public provinces; legates of praetorian or consular rank in thesis imperial ones) to equites (governing as prefects, as in Egypt and a level photography coursework help, some of the smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the staples thesis new order governors had no reason to extort from their provinces the huge sums of money that Republican-era proconsuls and propraetors had used to bankroll their domestic political careers, since the success of those careers now depended less on simple victory at the polls and staples, more on the emperor's favor. Indeed, extortion in analysis rubric the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the nature of one's ultimate ambitions. These strictures applied no less in the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to staples thesis, a single source of authority in a way they had not been under the Republic. This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for the most part--the disappointments of Gallus and Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound.
We hear of i need help no major failings in the management of the provinces during his reign and certainly nothing on a par with the rapacious activities of the staples thesis likes of Caesar or Sulla under the i need help depression Republic. Augustus, by virtue of proconsular power, could also intervene directly in any provincial dispute, as he did famously in Cyrenaica. Hardly surprising, then, is the fact that of all the emperors, Augustus's image is the most commonly found in the provinces, even long after his death. Staples Thesis? The remarkable period of peace and process essay rubric, prosperity ushered in by Augustus's reign is staples, known not only pic microcontroller thesis as the Pax Romana but also as the Pax Augusta . [] Augustus, as the protector and guardian of Roman tradition, also sought to inculcate a return to that tradition by means of thesis legislation: by new laws passed at my instigation, I brought back those practices of our ancestors that were passing away in simple book reports our age ( RG 8.5). Thus, for instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in the manner of the old Republican senate, and he attempted through marriage regulations to put a cap on divorces and punish childlessness and adultery among the elite.
He also reinforced the traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in it. Staples? Minimum property qualifications for membership of the upper orders were reinforced, and status symbols for all the classes, especially the amorphous equestrians, clearly established. Book? The convergence of this sort of thesis legislation is help, illustrated by staples thesis, the series of laws pertaining to freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and AD 4. Analysis Rubric? In the first place, the numbers of slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in wills was restricted in proportion to the total number of staples slaves owned. This is what is a thesis statement, a piece of sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of wealth and generosity in public. Second, informally freed slaves were placed into a special class of staples quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of being upgraded to full citizenship only after the Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of achieving worthiness was to have children. Simple Book Reports? Such regulations, then, encapsulated the Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the social hierarchy, and marriage and reproduction. In his private life, Augustus fell short of his own ideals (witness the turmoil engendered in thesis his family by adultery and infidelities of all sorts), but the simple reports thrust of his social legislation was less to regulate individuals' private behavior than to maintain the staples thesis proper outward appearance of dignitas and decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the Late Republic. As such, it pertained to what thesis, the ruling classes of the thesis state and hardly at all affected the prompts school seniors commoner on the street. [] Finally, there is the issue of the worship of Augustus. The imperial cult evolved gradually over many centuries, and it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in the eastern Mediterranean.
In the East, then, the staples thesis worship of depression Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium. Augustus, reticent in staples this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of what thesis statement Rome. He probably had an eye on Caesar's fate in staples so acting. The situation in the West, however, was more difficult. In Rome itself there could be no question of Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against the grain of the Principate. Analysis Essay? In any case, he was already the son of a god and thesis, the revered one (Augustus). A compromise solution appears to have been to have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. In Italy and for high, out in the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and two major cult centers were established at Lugdunum in Gaul and Cologne on the Rhine with altars at each place to Rome and Augustus, maintained by officials drawn from the thesis local elite. In communities all across the West, in fact, altars and temples to book, Rome and Augustus and to Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by locals. Such cult centers therefore acted not only to staples thesis, promote unity in the previously barbarous western provinces and to direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the assimilation of local populations into a Roman way of life. []
The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. This is the era of some of Rome's most famous and influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus in poetry, and Livy in is a mini thesis prose. Vergil, in particular, crafted a new national epic for the Romans in the Aeneid , which quickly came to replace Ennius's Annales as the poem every schoolchild learned by heart. This great flowering of literary activity was generated by the development of literary circles of patronage, which had been mostly in abeyance since the second century BC. The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of his day was C. Staples Thesis? Maecenas, a close associate of Augustus from the very beginning but one who never played an active role in politics (in contrast to Agrippa). Something of a bon vivant , he actively supported the careers of Vergil and Horace, for instance, until his death in i need with 8 BC.
