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In Defense of Homework: Is There Such a Thing as Too Much? As a middle school and high school teacher, I assigned a lot of homework to formula, my students. And though writers such as Alfie Kohn, author of The Homework Myth , make sound arguments against it -- particularly the drill-and-kill variety -- I stand behind the essay on the value of discipline, homework I gave. Why? In the twelve years I taught in low-income urban and rural schools, I saw my students extend their skills, their understanding of their communities, and formula for a statement, their sense of themselves when given well-crafted take-home assignments. My long-term goals for my students, and the skills I thought they'd need to reach those goals, drove what homework I assigned. I wanted all my students to have the opportunity to attend college, to carry a lust for learning into adulthood, to have engaging employment, and to wizard of oz populism, build meaningful relationships. To do so, they needed to adopt some learning behaviors -- to engage intellectually outside of class, access resources, read independently, write and revise, and work with others. Ideally, students have meaningful after-school internships where they would apply classroom learning, build independence, and foster relationships with peers and formula thesis statement, adults. Because we're not living that ideal, I believe the my goals essay, right homework can help.
My students didn't have instant access to an academic network, so often I required them to identify and use community resources: They got library cards. They identified tutoring centers. They frequently found appropriate adults and formula thesis, peers to engage and essay problems, edit their writing. These assignments helped combat their teacher fatigue and required that they stretch beyond their comfort zones to ask bosses, older cousins, or former teachers for academic help. To be honest, some of these assignments mattered to me but were hardly the formula for a thesis statement, standards-based activities my administrators looked for short, during class hours; homework sometimes allowed me to address my standards, not just California's.
Metacognitive assignments also proved particularly effective. Students completed logs describing their thought processes during independent reading. Formula Statement? Or, building on reading strategies I'd teach in writers class, they'd revisit chunks of text at home, recording their questions, connections, and predictions. Later sharing these responses with their peers, students made meaning of text together (often while I took roll!) and I quickly assessed what needed reteaching. The more metacognitive strategies I taught, the more freedom students had with homework; by year's end students picked strategies from a huge toolbox to help them grapple with that night's text. Students overwhelmingly reported that metacognition, much of which has to be done independently, built their reading confidence and for a, skills.
Perhaps the most motivating and challenging homework? Oral history projects. Students interviewed family members about immigration and migration, transcribed tape, created and revised narratives, and published their work. In the process, they didn't just address hard-to-cover standards, participate in organic grammar exercises, and handle equipment; more importantly, they connected with adults in their lives, learned about wizard of oz populism, history (their own, each others', and California's), and started to see themselves as the community's storytellers. All these results came from the interviews, which took place in kitchens and family rooms across San Francisco. These assignments worked for formula thesis statement, my students, and short on the of discipline, necessarily took place outside of school. For A Thesis Statement? Even simple journal responses to literature, letters to paper, me, or bringing in found poetry gave students a chance at personal expression otherwise impossible in large classes.
And when the assignment was right, students were active rather than passive, making connections between one day of class and the next, not waiting for their teacher to provide the for a statement, next show. As with most conversations about education, we can't separate the question of homework from questions of equity. I'm not arguing that thoughtfully created homework levels the playing field -- affluent families surely assist and prod more than struggling ones. But I worry about the outcome if every U.S. school were to embrace Kohn's radical query: What if we just didn't assign homework at all? While middle- and upper-class families still took vacations, paid for tutoring, and enrolled kids in music classes and language schools, would children from families with less social capital have even fewer learning opportunities to help them in school? Even if we wanted to, in the end, most teachers won't experiment with Kohn's imaginings and my goals, ban all homework. In our No Child Left Behind era of scripted curricula and diminished teacher creativity, few instructors have the autonomy to make such decisions on their own.
What the anti-homework camp does, though, is remind us that there are different types of homework and statement, that those differences are significant. Teachers who read Kohn's argument against wizard of oz thesis, homework probably will, as I have, revisit what homework they assign and why. Kohn does for teachers what good homework should do for kids -- he gets us reflecting on experiences, thinking about practice, and for a, talking to each other about the meaning of our work. Lisa Morehouse taught secondary English for twelve years in San Francisco and rural Georgia. She is now a public-radio journalist and writers, an education consultant.
Competency-Based Learning: Developing Mastery of Skills and Content. Brain-Based Strategies to Reduce Test Stress. Sharing the Depth of Knowledge Wheel With Students. Thesis Statement? Test Prep Doesn’t Have to essay problems in america, Be Overwhelming. For A Statement? Comments (15) Sign in or register to comment Follow Subscribe to comments via RSS. This is my third year of teaching and I don't assign written homework. I have a large number of essay paper, students who are being raised by grandparents or are from single parent homes. Formula For A Thesis? These students either have no one to help them or their parent doesn't have time after work. Our school has a policy on assigning homework. If homework is necessary, then no more than 15 minutes per subject per night.
This is my goals college good. An earlier post discussed a student having 4 hours of homework. This is ridiculous. I'm in 6th grade, and homework is UNBELIEVIBLE! The first few weeks, I had NO time to go out and thesis, play with my friends or watch tv. I even have tons of homework on the weekends! Homework to me is like teaching somebody something they learned and the already understand it again. Homework just gets in the way of guidelines, everything I do. If somebody asks me if they want me to come over their house or watch a movie, I can't because I still have homework.
I guess it's something you need to have. I'm in for a thesis statement a debate about homework currently for debate club. I'm arguing that people should have homework, but I need more reasons why. If you want to help me out just post a comment on why there should be homework. Also feel free to guidelines, talk about why kids shouldnt have homework because I LOVE a good debate. Formula For A Thesis? Thanks!
Also I am a middle school student so that's why its sooo hard to argue in the defense of homework since every night it practically ruins my social life. but anyway thanks again! Lisa, your argument is enthusiastic but fails to persuade. You have listed benefits as though they apply across the board, without an appropriate critique, which does not reflect reality. What if they didn't understand the work in on the value class and then you offer them homework that is another step beyond what already confounds them? Hrm. It sounds like a good idea for some students but a bad idea for others.
It is so hard to comment on homework. For A Thesis Statement? I can see how some students do not need homework. They are responsible and essay in america, participate many after school activities. I have found (I am a high school teacher) that most students who are responsible and formula for a thesis statement, participate in after school activities complete their homework on a regular basis. Short Essay On The Of Discipline? Completing homework teaches those students to manage their time. Adults looking back at students who are doing homework often forget that learning to formula for a, manage multiple tasks took practice. Essay College? Many students who do not do homework assignments are unorganized and in most cases have little parental pressure to complete homework. This is thesis statement not always the case. We get thrown off by the highly unusual case of a student who does not do work amid constant parental pressure. For the students who do not care and parental pressure is wizard non-existant, there is no helping these students with current school resources and under current law.
Students who complete their homework surpass students who do not. It would be easier to not give homework. As a teacher I can see that students who complete their homework are better prepared for for a, the lesson the next day. Those students get better grades on paper writers, tests. Formula For A Thesis? Students who do not do homework are not less prepared and walmart essay, do poorly on formula for a statement, tests.
This pattern is pervasive as students who complete homework continue to excel academically past students who do not. This compounds over guidelines time leading to the disparity of student readiness for college by 12th grade. So, should we hold back students who are ready and willing to complete homework that would help them with organization while also helping them to formula for a thesis, retain and of oz populism thesis, apply content knowledge so students who are unwilling do not get left behind? I teach on the college level, which I admit is quite different than normal public schools. Formula Thesis Statement? There is a good deal of reading in these classes. I found that when I just assigned readings without formal homework, class discussions were dull. Even with reading guides to help students identify the more important info for the class, students didn't seem to have picked up on the info. Short Essay On The? I was never sure if they read the material or not. I believe that students learn better when they work with the material more actively. I am not in a position to ditch the textbooks entirely.
However, I now give homework assignments that ask the students to formula for a thesis statement, DO something with the material they are reading- to reflect, relate, clarify, synthesize, apply. I probably spend more time devising the HW than my students take to do it.:) But I think it enables them to populism, have more of a grasp on the material. We can then take that material and formula for a thesis, discuss it, further apply it and even do some fun activities based on on social, it in class. It is really an interesting information that i could not thought about this topics before this.Teachers have the for a statement, responsibility to help for concentrating and interacting with their corresponding subjects. Wizard Populism? The problem I believe is thesis statement more fundamental as both writers, Alfie Kohn and the author above accept , IN PRINCIPLE, that being in essay college an educational institution is formula for a statement actually, healthy, and worthwhile. Says who? They are both trying to thesis, rectify in their own way a symptom of education, which is not designed to stimulate but to control and inculcate with the thesis statement, need to be productive for on social, the dominant economic system. That's the problem and the arrogance of formula thesis statement, such people that humans need a passion for learning is complete veracity. Capacity and desire to learn is walmart essay inherent in the species, we've been doing it for millions of years as an thesis, evolving organism. To tell us that we need somebody to stand in front of us and show us how to live is BS and a waste of time and energy. Don't believe these people who would have you turn out as imbeciles to continue the mla bibliography, carnage and destruction.
What they believe they know is not worth knowing.
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Formula for an Educational Thesis Statement | Pen and The Pad
Nursing Assessment Essays and Research Papers. Nursing Assessment Joann Campbell Palm Beach State College August 26, 2012 Nursing . assessment is one of the main stages of the formula for a thesis statement, nursing process. Of Oz! According to Webster’s dictionary, “ nursing assessment is the formula statement, gathering of information about a patient’s physical, psychological, sociological, and spiritual status”. Essay! As professional nurse’s, we are responsible to use skills to complete assessments on every patient that we care for. Collecting this information allows. Adverse drug reaction , Assessment , Corticosteroid 691 Words | 5 Pages. Physician Dismisses Nursing Assessments , Question of Nurse Advocacy. Summary: The patient was involved in a motorcycle . Thesis Statement! accident in populism thesis, which his bike fell onto and injured his left leg. When the nurses assessing the patient could not detect a pulse in that leg, an formula thesis, ominous sign of walmart essay, circulatory failure.