Another circle formed around M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the careers of Tibullus and Ovid. For the historian the most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the degree to which the political and thesis, cultural sentiments expressed by these writers were officially directed, and so in effect provided propaganda for the Augustan regime. When all the evidence is weighed, there can be no question of a state-controlled literature (on the model of process analysis essay media in modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the top to express the correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and relief on the part of the staples patrons and writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and stability to public affairs. In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics can reflect the hope Augustus brought for a restoration of peace to the Italian countryside, while the Republican sentiments of Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian. The point is that both authors flourished under the regime. [] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of pic microcontroller thesis evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the staples thesis bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of prompts for high school seniors Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum ). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on staples thesis two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of simple itself. [] In looking back on staples thesis the reign of Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate.
Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in i need with depression the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and staples, his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and process rubric, re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of staples thesis a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in for high the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for thesis, the next two centuries under the system he initiated. Photography Help? His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of 26 June, AD 4 and its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56.
Bleicken, J., Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat: Zum Charakter des Zweiten Triumvirats (Göttingen, 1990). ________. Augustus (Berlin, 1998). Bradley, K.R., Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1987). Braund, D., Augustus to staples, Nero: A Sourcebook on Roman History 31 BC - AD 68 (London, 1985). Carter, J. M., The Battle of Actium: The Rise and Triumph of Augustus Caesar (New York, 1970).
Conlin, D.A., The Artists of the Ara Pacis (Chapel Hill, 1997). Corbett, J.H., The Succession Policy of Augustus, Latomus 33 (1974): 87-97. Crook, J., Consilium Principis: Imperial Councils and Counsellors from Augustus to Diocletian (Cambridge, 1955). Demougin, S., L'Ordre equestre sous les Julio-Claudiens (Rome, 1988). Durry, M., Les Cohortes Prétoriennes (Paris, 1938). Eck, W., Die Verwaltung des römischen Reiches in process essay rubric der hohen Kaiserzeit , 2 volumes (Basel, 1995). W. Staples? Eck, The Age of essay seniors Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell's, 2003) Eder, W., Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 71-122. Fishwick, D., The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987).
Galinsky, K., Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction (Princeton, 1996). Gowing, A.M. The Triumviral Narratives of Appian and Cassius Dio (Ann Arbor, 1992). Gray, E.W., The Imperium of M. Agrippa, ZPE 6 (1970): 227-38. Gruen, E. S., The Imperial Policy of Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 395-416 (expanded on in his entry in CAH vol. Thesis? 10) Gurval, R.A., Actium and simple, Augustus: The Politics and Emotions of Civil War (Ann Arbor, 1995). Hadas, M., Sextus Pompey (New York, 1930; reprint, 1966). Issac, B., The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East , revised edition (Oxford, 1992). Jameson, S., Augustus and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 24 (1975): 287-314.
Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik, eine Ausstellung im Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 7. Thesis? Juni-14. August 1988 . (Mainz, 1988) . Keppie, L., Colonisation and Veteran Settlement in Italy, 47-14 BC (London, 1983). ________. The Making of the pic microcontroller Roman Army: From Republic to Empire , updated edition (Norman, 1998). Kienast, D., Augustus: Prinzeps und Monarch (Darmstadt, 1982). ________. Römische Kaisertabelle , 2nd edition (Darmstadt, 1996). Kolb, F., Zur Statussymbolik im antiken Rom, Chiron 7 (1977): 239-59.
Lacey, W.K., Augustus and staples thesis, the Principate: The Evolution of the process System (Liverpool, 1996). Lanza, C., Auctoritas Principis (Milan, 1996). Levick, B., Drusus Caesar and the Adoptions of staples AD 4, Latomus 25 (1966): 227-44. ________. Abdication and book reports, Agrippa Postumus, Historia 21 (1972): 674-97.
________. Julians and Claudians, Greece and Rome 22 (1975): 29-38. Lintott, A., Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration (London, 1993). Jones, A.H.M. Augustus (London, 1970) Magdelain, A., Auctoritas Principis (Paris, 1947). Mette-Dittman, A., Die Ehegesetze des Augustus: Eine Untersuchung im Rahmen der Gesellshaftspolitik des Prinzeps (Stuttgart, 1991). Millar, F., The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces, JRS 56 (1966): 156-66. ________.
Triumvirate and Principate, JRS 63 (1973): 50-67. ________. The Emperor in the Roman World (London, 1977). ________. The Roman Empire and its Neighbours , 2nd edition (London, 1981). Millar, F. and E. Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects (Oxford, 1984). Ostrow, S.E., The Augustales in the Augustan Scheme, in Raaflaub and Toher, 364-78. Pollini, J., Man or God: Divine Assimilation and Imitation in the Late Republic and Early Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 334-63.
Prince, S.R.F., Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in thesis Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) Raaflaub, K., and L. J. Samons II, Opposition to Augustus, in is a mini Raaflaub and Toher, 417-54. ________. and M. Toher (eds.), Between Republic and thesis, Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and his Principate (Berkeley, 1990). Ramage, E.S., The Nature and Purpose of Augustus's Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987). Rawson, E., Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis, PBSR 55 (1987): 83-114 (reprinted in her Roman Culture and Society: Collected Papers [Oxford, 1991], 508-45). Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio and the Augustan Settlement (Warminster, 1990).
Reinhold, M., Marcus Agrippa: A Biography (Rome, 1965). Roddaz, J.-M., Marcus Agrippa (Rome, 1984). Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in J.D. Creighton and R.J.A.
Wilson (eds), Roman Germany: Studies in Cultural Interaction (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), 125-59. Shotter, D.C., Augustus Caesar (London, 1991) Simon, E., Augustus: Kunst und Leben in simple book reports Rom um die Zeitenwende (Munich 1986). Southern, P., Augustus (London, 1998). Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. ed. (Oxford, 1952). ________. History in Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________. The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986).
Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of staples Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. R., The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the a level coursework Roman Empire: A Social and Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994). Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from staples thesis Favor'? Augustan Literary Patronage, in Raaflaub and Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of Images in the Age of process essay Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the notes, items in the bibliography are referred to in abbreviated form) [] The chief ancient sources for the life of Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. Civ . books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and some letters; Nicolaus of Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the edition by P.A.
Brunt and J.M. Moore [Oxford, 1967]). Fragments of the staples biography of prompts school Augustus by Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. ca. 20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is widely accepted as preserving elements of Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the thesis years down to simple reports, 25 BC; Suet. Aug . Staples Thesis? 1-18 appears also to be based on thesis this autobiography). The surviving text of staples Nicolaus, however, only treats Octavian's life down to the raising of his private legions in 44 BC (for editions with English translations and notes, see J. Bellemore, Nicolaus of school seniors Damascus: Life of Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M.
Hall, Nicolaus of staples thesis Damascus: Life of Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]). There are also innumerable references to him in other ancient literary works and inscriptions, and large quantities of iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). The number of modern accounts is also formidable, with useful and concise introductions to be found in Shotter, Augustus Caesar and Jones, Augustus . More thorough and specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and Toher, Between Republic and Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. History in Ovid . In the interests of conciseness, the notes emphasize the ancient evidence; most of the essay for high school secondary studies just cited tackle the issues addressed in this article. [] The fall of the Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. Crawford and M. Beard, Rome in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. Millar, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. Thesis? Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom. Rev . [] The lack of popular enthusiasm for Caesar's naked autocracy is essay prompts, reflected in a famous incident during the Lupercalia (15 February) in 44 BC. Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in front of the crowd.
The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the presence of a pro-Caesar claque in their midst. Only when Caesar refused the crown did the crowd cheer wildly. Thesis? See Dio 44.11-12; App. B. Civ . 2.109; Plut. Caes . 61-62. Suet.
Caes . 79.2 only pic microcontroller alludes to the incident. [] Ancient accounts of Augustus's birth and early life are seriously marred by fantastical prophesies of future greatness, so that the staples historical reality is hard to weed out. He seems, however, to seniors, have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years. See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. Aug . 1-8; Nic. Aug . 2-5; Tac. Dial . 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the only contemporary evidence for Augustus's early career, and are indispensable for that, but provide little information on thesis his early life. Simple Book Reports? A note on names: Augustus was born C. Octavius, became C. Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in modern sources) in 44 BC, and was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in 27 BC. Following standard practice, I shall refer to him by his appropriate name in each period.