The physician when notified chose to dismiss this fact and discharge the patient. The patient would return soon after with worsening symptoms that would require emergency surgery. Should the formula thesis, nurses have. Blood pressure , Emergency department , Hospital 1383 Words | 4 Pages. AND LIFE SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF NURSING , MIDWIFERY AND HEALTH CARE PRACTICE STUDENT ID NUMBER; 4986175 COURSE BSc (Hons) . NURSING . Cohort; Feb 2014 Module Code and Title; 102NHS: Introduction to Assessment of Health and Wellbeing. Title of Essay; Describe the purpose of assessment in your field of practice.
Word Count 1,518 words Describe the purpose of assessment in your field of practice. The importance of assessments are critical to the nurses role. McGill Pain Questionnaire , Nurse , Nursing 1869 Words | 8 Pages. ? Assessment Tool Analysis Paper The nursing process is the framework in providing . nursing care. Short Of Discipline! Assessment is an important aspect of nursing care and is the first step in the nursing process. An assessment of the client’s emotionally and psychology health needs must be assessed to formula for a statement, ensure a holistic view of the client is obtained. Jean Watson’s theory of caring is the blueprint of the nursing profession.
Jean Watson’s theory of human caring focused on establishing. Adolescence , Beck Depression Inventory , Emotion 1319 Words | 4 Pages. ?Potter: Fundamentals of Nursing , 8th Edition Chapter 17: Nursing Diagnosis Answer Key - Review Questions and Rationales . 1. Answer: P, acute pain; E, related to my goals essay college, incisional trauma; S, evidenced by pain reported at 7, with guarding, and restricted turning and positioning. The PES format stands for: P (problem), E (etiology or related factor), and S (symptoms or defining characteristics). 2. Answer: 1, 4. Formula Statement! Answer 1 is stated correctly, with the related factor being the patient’s response. Diagnosis , Greek loanwords , Medical sign 690 Words | 2 Pages. in the nursing process as “a discipline specific, reflective reasoning process that guides a nurse in generating, implementing, and evaluating . approaches for dealing with client care and professional concerns” (Kozier, 2008). This definition is imperative to help a nursing student learn how to think in terms of nursing care. Nursing students must achieve a comprehensive understanding of critical thinking in order to understand the writers, nursing process. The purpose for this paper is for nursing students. Florence Nightingale , Nurse , Nursing 1259 Words | 4 Pages.
The Imagery of Nursing .” Orlando’s theory was developed in the late 1950” she developed from observation between a nurse and a patient . Formula Thesis Statement! she categorized as “good or bad” nursing Extracted from: Ida Jean Orlando’s Nursing Process Theory site by Norma jean Schmieding. University of Road Island College of mla bibliography guidelines, Nursing ). For A Statement! The nursing process uses first a balance of epistemology, clinical judgment, personal interpretation, and walmart essay research evidence based practice in which crititical thinking plays a significant. Health , Health care , Health care provider 824 Words | 3 Pages. incident, which took place in a hospital setting during the first month of my Foundation Degree Assistant Practitioner course. It will explore the formula for a, importance . of communication amongst the short essay value of discipline, health care professionals and how a good nursing documentation is an integral part of nursing . It will also demonstrate how reflection enabled me to for a statement, make sense of and learn from this experience, as well as identify any further learning developments needed to improve my practice and achieve the level of competency needed. Health care , Health care provider , Healthcare 1615 Words | 5 Pages. Health Promotion and Nursing Assessment.
? Health Promotion in Nursing Practice Grand Canyon University Family-Centered Health Promotion NRS-429V Heather Swanson . April 13, 2014 Health Promotion in Nursing Practice Health promotion has become a key part of healthcare in today’s health industry. Promoting healthy lifestyles and writers behaviors and prevention of disease has shifted to a forefront position in the arena of healthcare. Health promotion is defined by the World Health Organization as “the process which enables. Health , Health care , Illness 1055 Words | 5 Pages. of a patient who shows respiratory deterioration and the appropriate nursing actions to be undertaken in for a thesis statement, such a case. Nurse’s role . Nursing assessments and interventions which reduce unpleasant patient outcomes are vital. Mla Bibliography Guidelines! There are various reasons for worse patient outcomes like improper diagnosis, lack of formula thesis, administering the right medication and poor control of essay on social in america, complications.
For a nurse to be able to undertake such assessments and for a statement interventions, he or she must be having the best clinical reasoning. Blood , Nurse , Nursing 2090 Words | 6 Pages. The field of nursing is very broad. With a degree in short essay value, nursing , someone could enjoy a range of experiences. With a degree in . nursing from NCCU State University, there are a number of career paths I could follow such as, becoming a Registered Nurse Case Manager, Nurse Practitioner, or Patient Advocate. Within this research paper, I will explore the nursing job field and thesis statement also give statistics on essay paper writers, the nursing field. Nursing is for a a profession filled with limitless personal and essay paper writers professional rewards. When. Health care provider , Healthcare occupations , Hospital 1447 Words | 4 Pages. excellent nursing care (Srivastava, 2007). However, health care provider’s roles and responsibilities in meeting health care needs of the . Formula Thesis Statement! clients in consideration to cultural perspective and diversity are getting more challenging and complicated due to increased number of people from a group of multi-ethnic and my goals essay multi-cultural society, which, in turn requires health care providers to acknowledge and understand variations of cultural healthcare beliefs, values and practices.
Transcultural nursing is thesis essential. Competence , Culture , Four stages of competence 2676 Words | 7 Pages. 0916-484-5004 DEGREE: Bachelor of paper writers, Science in formula, Nursing Las Pinas College College of Nursing March 29, 2001 Passed the . Integrated Comprehensive Licensure Exam June 10, 2001 Passed the paper writers, Midwifery Board Exam November 10, 2009 WORK EXPERIENCE: Las Pinas City Medical Center Las Pinas City, Philippines Staff Nurse (OB GYNE, MEDICAL AND SURGICAL WARD) August 22, 2001 – December 21, 2004 Clinical Instructor supervising: Nursing Midwifery Caregiving students in OB GYNE and Pediatric. Chavacano language , Medicine , Nursing 445 Words | 4 Pages. glance of reading the ANA code of ethics it seemed way beyond my “scope” of practice.
I took a lot of time to read since it was kind of repetitive in a . sense. I’m a new graduate to nursing field and without experience I don’t have ample nursing philosophy yet. I have worked as a hospice nurse now for formula for a thesis, 3 weeks, and mla bibliography guidelines have a nursing perspective of 3 weeks. It’s hard to imagine the code of ethics being realistic, 100% of the time. As nurses we are humans and not robots. The ANA Code of Ethics for Nurses. Ethics , Florence Nightingale , Health care 1313 Words | 4 Pages. Chapter 62 Nursing Assessment Musculoskeletal System.
Chapter 62: Nursing Assessment : Musculoskeletal System Test Bank MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. For A! A 42-year-old male patient complains of . shoulder pain when the nurse moves his arm behind the back. Which question should the nurse ask? a. “Are you able to feed yourself without difficulty?” b. College! “Do you have difficulty when you are putting on a shirt?” c. “Are you able to sleep through the night without waking?” d. “Do you ever have trouble lowering yourself to the toilet?” ANS: B The patient’s pain will make it. Joint , Knee , Magnetic resonance imaging 1861 Words | 6 Pages. relationship and how it narrates to the experience I had whilst on formula for a, placement practice. Short! My aim is to demonstrate my gained understanding of the . Thesis Statement! nursing process, the domains of nursing , the on social in america, nature of nursing models and their relationship to practice and Peplau’s model of nursing . The reason why the formula for a, student has chosen this concept is because nursing is an of oz, interpersonal process which involves interaction between two or more people with a mutual goal, (George 2003). Thesis! The essay will start by defining. Concept , Florence Nightingale , Nurse 1807 Words | 5 Pages. Chapter 39 Nursing Assessment Gastrointestinal System. Chapter 39: Nursing Assessment : Gastrointestinal System Test Bank MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which information about an 80-year-old man . at the senior center is of most concern to mla bibliography, the nurse? a. For A Thesis! Decreased appetite b. Unintended weight loss c. Wizard Of Oz Thesis! Difficulty chewing food d. Complaints of indigestion ANS: B Unintentional weight loss is not a normal finding and may indicate a problem such as cancer or depression. Poor appetite, difficulty in chewing, and complaints of formula for a thesis statement, indigestion are common in older patients.
These. Bile duct , Bilirubin , Biopsy 2001 Words | 6 Pages. the admission assessment , Mr. Dunner states that he needs to “throw up.” The nurse helps him sit up and provides an emesis basin. Mr. Essay! Dunner . vomits into the emesis basin and formula thesis then remains sitting on the side of the guidelines, bed, stating he may need to “throw up” again.Which assessment should the for a thesis, nurse complete first? A. Auscultate the bowel sounds. Essay Value! Another assessment should be completed before assessing the client’s bowel sounds. B. Palpate for abdominal distention.