[] Association with Caesar: Nic. Aug . 7-12. Aftermath of thesis murder: App. B. Reports? Civ . 3.9-11. Octavian seems to have arrived in Italy in early April or late March: Cicero, in a letter from Astura dated 11 April, inquired of Atticus how it went ( Att . 14.5.3 = SB 359). Thesis? Note that the influential Caesarian L. Munatius Plancus had taken note of the young Octavius prior to Caesar's murder, so the young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by process essay, the elite; see Cic. Fam . 10.24.5.
[] For ancient narratives of the thesis events here described, see App. B. Civ . 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. Aug . 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . 8.3-12) presents a conflated and rather confused account. Augustus's own summary of this phase of his career ( RG 1.1) is restricted to the simple and tendentious assertion he successfully championed the liberty of the republic when it was oppressed by the tyranny of a faction. [] Technically, however, the adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. That is why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at Puteoli on 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366); the Liberator M. Junius Brutus also refers to Octavian as Octavius (Cic. Ad Brut . 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and July 43 BC). In contrast, L. Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. Fam . 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). The political importance of the name was beyond doubt to contemporaries. [] Cicero first met Octavian in Naples on 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in the city ( Att . 14.10.3 = SB 364).
A few days later, on 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to the Liberators ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366). [] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to Octavius, at least initially: on 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to Atticus ( Att . 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [] Appian ( B. Essay? Civ . 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into both their mouths: Octavian asks for his inheritance, Antony refuses by claiming the money is tied up in staples thesis litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the latter's deference and simple, failure to demand his inheritance. Regardless of the details, in both accounts the meeting was not successful. [] Cicero, in letters to Atticus dated 11 and 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to Octavian addressing a contio in Rome and staples, preparing to give games (see Dio 45.6.4). C. Book Reports? Matius, an obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to the games at thesis, Octavian's request (Cic. Fam . Essay For High School Seniors? 11.28.6). [] See App.
B. Civ . 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [] All of this took place in October and November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . 12.23.2). See also App. B. Staples Thesis? Civ . 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [] Cicero, however, had been from the outset doubtful about Octavian's nature and intentions; see Att . Thesis? 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC). Needless to staples thesis, say, it was also to the political benefit of the Liberators and their supporters (Cicero among them) to keep the Caesarian leadership quarrelling. [] Cicero's speeches against Antony, called the i need with depression Philippics , have survived. In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the senate. See also Cic. Fam . 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [] App. B. Civ . 3.49-73; Cic.
Fam . 11.8.2 (Cicero to Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from thesis Ser. Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from C. Mini Thesis? Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic. Phil . 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. Staples? Cicero's quip, reported back to him by essay prompts for high school, Decimus Brutus in a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . 11.20.1) was that the staples thesis youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and destroy). [] App.
B. Civ . 3.74-95; Cic. Thesis? Fam . 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to and from Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC). Octavian's election to the consulship took place on 19 August (as attested in the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for the consulship appears to have begun in June (Cic. Ad Brut . 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. On Cassius and Brutus in the East, see App. B. Civ . 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [] Overtures to Antony: App.
B. Civ . Staples? 3.80-81. Meeting and formation of the triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the meeting at Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Passage of the lex Titia : App. B. Pic Microcontroller? Civ . 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. The terminal date of the triumvirate is unequivocally established by the Fasti Colotiani . On the legalities of the Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [] See App. B. Civ . 4.8-9 (text of proclamation) and 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13.
Death of Cicero: App. B. Civ . 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. Cic. 46-49. Plutarch ( Cic . 49.5) preserves the moving anecdote of Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by his compliance in staples thesis Cicero's murder. When visiting one of his grandsons, the fearful child attempted to conceal the i need book of Cicero he was reading. Staples Thesis? Augustus took the is a book, read it for some time, and gave it back to the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . 21), Suetonius ( Aug . 27.1), and Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in blaming the proscriptions mainly on Antony (and Lepidus), the former public enemies out for revenge; there has to be a suspicion of pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. (Perhaps the later tradition of Octavian's reluctance stems from apologia in Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the dead is given by Appian ( B. Civ . Staples Thesis? 4.5) as 300 senators and 2,000 Knights. Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in arguing forcefully that the proscriptions were motivated by the mentality of the political purge, not financial need. [] Africa: App.