Another assessment should be completed. Abdomen , Abdominal pain , Bowel obstruction 3548 Words | 11 Pages. step in a nursing care plan is the assessment , is the formula for a statement, assessment , . jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjThe first step in a nursing care plan isThe first step in a nursing care plan is the assessment , the short essay of discipline, assessment , The first step in a nursing care plan is the assessment , The firstThe first step in a nursing care plan is the thesis statement, assessment , step in a nursing care plan is the assessment , The first step in a nursing care plan is the assessment ,The first step in a nursing care plan. Assessment , Medical record , Medicine 704 Words | 3 Pages. PRINCIPLES AND PRACTIES OF ASSESSMENT 1.1 EXPLAIN THE FUNCATIONS OF ASSESSSMENT IN LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT. During the initial . assessment the assessor must ensure the learner knowledge performance and practical skills. The assessor must ensure that the learning understands their course, The assessor must explain all the units to the learner and support them in choosing the most suited units for their learner.
The assessor and the learner must decide on mla bibliography guidelines, an assessment plan. Setting dates and times. Assessment , Educational psychology , Evaluation 1138 Words | 4 Pages. Nursing and Technology In his textbook, Medical Sociology, 12th edition, Dr. William Cockerham (2007), a medical sociologist at the . University of statement, Alabama, Birmingham, describes nurses as being ultimately responsible for the nature and quality of all nursing care patients receive during their stay in a medical setting. According to Cockerham (2007), they also are responsible for following the on social problems, instructions of physicians in order to thesis, ensure the best plan of essay on the value of discipline, action is implemented to for a thesis, better serve the. Health care , Health care provider , Medical history 1108 Words | 3 Pages. REPORT: associates degree in nursing date: 12/4/2012 Descriptive Abstract This investigative report will go into detail about associate’s . degree in nursing . Nursing is the largest health care profession in problems, the U.S. Over 2.5 million strong, nurses make up the largest workforce within the thesis statement, clinical healthcare industry. Nursing careers offer a wide variety of roles and walmart essay a broad scope of responsibility.
This report will also show graphs and steps to statement, get into a nursing program as well as job titles. Academic degree , Associate's degree , Bachelor of walmart essay, Science 927 Words | 4 Pages. nation has been the focus of the formula for a, National Academies, Institute of Medicine (IOM). It turns out to short value, be that clear from their research that . nursing plays an important role in the conveying health care. Formula Statement! Robert Woods Johnson Foundation (RWJF) was appointed by IOM the Committee through the interdisciplinary practiced that depend upon the initiative on the Upcoming of Nursing . Of Oz Populism Thesis! The aim was to create an achievement in favor of plan for anything that would let nurses to principal alteration in the direction to. Health , Health care , Health economics 1333 Words | 4 Pages.
? Assessment and Rating of Learning Outcomes The assessment process is holistic, with emphasis on for a statement, the formative or developmental . purpose of quality assuring student learning. It is also standards-based as it seeks to ensure that teachers will teach to the standards and students will aim to mla bibliography, meet or even exceed the standards. The students’ attainment of standards in terms of content and performance is, therefore, a critical evidence of learning. The assessment shall be done at four levels and shall. Assessment , Cognition , Education 671 Words | 3 Pages. Nursing Essay: Sample Reflecting on one’s Communication Skills Introduction Nursing students can enhance their learning . through reflection that is, reflecting on a situation that involves nursing care (Parker 2006, p.115). For A Statement! In line with this thought, I shall reflect on guidelines, an experience and discuss the communication skills I used or should have used during the patient encounter. I will use the three what model based on the work of formula, Borton (1970) and Boud (1985) to help structure my reflection. Before. Communication , Health care , Health care provider 2075 Words | 7 Pages. Japan Journal of guidelines, Nursing Science (2008) 5, 71 doi:10.1111/j.1742-7924.2008.00111.x EDITORIAL Nursing theory – . Thesis Statement! remembering our future Modern nursing theory began with Virginia Henderson in the 1960s.
In her grand theory of nursing , she de?ned nursing as “assisting individuals to gain independence in on social in america, the performance of activities contributing to health or its recovery (Henderson, 1966, p. 15). Since the 1970s, the formula statement, literature on short essay of discipline, nursing theory has focused upon formula, two levels of nursing theories: the. Health economics , Healthcare , Medicine 666 Words | 3 Pages. What is nursing ? What exactly does it mean to nurse a patient, and how has this definition changed over the past centuries? What does the . discipline of short value of discipline, nursing consist of? In this essay, I aim to formula statement, attempt to mla bibliography guidelines, answer these questions, along with the help of formula statement, a myriad of nursing researchers whose studies have helped to broaden my perspective on what exactly it is that I now do for a living.
I will be discussing the different types of nursing knowledge that assists us as nurses to care for patients and. Florence Nightingale , Health care , Health care provider 1724 Words | 5 Pages. NURSING Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on essay value of discipline, the care of individuals, families, and communities so . they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and thesis statement quality of life. Nurses may be differentiated from other health care providers by mla bibliography guidelines, their approach to formula thesis, patient care, training, and scope of practice. Short! Nurses practice in a wide diversity of practice areas with a different scope of practice and level of prescriber authority in each. Many nurses provide care within the. Christianity , Florence Nightingale , Health 793 Words | 3 Pages. assessment tools that evaluate on-physical measures. Running Head: NURSING KNOWLEDGE THROUGH THE NURSING PROCESS Nursing . Knowledge through the Nursing Process Flow Chart Assessment Phase “The assessment phase of the formula for a statement, nursing process is essay foundational for appropriate diagnosis, planning and , (Ackley Ladwig, 2014, p3).
This beginning phase of the nursing process is important for many reasons. Not only are we meeting our patients for for a thesis, the first time but we collect but object and subjective data to put. Florence Nightingale , NANDA , Nurse 983 Words | 4 Pages. ?Description It is my first day of work after graduating from nursing school. Wizard Populism! I am currently in a remote island of Maldives.
It is formula for a a small . Essay On Social! hospital consisting of 50 beds and almost 20 staffs working in 3 shifts. I came for formula for a thesis, morning duty and the nursing in-charge shown me maternal and essay college surgical ward as my first work place. For A Statement! After taking handing over from the night shift staff I made everything ready for the ward round as the doctors will be here in no time. Short On The! Just before the doctors arrival we got a patient. Existential quantification , Hospital , Management 819 Words | 2 Pages. goal.
I graduated from Highline Community College last year with honor degree. Even though I already obtained my AA degree in Pre- Nursing , . gaining my knowledge in the medical field is not enough for me. I want to formula, gain more clinical patient experience and help people with all my heart. In order to strengthen my clinical experience, I also took the CNA class at walmart essay Blossom Nursing Assistant Training School while studying at HCC and received the CNA license. Currently, I’m working at Stafford Suites Senior. Care of residents , Health care , Healthcare 1647 Words | 9 Pages. Health Assessment 1. Define two different methods or frameworks, commonly used to thesis statement, collect health assessment data. On Social Problems In America! Marjory . Gordon’s Functional Health Patterns provides a holistic guide used by nurses to gather health data as well as a format for formula for a statement, the organisation of short value of discipline, data collected (White, 2005). A functional assessment assists the nurse in obtaining the formula for a thesis, clients past health history, current health status and perception of health behaviours (Gordon, 2010).
Focusing on short value of discipline, 11 areas of possible functional. Nursing 1146 Words | 4 Pages. Virginia Henderson, the Nursing Theorist. Nursing theorist concept Application in the Nursing practice Abstract Nursing theorist Virginia Henderson . (1897-1996), often referred to as the “First Lady of Nursing ”, developed a nursing model based on the 14 components of activities of daily living. Formula For A! The paper discusses the essay on the value of discipline, importance of applying these components to the nursing practice. She emphasized the importance of increasing the patient’s independence so that progress after hospitalization would not be delayed (Henderson 1991). Henderson’s. Nurse , Nurses , Nursing 1936 Words | 6 Pages. This assignment will focus on statement, the holistic assessment and care plan of paper, a patient who was cared for for a thesis statement, during practice placement.
It aims to short of discipline, . discuss how the care planning decisions were made and formula thesis relate these decisions with the relevant literature. The setting was an emergency trauma and mla bibliography guidelines orthopaedic ward and for a statement the care plan was developed in order to meets the patient’s needs after 1 week admission. The care plan was compiled by the student nurse and his mentor and aimed to identify the patient’s needs and. Bedsore , Nurse , Nursing 1903 Words | 5 Pages. ?This reflection essay is going to paper, forms on for a thesis statement, an assessment tool that uses in my work setting of healthcare delivery. Reflexive exercise, which . includes reflexivity that assists the development of emotional intelligence(Grainger 2010).
It will use Gibbs(1969) reflective cycle to explain one of the areas where I found myself incompetent with the use of a pain assessment tool. Even though there are variety model of my goals college, reflective writing Gibbs model is ideal and permitting for explanation, analysis and. Assessment , Health , Health care 1383 Words | 4 Pages. of the information and knowledge gained, by suggesting how these skills will be applied to formula for a statement, the student nurses future practice. Disease management improves . the quality of a patient’s lifestyle and activities of daily living, through education and nursing intervention on their condition, empowering them to take a more significant role in their own care. It considers all additional factors to the actual medicinal treatment for the disease, providing a holistic approach. It is therefore imperative that. Epidemiology , Health , Health care 986 Words | 3 Pages. component of the metaparadigm of nursing must be considered.
This metaparadigm was first developed by Florence Nightingale and is still a valid . and my goals important tool nurses use every day. Its four components are person, environment, health and nursing each works to formula statement, help the other for a better understanding and application of proper care (Fawcett, 1994). The first paradigm refers not only to a person, but also to on social problems, the families or social groups who are involved in the nursing treatment. A nurse’s care must. Florence Nightingale , Health , Healthcare occupations 1486 Words | 6 Pages. Transcultural Nursing Cumulative Journal M. Thesis! Blair NUR401: Transcultural Nursing August 24, 2012 . My Goals Essay! Transcultural Nursing Cumulative Journal The student initially entered the Transcultural Nursing class with limited knowledge and experience in caring for patients of differing cultures. For A Thesis Statement! Even though the student’s practice with assisting various cultures still remains narrow, her knowledge base and tools to assist with obtaining information and assessments has significantly. Anthropology , Cross-cultural communication , Culture 792 Words | 5 Pages. Nursing Competencies GCU Nursing Competencies The first school of nursing in essay, the United States . was the Bellevue Hospital School of Nursing , founded in 1873.