B. What Is A Statement? Civ . 4.53-56. Campaign of Philippi: App. B. Civ . Staples? 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Octavian's limited role in the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Re-alignment of the triumviral provinces: App. B. Civ . 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to be a province and was finally integrated into Italia.) [] On the depradations of the soldiers in Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. Simple Book? On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69. On the thesis methods and impact of veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. The eighteen towns: App. B. Civ . 4.3 (Appian says the towns were remarkable for their wealth and fine lands and houses).
It should be noted that where the territory of book reports a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for the requirements of thesis settlement, the essay prompts school seniors territory of neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to the point of total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by thesis, the settlement at Beneventum). Thus, many more than the eighteen towns mentioned by Appian were affected by the settlement process. [] On the Perusine War, see App. B. Civ . 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . Antony's complicity: App. B. Civ . 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. I Need Help With? Execution of councilors: App. B. Civ . 5.48; Dio 48.14.3.
Acquisition of Gaul: App. B. Civ . Thesis? 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [] Threatened war and Pact of i need help with Brundisium: App. B. Staples? Civ. 5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [] Career of Sextus: App. A Level Coursework? B. Civ . 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. Thesis? Date of appointment of Sextus to the prefecture of the fleet: Cic.
Phil . 13.13. Sextus's pact with Antony: App. B. Civ . Process? 5.56. Treaty of Misenum/Puteoli: App. B. Civ . 5.67-74 (Appian places the meeting at Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38. Thesis? The scene at the latter was almost comical (as described by prompts for high seniors, Appian): Antony and Octavian sat on staples thesis a platform built over pic microcontroller thesis the sea close to the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind.
A narrow strip of water separated the two platforms. Negotiations were then shouted across the sea until agreement was reached. On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . In Syme's view ( Rom. Thesis? Rev ., 221), the Peace of Puteoli enlarged the Triumvirate to include a fourth partner, which is something of an overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [] Collapse of Misenum/Puteoli agreement and war: App. B. Civ . 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Treaty of Tarentum and renewal of triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. Pic Microcontroller? The issue of the duration of the second period of the triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from 1 January, 37 BC (to end on 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the end of staples thesis 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on the side of the retroactive view: see the excellent summary in Benario, Octavian's Status. See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. A Level Coursework Help? Eder, Augustus and the Power of staples Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in the considerations of the time than the reports observable reality of the thesis triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in the actual operation of its power; see below, n. 29.
On the growth of Octavian's party at this time, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 227-42. [] Final campaign against Sextus: App. B. Civ . 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18. Lepidus: App.
B. Civ . 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Lepidus's rash actions were, in Syme's words, sparked by a strange delusion ( Rom. Pic Microcontroller? Rev ., 232). These events in Sicily were capped by unrest among the legions there, with the soldiers demanding rewards for staples, service. Octavian discharged 20,000 of them on the spot and promised the rest bounties after campaigns in what mini thesis statement Illyricum; see Appian and Dio locc. citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [] One of the honors allegedly given to staples, Octavian after Naulochus, late in a level photography 36 BC, was the thesis tribunician power (App. B. Civ . 5.132). However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from 23 BC, which settles the photography argument decisively: he did not get it in 36 BC. Dio is staples thesis, probably correct (49.15.6) in saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Refusal of the pontificate: App.
B. Process Essay? Civ . 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. Aug . 31.1. Burning of the records: App. B. Civ . 3.132. [] Antony's wars in the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. Ant . 37-52. Octavian in Illyricum: App.
Ill . 12-28. Antony's behavior and staples thesis, the Donations of Alexandria (much of it no doubt drawn from pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut. Ant . 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4. Rising tensions: Plut.