The Bellevue offered a Baccalaureate degree in Nursing with principles of nursing established by Florence Nightingale. Formula For A Statement! In later years, the Associate-degree in walmart essay, nursing was formed by thesis statement, Mildred Montag, to help with the nursing shortages in WWII. “In the mid 1900’s an Associate-degree level nurse was thought of as a “technical nurse”. Academic degree , Associate's degree , Bachelor's degree 763 Words | 3 Pages. Nursing as an Entity Casey Berling, BSN Student Eastern Kentucky University NSC 252 Intro to Professional Nursing Department . of Baccalaureate Graduate Nursing , College of short value of discipline, Health Sciences October 31, 2012 If the question was asked, “What is your definition of nursing ,” to the thousands of nurses in the world today, there would be one word that would unite them all, and that is the for a thesis statement, word care. Nursing strives to walmart essay, be a very unique profession where selfishness, and self-serving. Critical thinking , Electronic health record , Florence Nightingale 695 Words | 3 Pages.
remember I was a sick child and, I figured that I wanted to for a statement, be a nurse someone who was always helping people and that at walmart essay a point of time in my life they . helped me. Nursing is a health care profession that involves taking care of another person in which a person needs the formal education and training in the art of science of nursing . Nurses help individuals, families, and groups to achieve health and prevent diseases, and they care for the sick and injured using procedures based on for a thesis, knowledge, skill. Academic degree , Bachelor of Science in Nursing , Bachelor's degree 2327 Words | 6 Pages. Family Health Assessment Family Health Assessment Nurses, in order to walmart essay, practice effectively, must assess consciously and . unconsciously to determine the needs of the client (McCain, 1965, pg. 82). The functional abilities of the patient are selected based on the assessment . Marjorie Gordon proposed functional health patterns as a guide to provide a comprehensive nursing assessment of the patient (Gordon, 1994).
Gordon’s health patterns are categorized into 11 possible approaches to collect. Family , Health , Health care 1583 Words | 5 Pages. ?Running head: The Future Nursing The Future Nursing The Future of Nursing The . Affordable Care Act of formula for a thesis statement, 2010 (ACA) will have a great effect on nursing . According to mla bibliography, this article nursing will have to change it role in for a statement, the ACA and the three main categories that need to be changed and redeveloped is wizard of oz thesis transforming practice, education and for a thesis leadership. “The ACA outlines some new health care arrangements, and with these structures will come new opportunities for new roles. Health , Health care , Health economics 841 Words | 3 Pages. Running head: 1 Assessment Tools Analysis Paper Tricia E Topping University of Phoenix NUR/440 Karen Harriman April 16, 2012 . Walmart Essay! Assessment Tools Analysis Paper 11/13/12 8:13 PM http://www.scribd.com/doc/104725000/ Assessment -Tools-Analysis-Paper Page 2 of 12 April 16, 2012 2 Assessment Tools Analysis Paper Assessment tools are used in nursing to enhance the overall assessment phase of the nursing process.
The assessment tools that I have selected to analyze are: The Spiritual Well- Being. Assessment , Health , Health care 1061 Words | 4 Pages. |Jean Watson's Philosophy of Nursing | |This page was last updated on January 26, 2012 . Formula Thesis Statement! | |[pic] | |Introduction | |Theorist - Jean Watson was born in mla bibliography, West Virginia, US | |Educated: BSN, University of Colorado, 1964. Health , Maslow's hierarchy of formula for a thesis, needs , Nurse 1681 Words | 7 Pages. ?Running head:COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 1 Community . Assessment Nikki Shannon Johnston Walden University NURS:4011, Section 07, Family, Community, and Population-Based Care February 13, 2014 COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2 Community Assessment Community assessment is a core function for the public. Community , Health , Health care 1592 Words | 6 Pages. The nursing process is described as being an individualised problem solving approach in which patients receive nursing care. Walmart Essay! The . nursing process consists of four distinct phases, each having a discreet role in the process, theses phases of the process are: assessment , planning, intervention and formula for a thesis statement evaluation. (Oxford Dictionary of Nursing 2003) It is essay on the value of discipline important that the four stages of the thesis, process from wizard populism thesis assessment to evaluation are carried out thesis, sequentially because each phase follows logically from. Assessment , Florence Nightingale , Illness 1542 Words | 4 Pages. Catherine Asinobi Grand Canyon University: NRS-429V June 2nd, 2013 Definition Heritage Assessment is who we are, our . history, and where we come from.
Heritage means ones background or tradition. Heritage Assessments are unique for each nation; it is a part to mla bibliography guidelines, the overall nursing assessment . At any time at any place, there are many different groups of people that live in formula for a thesis statement, that particular place and essay paper writers all these people have diverse believes about health, illness, disease, birth and. Culture , Ethnic group , Family 1498 Words | 5 Pages. Contemporary Issues in Nursing Contemporary Issues in Nursing There are many contemporary nursing issues. . This paper will look into Transcultural Nursing , one of the more important issues, especially in tri-state area. According to formula, the U.S. Bureau of the of oz, Census (2000), over 30% of the total population, or one out of formula, every three persons in the United States (U.S.), is paper writers comprised of various ethnicities other than non-Hispanic Whites. This statistic highlights that the U.S. has a significant.
Anthropology , Communication , Cross-cultural communication 913 Words | 3 Pages. Negligence In Nursing Defined, Described, Destroyed Brian Dixon Devry University Abstract In the for a, past the word negligence normally . only encompassed the wrongs of a physician and at that time there was a distinct division between a nurse and my goals essay college a physician. The roles of nurses today however have changed quite drastically. Formula Thesis Statement! Today’s nurses have assumed many functions and responsibilities that were previously performed solely by the physician. As the roles of nurses have advanced and the profession.
Health care , Hospital , Intravenous therapy 1371 Words | 4 Pages. Assessment Tool Analysis NUR/440 Version 3 October 22, 2012 Sheila De Vaugh, APRN, BC Assessment Tool Analysis Paper . The “American Nurses Association” (2012) website describes the on social, nursing process as assessment , diagnosis, outcomes/planning, implementation, and evaluation. Another important tool is getting to know the for a, patient, to get a full picture of the essay, patient’s physical and mental status. Although there are several assessment tools that can be used, three tools were chosen for the purpose. Beck Depression Inventory , Health care , Health care provider 1280 Words | 4 Pages. Home Page » Other Topics Heritage Assessment In: Other Topics Heritage Assessment . Formula Statement! Heritage Assessment Latasha Rice, WCC- RN Grand Canyon University: NRS 429v Date: 8/31/2012 What is on the value a heritage assessment ? A heritage assessment is formula for a a subpart to the overall nursing assessment . Assessing a patient’s heritage allows the walmart essay, nurse to obtain more information about a patient’s culture, including beliefs about formula thesis health and essay on social problems values. Culture , Family , Health care 1400 Words | 5 Pages. Medical Surgical Assessment Skills. Medical Surgical Nursing Assessment Skills A nurse’s proper neurologic assessment skills are vital in for a statement, medical . surgical.
The nurse needs to walmart essay, know how to correctly assess and evaluate the patient’s neurological state in the acute care setting. In the formula for a thesis, article, Neurologic Assessment Skills for the Acute Medical Surgical Nurse, of Orthopaedic Nursing , Janet T. Crimlisk, and Margaret M. Mla Bibliography! Grande (2004), explain the proper nursing assessment skills for the acute medical surgical setting. This includes. Assessment , Cranial nerves , Evaluation 709 Words | 3 Pages. Nursing rounds are given separate names according to thepurpose they serve .a)Information giving rounds :It is used to for a thesis, acquaint the essay, staff with . Formula For A! all patients on the wardor division .b)Instructional rounds :Here the nurse is expected to value, read the charts and come torounds with basic information in mind .c)Problem solving rounds: This is to help the nursing staff learn to conduct initialinterviews make assessment of patient’s needs and formula identifynursing care problems .Purposes of nursing rounds :1.To demonstrate. Florence Nightingale , Hospital , Illness 1293 Words | 5 Pages. much professional experience >Peers comment that Iam a hard worker and have good professional knowledge. Weaknesses >I do . night shifts to wizard populism thesis, arrange child care so I seldom get chance to formula thesis, work with students. >I did my nursing in India so Iam unsure about the responsibilities of student nurses of each year. >Lack of experience as being an associate mentor. >My accent/pronunciation make others difficult to understand me.
Opportunities >As to my goals essay college, achieve. Education , Learning , Management 1224 Words | 6 Pages. Running head: NURSING TRANSFORMATION Nursing Transformation Author: unknown Grand Canyon University . Professional Dynamics NRS-430V May 29, 2011 Nursing Transformation As the health care system trends toward a new approach to formula for a thesis statement, delivering care, the nursing profession must become engaged in the transformation. According to on social problems in america, the 2010 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report on nursing future, this revolution will have great impact on formula statement, the nurse’s practice, education, and leadership. Health , Health care , Health care provider 995 Words | 3 Pages. Element: Prevention of pressure ulcers This essay is going to explore the nursing process with regard to the prevention of pressure ulcers. . Pressure ulcers are a widespread and often underestimated health problem in college, the UK. They occur in 4-10% of formula for a statement, patients admitted to hospital (Ward et al, 2010).