Ant . 54-55. Thesis? Agrippa's aedileship and munificence instigated by Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Aug . 29.4-5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4 (munificence). [] On the thesis date of the expiration of the triumviral powers, see above n. I Need Help? 25. It is my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to contemporary paradigms of legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the importance of staples thesis legalities in establishing the powers of Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and appearance were just as important, if not more so. Certainly traditional procedures and what mini statement, practices were used during the staples Republic to legitimate magisterial authority, but many of essay rubric these niceties had fallen by the wayside in the years since Pompey and Caesar. Thesis? Time and again in the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and simple book reports, privileges had been voted to thesis, generals in recognition of their de facto supremacy. So too now, with Octavian. Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed.
No one, however, not even the Antonian consuls for 32 BC, C. Sosius and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to point that out publicly; although the content of Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on the expiration of the triumviral powers is thesis, unlikely, since the lapse applied to Antony as well. Staples Thesis? The reality of Octavian's pre-eminence in the West overshadowed the strict legalities of his position. On ritual, ceremony, and appearance in Republican magistracy, see D.J. Analysis Essay? Gargola, Lands, Laws and Gods: Magistrates and staples thesis, Ceremony in the Regulation of mini statement Public Lands in Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. 16-24; R. Thesis? Stewart, Public Office in Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998).
The 1 January meeting of the senate and thesis, aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7. Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. Ant . 58.3-4. Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the oath is unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . 17.2. Augustus himself ( RG , loc. cit.) states that the staples thesis oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and a level coursework help, Suetonius, locc. citt.). Syme ( Rom.
Rev ., 284) was convinced the oath came before the denunciation of Antony in the senate and the declaration of war and, in a rousing phrase, believed the oath riveted the shackles of thesis [Italy's] servitude. [] Campaign at Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. Help With? Ant . Staples Thesis? 61-68.3; Vell. Pat. 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of Actium . The forces on each side were monumental: about 30 legions apiece, and Antony had 500 warships to pic microcontroller, Octavian's 250 (Plut. Thesis? Ant . Prompts For High School Seniors? 61). For the later reception of the Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and Augustus . [] Aftermath of Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut. Ant . Staples? 68.4-86. Date of the fall of Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and Amiterini ( InscrIt . 13.2.107 and 13.2.185).
Cleopatra, according to process analysis essay rubric, Plutarch ( Ant . 78-86.3), was taken alive by Octavian, who planned to display her at his triumph. But she had an asp smuggled into a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of figs. (The asp bit her on the arm, not the breast, according to Plutarch [ Ant . 86.1-3] and Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of Lepidus is a shadowy affair: Vell. Pat. 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet. Aug . 19.1. [] Settling affairs in the East: Dio 51.18. Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. Wealth of Egypt used for settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8.
Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9. By universal consent I was in staples thesis complete control of affairs: RG 34.1. On 11 January, 29 BC the doors of the Temple of Janus in Rome were closed, symbolizing that the entire Roman world was at peace (though Dio is thesis, quick to point out the various wars still in progress in diverse locales): it had only happened twice before in all of Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). Thesis? Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on those who witnessed or heard about it and prompts, reinforced the staples notion of Octavian as the bringer of peace. Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [] None of this is meant to suggest that the system later called the Principate was, in pic microcontroller thesis its entirety, planned out and effected according to a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in the run up to the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to his position and acted accordingly. That attitude, in fact, had marked his behavior from the very outset of his career and was encapsulated in his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and Whatever is done well enough is done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for both, Suet. Aug . 25.4).
These are the mottoes of a patient and careful planner. Nevertheless, that the Principate emerged piecemeal over almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. Salmon in his seminal article, The Evolution of Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and the Principate . Need for staples thesis, a rector : Cic. Rep . 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. As consul in 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the illegal acts of the triumvirate, effectively wiping the slate clean in a level coursework that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and exemplary (Dio 53.1-2). A new beginning was being heralded, support for it organized, and its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the thesis events of 28 and book reports, 27 BC as part of a single process of transferring the republic from thesis my power to the dominion of the senate and people of process essay rubric Rome ( RG 34.1). [] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet.
Aug . Staples? 28.1; Vell. 2.89. Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Division of provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces. Debate over legal status of Octavian: Southern, 111-13. Imperium proconsulare is more likely to have been granted for ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by virtue of his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for the following ten years? On the settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom. Rev . I Need? 313-30. [] Travels of Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. Illness and recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor.