This essay, using case study 4, will explore the holistic nursing process, and also the biological, sociological, psychological and ethical issues regarding the short on the value of discipline, prevention of pressure ulcers. Formula Thesis! Lily. Health care , Nurse , Nursing 2963 Words | 8 Pages. Heritage Assessment NRS-429V | Culture and Cultural Competency in Health Promotion John Thomas 3/24/13 The Heritage . Assessment tool is primarily used as a device to evaluate health maintenance, health protection, and health restoration of a person’s cultural beliefs and values (Spector, 2006). This assessment helps aid in providing quality patient care in that it helps to meet and respect the needs of different types of people and their respective backgrounds (Spector, 2002). This particular.
Cultural competence , Culture , Health care 1093 Words | 3 Pages. The Future of Nursing Carrie Curell Grand Canyon University: NRS-430-0191 Professional Dynamics 02/23/2013 The Future of . Nursing The Institute of Medicine (IOM) has researched how nursing as we know it will and short value of discipline is changing. For A Statement! They have written a report called “The Future of Nursing : Leading Change, Advancing Health” that outlines the on social problems, impact of these changes on education, nursing practice, and nurses as leaders and made recommendations on the necessary changes. Regarding the impact of education. Health , Health care , Health care provider 1162 Words | 4 Pages. Assignment 3 Assessment Assessment is an important part of the learning process and formula thesis is not only a measure of the . learner’s progress but is used as an assessment of the success of the policy makers in the Government department , the teachers and other education providers. Fawbert (2003) defines the educational meaning of the word assessment is wizard populism ’to judge the learners performance against thesis, identified criteria’. Correct and reliable assessment of learners allow the education organization to identify.
Assessment , Education , Educational psychology 986 Words | 3 Pages.
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conservative essays Liberals in the United States have been losing political debates to formula for a, conservatives for a quarter century. In order to start winning again, liberals must answer two simple questions: what is mla bibliography guidelines, conservatism, and what is wrong with it? As it happens, the answers to formula thesis, these questions are also simple: Q: What is conservatism? A: Conservatism is the domination of society by short value an aristocracy. Q: What is wrong with conservatism? A: Conservatism is incompatible with democracy, prosperity, and civilization in general. It is for a, a destructive system of inequality and paper writers prejudice that is for a statement, founded on my goals essay, deception and has no place in the modern world. These ideas are not new. Indeed they were common sense until recently.
Nowadays, though, most of the people who call themselves conservatives have little notion of what conservatism even is. They have been deceived by one of the great public relations campaigns of for a, human history. Only by analyzing this deception will it become possible to revive democracy in the United States. //1 The Main Arguments of Conservatism. From the pharaohs of ancient Egypt to the self-regarding thugs of ancient Rome to the glorified warlords of medieval and absolutist Europe, in nearly every urbanized society throughout human history, there have been people who have tried to constitute themselves as an aristocracy. These people and their allies are the conservatives. The tactics of paper, conservatism vary widely by place and time. But the thesis statement most central feature of conservatism is deference: a psychologically internalized attitude on the part of the essay problems common people that the for a thesis aristocracy are better people than they are. Modern-day liberals often theorize that conservatives use social issues as a way to mask economic objectives, but this is almost backward: the true goal of conservatism is to establish an aristocracy, which is a social and of oz psychological condition of thesis, inequality. Economic inequality and essay value of discipline regressive taxation, while certainly welcomed by the aristocracy, are best understood as a means to their actual goal, which is simply to be aristocrats. More generally, it is crucial to conservatism that the people must literally love the order that dominates them.
Of course this notion sounds bizarre to modern ears, but it is perfectly overt in formula thesis, the writings of leading conservative theorists such as Burke. Essay Value Of Discipline? Democracy, for them, is not about the mechanisms of voting and office-holding. Thesis? In fact conservatives hold a wide variety of opinions about such secondary formal matters. For conservatives, rather, democracy is a psychological condition. People who believe that the aristocracy rightfully dominates society because of its intrinsic superiority are conservatives; democrats, by contrast, believe that they are of equal social worth. Conservatism is the antithesis of democracy. Walmart Essay? This has been true for formula thesis statement thousands of years.
The defenders of aristocracy represent aristocracy as a natural phenomenon, but in college, reality it is the most artificial thing on earth. Although one of the goals of every aristocracy is to make its preferred social order seem permanent and timeless, in reality conservatism must be reinvented in statement, every generation. This is true for short on the many reasons, including internal conflicts among the aristocrats; institutional shifts due to climate, markets, or warfare; and statement ideological gains and losses in mla bibliography, the perpetual struggle against democracy. In some societies the formula for a thesis statement aristocracy is writers, rigid, closed, and stratified, while in others it is more of an aspiration among various fluid and factionalized groups. The situation in the United States right now is toward the latter end of the spectrum. A main goal in life of all aristocrats, however, is to pass on their positions of privilege to their children, and formula many of the aspiring aristocrats of the United States are appointing their children to positions in essay on social problems in america, government and in the archipelago of think tanks that promote conservative theories.
Conservatism in every place and time is founded on deception. The deceptions of conservatism today are especially sophisticated, simply because culture today is sufficiently democratic that the myths of formula for a statement, earlier times will no longer suffice. Before analyzing current-day conservatism's machinery of deception, let us outline the main arguments of conservatism. Although these arguments have changed little through history, they might seem unfamiliar to many people today, indeed even to people who claim to be conservatives. That unfamiliarity is a very recent phenomenon. Yet it is only through the classical arguments and essay writers their fallacies that we can begin to analyze how conservatism operates now. According to the first type of argument, found for example in Burke, social institutions are a kind of capital. A properly ordered society will be blessed with large quantities of this capital. This capital has very particular properties.
It is a sprawling tangle of social arrangements and patterns of thought, passed down through generations as part of the statement culture. It is generally tacit in nature and cannot be rationally analyzed. Of Oz Populism Thesis? It is fragile and must be conserved, because a society that lacks it will collapse into anarchy and tyranny. Innovation is bad, therefore, and prejudice is good. Although the institutions can tolerate incremental reforms around the edges, systematic questioning is a threat to social order. In particular, rational thought is evil. Nothing can be worse for the conservative than rational thought, because people who think rationally might decide to try replacing inherited institutions with new ones, something that a conservative regards as impossible.
This is where the word conservative comes from: the supposed importance of conserving established institutions. This argument is not wholly false. Institutions are in fact sprawling tangles of social arrangements and patterns of thought, passed down through generations as part of the culture. And people who think they can reengineer the whole of statement, human society overnight are generally mistaken. The people of ancien regime France were oppressed by the conservative order of their time, but indeed their revolution did not work, and would probably not have worked even if conservatives from elsewhere were not militarily attacking them.
After all, the conservative order had gone to insane lengths to deprive them of the education, practical experience, and patterns of short, thought that would be required to operate a democracy. They could not invent those things overnight. Even so, the argument about conserving institutions is mostly untrue. Most institutions are less fragile and more dynamic than conservatives claim. Large amounts of institutional innovation happen in every generation. If people lack a rational analysis of institutions, that is mostly a product of conservatism rather than an argument for it. And although conservatism has historically claimed to conserve institutions, history makes clear that conservatism is only interested in conserving particular kinds of formula thesis statement, institutions: the institutions that reinforce conservative power. Conservatism rarely tries to conserve institutions such as Social Security and welfare that decrease the common people's dependency on the aristocracy and the social authorities that serve it. Walmart Essay? To the contrary, they represent those institutions in various twisted ways as dangerous to to the social order generally or to their beneficiaries in particular. The opposite of conservatism is democracy, and contempt for democracy is a constant thread in formula for a statement, the history of conservative argument.
Instead, conservatism has argued that society ought to be organized in a hierarchy of orders and my goals classes and controlled by its uppermost hierarchical stratum, the aristocracy. Many of these arguments against egalitarianism are ancient, and most of them are routinely heard on the radio. One tends to hear the arguments in bits and pieces, for example the emphatic if vague claim that people are different. Formula Thesis Statement? Of course, most of these arguments, if considered rationally, actually argue for meritocracy rather than for aristocracy. Essay? Meritocracy is a democratic principle. George Bush, however, was apparently scarred for formula for a life by having been one of the last students admitted to Yale under its old aristocratic admissions system, and guidelines having to formula thesis statement, attend classes with students admitted under the meritocratic system who considered themselves to guidelines, be smarter than him. Although he has lately claimed to oppose the system of legacy admissions from which he benefitted, that is for a, a tactic, part of a package deal to eliminate affirmative action, thereby allowing conservative social hierarchies to be reaffirmed in other ways. American culture still being comparatively healthy, overt arguments for aristocracy (for example, that the children of aristocrats learn by osmosis the profound arts of in america, government and thereby acquire a wisdom that mere experts cannot match) are still relatively unusual. Instead, conservatism must proceed through complicated indirection, and the next few sections of this article will explain in some detail how this works. The issue is not that rich people are bad, or that hierarchical types of organization have no place in a democracy.
Nor are the descendents of aristocrats necessarily bad people if they do not try to perpetuate conservative types of formula for a, domination over society. On Social Problems? The issue is both narrow and enormous: no aristocracy should be allowed to trick the rest of society into for a thesis statement deferring to it. But isn't conservatism about college, freedom? Of course everyone wants freedom, and so conservatism has no choice but to promise freedom to its subjects. In reality conservatism has meant complicated things by freedom, and the reality of conservatism in practice has scarcely corresponded even to the contorted definitions in statement, conservative texts. To start with, conservatism constantly shifts in short essay value, its degree of authoritarianism. Conservative rhetors, in the Wall Street Journal for example, have no difficulty claiming to be the party of freedom in one breath and attacking civil liberties in the next.
The real situation with conservatism and freedom is best understood in historical context. Conservatism constantly changes, always adapting itself to provide the minimum amount of freedom that is required to hold together a dominant coalition in the society. In Burke's day, for example, this meant an alliance between traditional social authorities and the rising business class. Although the business class has always defined its agenda in terms of something it calls freedom, in for a, reality conservatism from the 18th century onward has simply implied a shift from one kind of government intervention in the economy to another, quite different kind, together with a continuation of medieval models of cultural domination. This is a central conservative argument: freedom is of oz thesis, impossible unless the common people internalize aristocratic domination. Formula Thesis? Indeed, many conservative theorists to the present day have argued that freedom is not possible at my goals, all. Without the internalized domination of conservatism, it is argued, social order would require the external domination of state terror. In a sense this argument is correct: historically conservatives have routinely resorted to terror when internalized domination has not worked. What is unthinkable by design here is the possibility that people might organize their lives in for a statement, a democratic fashion. This alliance between traditional social authorities and the business class is artificial.
The market continually undermines the institutions of paper writers, cultural domination. Formula For A Thesis? It does this partly through its constant revolutionizing of institutions generally and partly by encouraging a culture of entrepreneurial initiative. As a result, the of oz populism thesis alliance must be continually reinvented, all the while pretending that its reinventions simply reinstate an eternal order. Conservatism promotes (and so does liberalism, misguidedly) the idea that liberalism is about activist government where conservatism is not. This is absurd.
It is unrelated to the history of conservative government. Conservatism promotes activist government that acts in the interests of the aristocracy. This has been true for thousands of thesis statement, years. What is walmart essay, distinctive about liberalism is not that it promotes activist government but that it promotes government that acts in the interests of the majority. Democratic government, however, is not simply majoritarian.
It is, rather, one institutional expression of a democratic type of culture that is still very much in formula for a thesis statement, the process of being invented. //2 How Conservatism Works. Conservative social orders have often described themselves as civilized, and so one reads in the Wall Street Journal that the enemies of civilization hate bow ties. But what conservatism calls civilization is little but the domination of an aristocracy. Every aspect of social life is subordinated to this goal. That is not civilization. The reality is quite the opposite.
To impose its order on society, conservatism must destroy civilization. In particular conservatism must destroy conscience, democracy, reason, and language. * The Destruction of Conscience. Liberalism is a movement of conscience. Liberals speak endlessly of conscience. Yet conservative rhetors have taken to acting as if they owned the language of conscience.
They even routinely assert that liberals disparage conscience. The magnitude of the falsehood here is so great that decent people have been set back on their heels. Conservatism continually twists the language of conscience into its opposite. It has no choice: conservatism is unjust, and cannot survive except by pretending to be the opposite of what it is. Conservative arguments are often arbitrary in nature. Consider, for example, the controversy over Elian Gonzalez.
Conservatism claims that the universe is ordered by absolutes. This would certainly make life easier if it was true. The difficulty is that the absolutes constantly conflict with one another. When the absolutes do not conflict, there is rarely any controversy. But when absolutes do conflict, conservatism is forced into sophistry. In the case of Elian Gonzalez, two absolutes conflicted: keeping families together and not making people return to tyrannies. In a democratic society, the paper writers decision would be made through rational debate. Conservatism, however, required picking one of the two absolutes arbitrarily (based perhaps on tactical politics in Florida) and simply accusing anyone who disagreed of flouting absolutes and formula thesis thereby nihilistically denying the fundamental order of the universe. This happens every day. Arbitrariness replaces reason with authority.
When arbitrariness becomes established in the culture, democracy decays and wizard of oz populism thesis it becomes possible for aristocracies to dominate people's minds. Another example of conservative twisting of the statement language of essay value, conscience is the formula for a argument, in the context of the attacks of 9/11 and in america the war in Iraq, that holding our side to things like the Geneva Convention implies an equivalence between ourselves and our enemies. This is a logical fallacy. The fallacy is something like: they kill so they are bad, but we are good so it is okay for us to for a thesis, kill. The argument that everything we do is okay so long as it is not as bad as the most extreme evil in walmart essay, the world is a rejection of nearly all of civilization.
It is precisely the destruction of conscience. Or take the notion of formula, political correctness. It is true that movements of on social, conscience have piled demands onto people faster than the culture can absorb them. That is an for a unfortunate side-effect of social progress. Conservatism, however, twists language to make the inconvenience of conscience sound like a kind of oppression.
The campaign against political correctness is essay paper writers, thus a search-and-destroy campaign against all vestiges of formula thesis statement, conscience in society. The flamboyant nastiness of rhetors such as Rush Limbaugh and Ann Coulter represents the destruction of conscience as a type of liberation. They are like cultists, continually egging on essay on the of discipline, their audiences to destroy their own minds by punching through one layer after another of their consciences. Once I wrote on the Internet that bears in zoos are miserable and should be let go. In response to this, I received an e-mail viciously mocking me as an animal rights wacko. Formula Thesis Statement? This is an example of the destruction of conscience. Any human being with a halfways functioning conscience will be capable of rationally debating the notion that unhappy bears in zoos should be let go. Of course, rational people might have other opinions. On The Value? They might claim that the bears are not actually miserable, or that they would be just as miserable in the forest.
Conservatism, though, has stereotyped concern for animals by associating it with its most extreme fringe. For A Thesis? This sort of mockery of conscience has become systematic and commonplace. * The Destruction of walmart essay, Democracy. For thousands of years, conservatism was universally understood as being in opposition to democracy. Formula For A Thesis Statement? Having lost much of its ability to attack democracy openly, conservatism has tried in essay college, recent years to formula, redefine the word democracy while engaging in deception to make the substance of short of discipline, democracy unthinkable. Conservative rhetors, for example, have been using the word government in a way that does not distinguish between legitimate democracy and totalitarianism.
Then there is the formula notion that politicians who offer health care reforms, for example, are claiming to be better people than the rest of us. Essay On Social In America? This is a particularly toxic distortion. Offering reforms is thesis, a basic part of democracy, something that every citizen can do. Even more toxic is the notion that those who criticize the walmart essay president are claiming to be better people than he is. This is authoritarianism. Some conservative rhetors have taken to literally demonizing the very notion of a democratic opposition. Rush Limbaugh has argued at length that Tom Daschle resembles Satan simply because he opposes George Bush's policies.
Ever since then, Limbaugh has regularly identified Daschle as el diablo. This is the thesis emotional heart of conservatism: the notion that the conservative order is essay problems, ordained by God and that anyone and formula thesis anything that opposes the conservative order is infinitely evil. * The Destruction of Reason. Conservatism has opposed rational thought for thousands of years. What most people know nowadays as conservatism is basically a public relations campaign aimed at persuading them to lay down their capacity for rational thought. Conservatism frequently attempts to destroy rational thought, for example, by using language in ways that stand just out of reach of mla bibliography guidelines, rational debate or rebuttal. Conservatism has used a wide variety of methods to formula thesis, destroy reason throughout history. Fortunately, many of walmart essay, these methods, such as the suppression of popular literacy, are incompatible with a modern economy.
Once the common people started becoming educated, more sophisticated methods of domination were required. Thus the invention of public relations, which is a kind of formula thesis statement, rationalized irrationality. The great innovation of essay, conservatism in formula for a, recent decades has been the systematic reinvention of politics using the technology of public relations. The main idea of public relations is the walmart essay distinction between messages and thesis facts. Messages are the things you want people to believe. A message should be vague enough that it is difficult to refute by mla bibliography guidelines rational means. (People in politics refer to messages as strategies and people who devise strategies as strategists. The Democrats have strategists too, and it is not at all clear that they should, but they scarcely compare with the vast public relations machinery of the right.) It is useful to think of each message as a kind of pipeline: a steady stream of facts is selected (or twisted, or fabricated) to fit the statement message. Contrary facts are of walmart essay, course ignored. The goal is what the professionals call message repetition. This provides activists with something to do: come up with new facts to fit the conservative authorities' chosen messages.
Having become established in this way, messages must also be continually intertwined with one another. For A Thesis Statement? This is one job of pundits. To the public relations mind, the public sphere is a game in which the opposition tries to knock you off your message. Take the example of one successful message, Gore's lies. The purpose of the game was to mla bibliography, return any interaction to the message, namely that Gore lies. For A Thesis Statement? So if it is noted that the supposed examples of Gore lying (e.g., his perfectly true claim to have done onerous farm chores) were themselves untrue, common responses would include, that doesn't matter, what matters is Gore's lies, or the reasons people believe them is because of mla bibliography guidelines, Gore's lies, or yes perhaps, but there are so many other examples of Gore's lies, or you're just trying to change the subject away from Gore's lies, and so on. Many of these messages have become institutions.
Whole organizations exist to provide a pipeline of facts that underwrite the message of liberal media bias. These facts fall into numerous categories and exemplify a wide range of fallacies. Some are just factually untrue, e.g., claims that the New York Times has failed to formula statement, cover an event that it actually covered in guidelines, detail. Other claimed examples of bias are non sequiturs, e.g., quotations from liberal columns that appear on the opinion pages, or quotations from liberals in formula thesis, news articles that also provided balancing quotes from conservatives. Others are illogical, e.g., media that report news events that represent bad news for the president. The methods of identifying bias are thus highly elastic. In practice, everything in the media on political topics that diverges from conservative public relations messages is contended to be an example of liberal bias. The goal, clearly, is to purge the media of everything except conservatism. The word inaccurate has become something of a technical term in the political use of public relations. It means differs from our message. Public relations aims to break down reason and replace it with mental associations.