Epist . 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet. Aug. 81.1. Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the event to staples, 22 BC, so breaking the direct link between it and the Settlement of process analysis rubric 23); Vell. Pat. 2.91.2; the staples thesis details are perceptively discussed by Raaflaub and Samons, Opposition to Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69. Pic Microcontroller Thesis? Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. Aug . 28.1. For the Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. 48.
[] Refusal of dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Staples Thesis? Pat. 2.89.5; Suet. Aug . 52. A Level Photography Coursework? Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. Privileges of 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet. Aug . 27.5. Father of the Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Aug . Thesis? 58. Priesthoods: RG 7.3.
Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. Off . 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is now Galinsky, 10-41. Dio (55.34.2) reports that in AD 8, when he had become too infirm to attend elections in person, Augustus would post the names of the what is a mini thesis statement candidates for office he favored; it's hard to thesis, imagine such candidates failing. Galinsky (42-79) surveys the pic microcontroller thesis establishment of the Principate with emphasis on the terminology of staples power Augustus uses to describe it. [] Continuity of Principate: Suet.
Aug . 28.1-2. [] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in 39 BC, he had been married to Clodia, stepdaughter of reports Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from 43-41 BC; and then to Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from 40-39 BC. Appearance at triumph: Suet. Staples Thesis? Tib . 6.4. Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. Successor in power: Vell. Pat. Pic Microcontroller? 2.93.1. Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet.
Aug . 28.1. Death and burial of Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4. Staples Thesis? Livia 's rumored hand in his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is entirely unproven; that summer in Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and death by illness was widespread (Dio loc. cit.). Marcellus was not adopted by i need, Augustus: the staples RG (21.1) refers to him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [] Octavius in Caesar's triumph: see n. 5. Octavius granted right of standing early: App.
B. Civ . 3.51. [] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. Ann . 14.53.3; Suet. A Level Help? Aug . Staples Thesis? 66.3, Tib . 10.3. Agrippa's power in the east: Gray, Imperium of M. Agrippa.
Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. Prompts School? Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. Aug . 63.1. Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC). [] Coins: RIC nos. 407, 408, 414. Gaius and staples thesis, Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac.
Ann . 1.3. Tiberius and Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . As to the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in Southern, 162, 168; and B. Levick, Tiberius the Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the regent would step down when required to do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for depriving an is a mini thesis incumbent regent or princeps of his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in office, what makes him a regent and staples thesis, not an emperor? The paired accession idea is essay prompts for high school seniors, no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to staples thesis, the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of attempting to share supreme power (see Suet. Aug . 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of that. As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the second century and beyond, when the Principate was well established, and most were unsuccessful. Pic Microcontroller? That Augustus was blind to the danger of staples thesis presenting two equally qualified and favored candidates to the armed forces is all but inconceivable. [] Death of a level help Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. Marriage of Tiberius and Julia: Dio 54.31.2.
For more detailed discussion of these events with reference to the ancient material involved, see the DIR's Tiberius , C. and L. Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38. Germanicus, the son of Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of staples a Julian heir in the fourth generation. [] Fall of Julia the Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. Pic Microcontroller? Aug . 65.1, Tib . 11.4; Tac. Ann . 1.53.1; Vell. Pat. 2.100.2-5. For the thesis political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and a level photography coursework, Claudians. Fall of Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet. Thesis? Aug . 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and Agrippa Postumus.
Fall of Julia the pic microcontroller Younger: Suet. Aug . 19.1, 65.1. [] For a concise account of the Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16. On the praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. 65-89. [] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. cit. in n. 44. On the Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. For an overview of Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy. On the bigger question of frontiers and imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of Empire , esp. Staples Thesis? 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire , esp. Coursework? 10-98 (who includes discussion of ancient concepts of space and cartography).
On the reactive nature of staples ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and its Neighbours , esp. 52-80. For the stations of the legions on Augustus's death, see n. Simple Reports? 48. [] On the Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of spolia opima were to A. Cornelius Cossus in the late fifth century BC and staples, M. Claudius Marcellus in 222 BC). On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1.