One tries to associate us with good things and them with bad things. Thus, for example, the famous memo from my goals, Newt Gingrich's (then) organization GOPAC entitled Language: A Key Mechanism of Control. It advised Republican candidates to associate themselves with words like building, dream, freedom, learn, light, preserve, success, and truth while associating opponents with words like bizarre, decay, ideological, lie, machine, pathetic, and traitors. The issue here is not whether these words are used at all; of course there do exist individual liberals that could be described using any of these words. The issue, rather, is a kind of cognitive surgery: systematically creating and destroying mental associations with little regard for truth. Note, in fact, that truth is one of the words that Gingrich advised appropriating in this fashion. Someone who thinks this way cannot even conceptualize truth. Conservative strategists construct their messages in a variety of more or less stereotyped ways. One of the most important patterns of conservative message-making is projection.
Projection is a psychological notion; it roughly means attacking someone by falsely claiming that they are attacking you. Conservative strategists engage in for a thesis statement, projection constantly. A commonplace example would be taking something from someone by claiming that they are in fact taking it from you. Or, having heard a careful and detailed refutation of something he has said, the projector might snap, you should not dismiss what I have said so quickly!. It is a false claim -- what he said was not dismissed -- that is an example of itself -- he is dismissing what his opponent has said. Projection was an important part of the Florida election controversy, for paper example when Republicans tried to get illegal ballots counted and prevent legal ballots from being counted, while claiming that Democrats were trying to steal the election.
* The Destruction of Language. Reason occurs mostly through the medium of for a, language, and so the in america destruction of for a statement, reason requires the destruction of language. An underlying notion of conservative politics is that words and phrases of language are like territory in warfare: owned and controlled by one side or the other. One of the central goals of short essay on the of discipline, conservatism, as for formula thesis statement example with Newt Gingrich's lists of words, is to take control of every word and phrase in walmart essay, the English language. George Bush, likewise, owes his election in great measure to a new language that his people engineered for him. His favorite word, for example, is heart. This type of thesis, linguistic engineering is my goals essay, highly evolved in the business milieu from which conservative public relations derives, and it is the day-to-day work of countless conservative think tanks. Bush's people, and the concentric circles of punditry around them, are worlds away from John Kerry deciding on a moment's notice that he is going to start the word values. They do not use a word unless they have an integrated communications strategy for taking control of that word throughout the whole of society. Bush's personal vocabulary is only a small part of conservative language warfare as a whole.
Since around 1990, conservative rhetors have been systematically turning language into a weapon against liberals. Words are used in twisted and exaggerated ways, or with the opposite of their customary meanings. This affects the whole of the language. The goal of this distorted language is not simply to defeat an enemy but to destroy the minds of the people who believe themselves to be conservatives and statement who constantly challenge themselves to ever greater extremity in using it. A simple example of turning language into a weapon might be the word predictable, which has become a synonym for liberal. There is no rational argument in of oz populism, this usage. Every such use of statement, predictable can be refuted simply by substituting the word consistent.
It is guidelines, simply invective. More importantly, conservative rhetors have been systematically mapping the language that has historically been used to describe the aristocracy and the traditional authorities that serve it, and formula statement have twisted those words into terms for liberals. This tactic has the my goals dual advantage of both attacking the aristocracies' opponents and depriving them of the words that they have used to attack aristocracy. A simple example is the term race-baiting. In the Nexis database, uses of race-baiting undergo a sudden switch in the early 1990's. Before then, race-baiting referred to racists. Afterward, it referred in for a, twisted way to people who oppose racism.
What happened is simple: conservative rhetors, tired of the political advantage that liberals had been getting from their use of that word, took it away from on social in america, them. A more complicated example is the word racist. Conservative rhetors have tried to take this word away as well by constantly coming up with new ways to stick the word onto liberals and their policies. For example they have referred to statement, affirmative action as racist. This is false; it is an attempt to destroy language. Racism is the notion that one race is intrinsically better than another.
Affirmative action is arguably discriminatory, as a means of my goals college, partially offsetting discrimination in other places and times, but it is not racist. Many conservative rhetors have even stuck the word racist on people just because they oppose racism. For A Thesis Statement? The notion seems to be that these people addressed themselves to the topic of race, and the word racist is essay value, sort of an adjective relating somehow to race. In any event this too is an formula for a thesis attack on language. A recent example is the word hate. The civil rights movement had used the my goals college word hate to refer to terrorism and stereotyping against black people, and during the formula for a statement 1990's some in the press had identified as Clinton-haters people who had made vast numbers of bizarre claims that the Clintons had participated in murder and drug-dealing. Beginning around 2003, conservative rhetors took control of this word as well by labeling a variety of perfectly ordinary types of democratic opposition to George Bush as hate. In addition, they have constructed a large number of messages of the form liberals hate X (e.g., X=America) and established within their media apparatus a sophistical pipeline of facts to mla bibliography, support each one.
This is also an example of the systematic breaking of formula thesis statement, associations. The word partisan entered into its current political circulation in the early 1990's when some liberals identified people like Newt Gingrich as partisan for doing things like the essay on social problems memo on language that I mentioned earlier. To the conservative way of politics, there is nothing either true or false about the formula thesis statement liberal claim. It is simply that liberals had taken control of some rhetorical territory: the word partisan. Conservative rhetors then set about taking control of the word themselves. They did this in essay college, a way that has become mechanical. They first claimed, falsely, that liberals were identifying as partisan any views other than their own. They thus inflated the word while projecting this inflation onto the liberals and disconnecting the word from the particular facts that the statement liberals had associated with it. Next, they started using the essay problems word partisan in statement, the inflated, dishonest way that they had ascribed to mla bibliography guidelines, their opponents. This is, very importantly, a way of attacking people simply for having a different opinion.
In twisting language this way, conservatives tell themselves that they are simply turning liberal unfairness back against the liberals. This too is projection. Another common theme of conservative strategy is formula for a thesis statement, that liberals are themselves an aristocracy. (For those who are really keeping score, the sophisticated version of this is wizard of oz populism, called the new class strategy, the message being that liberals are the American version of the Soviet nomenklatura.) Thus, for example, the constant pelting of liberals as elites, sticking this word and a mass of others semantically related to it onto liberals on every possible occasion. Formula For A Thesis? A pipeline of facts has been established to underwrite this message as well. Thus, for example, constant false conservative claims that the rich vote Democratic.
When Al Franken recently referred to his new radio network as the media elite and proud of it, he demonstrated his oblivion to the workings of the conservative discourse that he claims to mla bibliography, contest. Further examples of this are endless. When a Republican senator referred to the few liberals, hardly any liberals gave any sign of getting what he meant: as all conservatives got just fine, he was appropriating the phrase the few, referring to for a thesis statement, the aristocracy as opposed to the many, and problems sticking this phrase in formula, a false and mechanical way onto liberals. Rush Limbaugh asserts that they [liberals] think they are better than you, this of course being a phrase that had historically been applied (and applied correctly) to essay writers, the aristocracy. Conservative rhetors constantly make false or exaggerated claims that liberals are engaged in stereotyping -- the criticism of stereotyping having been one of history's most important rhetorical devices of democrats. And so on. The goal here is to make it impossible to criticize aristocracy. For an especially sorry example of this pattern, consider the word hierarchy. Conservatism is formula for a thesis statement, a hierarchical social system: a system of ranked orders and of discipline classes.
Yet in recent years conservatives have managed to stick this word onto liberals, the notion being that government (which liberals supposedly endorse and conservatives supposedly oppose) is hierarchical (whereas corporations, the military, and the church are somehow vaguely not). For A? Liberals are losing because it does not even occur to them to refute this kind of mechanical antireason. It is essay, often claimed in the media that snooty elitists on the coasts refer to states in formula for a, the middle of the country as flyover country. Yet I, who have lived in liberal areas of the my goals coasts for most of my life, have never once heard this usage. In fact, as far as I can tell, the thesis Nexis database does not contain a single example of anyone using the essay problems in america phrase flyover country to disparage the non-coastal areas of the United States. Instead, it contains hundreds of examples of people disparaging residents of the coasts by claiming that they use the phrase to formula thesis statement, describe the interior. The phrase is a special favorite of newspapers in Minneapolis and Denver. This is projection. Likewise, I have never heard the phrase political correctness used except to disparage the people who supposedly use it. Conservative remapping of the language of aristocracy and democracy has been incredibly thorough. My Goals Essay College? Consider, for example, the terms entitlement and dependency.
The term entitlement originally referred to formula for a, aristocrats. Aristocrats had titles, and they thought that they were thereby entitled to wizard of oz thesis, various things, particularly the formula thesis statement deference of the common people. Short Value? Everyone else, by contrast, was dependent on the aristocrats. This is conservatism. Yet in the 1990's, conservative rhetors decided that the for a thesis people who actually claim entitlement are people on welfare. They furthermore created an empirically false association between welfare and dependency. Paper Writers? But, as I have mentioned, welfare is precisely a way of eliminating dependency on the aristocracy and the cultural authorities that serve it. I do not recall anyone ever noting this inversion of for a thesis, meaning. Conservative strategists have also been remapping the language that has historically been applied to conservative religious authorities, sticking words such as orthodoxy, pious, dogma, and sanctimonious to liberals at every turn.
//3 Conservatism in American History. Almost all of the early immigrants to America left behind societies that had been oppressed by conservatism. The democratic culture that Americans have built is truly one of the monuments of civilization. And American culture remains vibrant to this day despite centuries of conservative attack. On Social In America? Yet the formula history of American democracy has generally been taught in confused ways. This history might be sketched in terms of the great turning points that happened to occur around 1800 and mla bibliography 1900, followed by the great reaction that gathered steam in the decades leading up to 2000. America before the revolution was a conservative society. It lacked an entitled aristocracy, but it was dominated in very much the same way by its gentry. Americans today have little way of knowing what this meant -- the hierarchical ties of personal dependency that organized people's psychology. We hear some echo of it in the hagiographies of George Bush, which are modeled on the way the gentry represented themselves. The Founding Fathers, men like Madison, Adams, and Washington, were, in this sense, products of aristocratic society.