The inscription ( ILS 8995) is worth quoting: C. Cornelius Gallus, son of Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the first Prefect of Alexandria and of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by Caesar, son of a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in pitched battles during the Theban revolt, within 15 days, in which he defeated the enemy; he took by assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and Opheium) and captured the leaders of their revolts; he led an army beyond the cataphract of the Nile, into pic microcontroller which region arms had not previously been borne either by thesis, the Roman people or by the kings of Egypt; he took Thebes, the shared fear of process all the staples kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the Ethiopian king at Philae and received that king into his protection; he appointed a ruler over the Ethiopian region of Triacontaschoenus. He [Gallus] gave and dedicated this monument to the ancestral gods and the Nile, his helper. Is A Thesis Statement? A useful overview of thesis both incidents is provided by prompts for high seniors, Southern (115-17). Thesis? Augustus arrogated for himself victories won by his generals: the successes of analysis essay rubric Tiberius and Drusus on the Rhine and Danube in 12 and 11 BC caused him to add two imperatorial acclamations to staples, his titles; Tiberius and Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the Bosporus). [] For a useful overview of this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28. On the consilium , instituted between 27 and book reports, 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at 53.21.6); Suet. Aug . 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . On the role of the staples imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of Imperial Rome , esp.
Part Three: Functions. On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. Newly-created positions: Suet. Aug . 37. On the equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only i need with depression Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of gratitude toward the imperial regime on the part of staples his class as a whole. I Need Help With? Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. The disposition of the empire's territories on Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of Governor Legions. Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat. Staples? Aug. (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. Aug. Simple Book Reports? (ex-consul) 3.
Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Thesis? Aug. (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat. Pic Microcontroller? Aug. (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the staples area west of the what thesis Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat.
Aug. (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and 4) (Upper and Lower) Cottian Imperial equest. pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. pref. - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. pref. - Noricum Imperial equest. pref. - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Pannonia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Moesia Imperial legat.
Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Aug. Staples Thesis? (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 4. Judaea Imperial equest. Help Depression? pref. - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. pref. 2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro staples thesis legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of Cyrenaeca. [] For a concise overview of Augustus's arrangement and administration of the provinces, see Jones, 94-109. See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. In the regions of Augustus's military activity, of course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on thesis the comment of Bato, leader of the Pannonian revolt of AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for the war, since you send as guardians of your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves.
Sulla in the East: Plut. Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from Asian communities). Caesar in Spain and Gaul: Plut. Staples? Caes . Reports? 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4. On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of staples thesis Images . [] There remains to be written a comprehensive account of Augustus's legislation and social programmes; most of the standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of is a mini chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52).
On the staples marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . On the status symbols of the equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. A good example of his stiffening of the social hierarchy was the regulation of seating arrangements at spectacles by social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Aug . Prompts School Seniors? 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. Legislation on manumission and freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and Masters , 84-95. Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Aug . 68-71. [] On the imperial cult, see the still classic study of Taylor, Divinity . For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the West) and Price, Rituals and Power (on the East). On the growth of the cult in Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. On the contemporary worship of Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor. Epist . 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . 3.8.13.
[] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Aug . 28.3. Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. Augustus's building activity and his encouragement of others to munificence: Suet. Aug . Thesis? 28.2-29.5; Vell. Book? Pat. 2.89.4. Staples Thesis? A succinct survey of the Augustan building programme in Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44.
On the much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55. For a survey of the varied artistic achievements of the period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [] On the analysis essay rubric literature of the period, consult any standard history of Latin literature (e.g., the staples thesis Cambridge History of Classical Literature , vol. What Is A Mini? 2, ed. E.J. Kenney, ); for a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87.
On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? (note also the individual chapters in Raaflaub and Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid). Staples Thesis? For the definitive presentation of the state-controlled model of Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 459-75. For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. 229-34). My Pompeian: Tac. Ann . 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in the context of the trial of a later historian, A. Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in AD 25 for praising Brutus and Cassius in his history). [] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Tiberius's position: Suet.
Tib . 21.1; Vell. Pat. 2.121.1. Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. A Level Photography? Death and burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. Aug . 98-101. Will: Dio 56.32; Suet. Aug . 101.4. [] Original position of the RG : RG pr.; Suet. Aug . 101.4. ). Staples? For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. Fagan. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and essay, this copyright notice, remain intact.
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