They did not make a revolution in order to establish democracy. Quite the contrary, they wanted to be aristocrats. They did not succeed. The revolution that they helped set in motion did not simply sweep away the church and crown of England. Formula? As scholars such as Gordon Wood have noted, it also swept away the entire social system of the gentry, and it did so with a suddenness and thoroughness that surprised and amazed everyone who lived through it. So completely did Americans repudiate the conservative social system of the essay paper writers gentry, in fact, that they felt free to mythologize the Founding Fathers, forgetting the Founding Fathers' aristocratic ambitions and pretending that they, too, were revolutionary democrats. This ahistorical practice of projecting all good things onto the Founding Fathers continues to for a, the present day, and it is unfortunate because (as Michael Schudson has argued) it makes us forget all of the work that Americans have subsequently done to build the democratic institutions of today. In reality, Madison, Adams, and Washington were much like Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union. Like Gorbachev, they tried to reform an oppressive system without fundamentally changing it. And like Gorbachev, they were swept away by walmart essay the very forces they helped set into motion.
The revolution, though, proceeded quite differently in the North and South, and formula for a thesis led to my goals essay college, a kind of controlled experiment. The North repudiated conservatism altogether. For A? Indeed it was the only society in modern history without an walmart essay aristocracy, and as scholars such as the formula thesis statement late Robert Wiebe have noted, its dynamic democratic culture was most extraordinary. Walmart Essay? It is unfortunate that we discuss this culture largely through the analysis of Alexis de Tocqueville, an thesis aristocrat who wanted to graft medieval notions of social order onto a democratic culture that he found alien. In the South, by contrast, the conservative order of the gentry was modified to wizard thesis, something more resembling the oppressive latifundist systems of Latin America, relieved mainly by comparatively democratic religious institutions.
The Northern United States during the early 19th century was hardly perfect. Formula? Left-over conservative hierarchies and college patterns of psychology continued to thesis, damage people's minds and lives in numerous ways. But compared to the South, the North was, and has always been, a more dynamic and successful society. Southern conservatism has had to modify its strategies in recent decades, but its grip on the culture is tragically as strong as ever. Something more complicated happened around 1900. Railroads, the telegraph, and mass production made for massive new economies of scale, whereupon the invention of the corporation gave a new generation of would-be aristocrats new ways to reinvent themselves.
The complicated institutional and ideological events of this era can be understood in essay college, microcosm through the subsequent history of the word liberal, which forked into two quite different meanings. The word liberal had originally been part of an intramural dispute within the conservative alliance between the aristocracy and the rising business class. Their compromise, as I have noted, is formula statement, that the of oz thesis aristocracy would maintain its social control for the benefit of both groups mainly through psychological means rather than through terror, and formula for a thesis that economic regulation would henceforth be designed to benefit the business class. And both of these conditions would perversely be called freedom. Wizard Populism Thesis? The word liberal thus took its modern meaning in a struggle against the aristocracy's control of the formula thesis statement state. Around 1900, however, the corporation emerged in a society in which democracy was relatively strong and the aristocracy was relatively weak. Antitrust and many other types of state regulation were not part of traditional aristocratic control, but were part of democracy. And this is why the word liberal forked. Democrats continued using the word in its original sense, to signify the struggle against aristocracy, in this case the new aristocracy of corporate power. Business interests, however, reinvented the word to signify a struggle against something conceptualized very abstractly as government. In reality the new business meaning of the word, as worked out in detail by people like Hayek, went in an opposite direction from its original meaning: a struggle against the people, rather than against the aristocracy.
At the same time as the corporation provided the occasion for the founding of a new aristocracy, however, a new middle class founded a large number of professions. The relationship between the professional middle class and walmart essay the aristocracy has been complicated throughout the 20th century. But whereas the goal of conservatism throughout history has primarily been to suppress the mob of common people, the conservatism of the late 20th century was especially vituperative in its campaigns against the relatively autonomous democratic cultures of the professions. One of the professions founded around 1900 was public relations. Early public relations texts were quite openly conservative, and for a public relations practitioners openly affirmed that their profession existed to manipulate the common people psychologically in order to populism, ensure the domination of formula for a thesis statement, society by a narrow elite.
Squeamishness on this matter is a recent phenomenon indeed. The modern history of conservatism begins around 1975, as corporate interests began to react to the democratic culture of the sixties. This reaction can be traced in the public relations textbooks of the time. Elaborate new methods of value of discipline, public relations tried to prevent, coopt, and defeat democratic initiatives throughout the society. A new subfield of public relations, issues management, was founded at this time to deal strategically with political issues throughout their entire life cycle. Formula For A Statement? One of the few political theories that has made note of the large-scale institutionalization of public relations is the early work of Jurgen Habermas.
Even more important was the walmart essay invention of the think tank, and especially the formula systematic application of public relations to politics by the most important of the conservative think tanks, the Heritage Foundation. The Heritage Foundation's methods of issues management have had a fantastically corrosive effect on democracy. The great innovation of Ronald Reagan and the political strategists who worked with him was to submerge conservatism's historically overt contempt for the common people. The contrast between Reagan's language and that of conservatives even a decade or two earlier is most striking. Jacques Barzun's The House of Intellect (1959), for example, fairly bristles with contempt for demotic culture, the notion being that modern history is the on social in america inexorable erosion of aristocratic civilization by formula thesis democracy.
On a political level, Reagan's strategy was to place wedges into mla bibliography the many divides in that era's popular democracy, including both the avoidable divides that the counterculture had opened up and the divides that had long been inherent in conservatism's hierarchical order. Reagan created a mythical working class whose values he conflated with those of the conservative order, and he opposed this to an equally mythical professional class of liberal wreckers. Democratic culture in the sixties had something of formula for a thesis statement, a workable theory of conservatism -- one that has largely been lost. Populism Thesis? But it was not enough of a theory to explain to formula for a, working people why they are on the same side as hippies and gays. Populism? Although crude by comparison with conservative discourse only twenty years later, Reagan's strategy identified this difficulty with some precision. People like Ella Baker had explained the psychology of conservatism -- the internalized deference that makes a conservative order possible. But the new psychology of democracy does not happen overnight, and it did not become general in formula thesis statement, the culture.
In the paper writers 1990's, American conservatism institutionalized public relations methods of politics on a large scale, and it used these methods in a savage campaign of delegitimizing democratic institutions. In particular, a new generation of highly trained conservative strategists evolved, on the foundation of classical public relations methods, a sophisticated practice of for a thesis statement, real-time politics that integrated ideology and tactics on a year-to-year, news-cycle-to-news-cycle, and problems in america often hour-to-hour basis. This practice employs advanced models of the dynamics of for a thesis statement, political issues so as to launch waves of essay, precisely designed communications in countless well-analyzed loci throughout the society. For contemporary conservatism, a political issue -- a war, for example -- is a consumer product to formula for a, be researched and rolled out in a planned way with continuous empirical feedback from polling. So far as citizens can tell, such issues seem to materialize everywhere at once, swarming the culture with so many interrelated formulations that it becomes impossible to think, much less launch an effective rebuttal. Such a campaign is essay value of discipline, successful if it occupies precisely the ideological ground that can be occupied at a given moment, and it includes quite overt plans for holding that ground through the construction of a pipeline of facts and intertwining with other, subsequent issues. Formula For A Statement? Although in walmart essay, one sense this machinery has a profound kinship with the formula thesis statement priesthoods of ancient Egypt, in another sense its radicalism -- its inhuman thoroughness -- has no precedent in history. Liberals have nothing remotely comparable. //4 The Discovery of Democracy. Humanity has struggled for thousands of years to emerge from the darkness of conservatism.
At every step of the way, conservatism has always had the mla bibliography guidelines advantage of a long historical learning curve. There have always been experts in the running of conservative society. Thesis? Most of the stupid mistakes have been made and forgotten centuries ago. Conservatives have always had the leisure to write careful books justifying their rule. Wizard Of Oz Thesis? Democracy, by contrast, is still very much in an experimental phase. For A? And so, for essay college example, the 1960's were one of the great episodes of civilization in human history, and they were also a time when people did a lot of stupid things like take drugs. The history of democracy has scarcely been written. Formula Statement? Of what has been written, the great majority of democratic theory is based on the ancient Greek model of deliberative democracy.
Much has been written about the Greeks' limitation of citizenship to perhaps 10% of the population. College? But this is not the reason why the Greek model is inapplicable to the modern world. For A? The real reason is that Greek democracy was emphatically predicated on a small city-state of a few thousand people, whereas modern societies have populations in my goals, the tens and hundreds of millions. The obvious adaptation to formula statement, the difficulties of scale has been representation. But as a democratic institution representation has always been ambiguous. For conservatism, representation is a means of reifying social hierarchies. The Founding Fathers thought of themselves as innovators and modernizers, and the myth-making tradition has thoughtlessly agreed with them.
But in reality the US Constitution, as much as the British system it supposedly replaced, is little more than the Aristotelian tripartite model of king, aristocracy, and gentry (supposedly representing the commons), reformed to my goals college, some degree as President, Senate, and House. Thesis? Many people have noted that George Bush is consolidating executive power in a kind of elective kingship, but they have done little to of oz thesis, place the for a thesis statement various elements of Bush's authoritarian institution-molding into historical context. In theoretical terms, though, it has been clear enough that representative democracy provides no satisfactory account of citizenship. Surely a genuine democracy would replace the Aristotelian model? Fortunately, there is little need to replace the Constitution beyond adding a right to privacy.
After all, as historians have noted, Americans almost immediately started using the Constitution in a considerably different way than the Founders intended -- in a democratic fashion, simply put, and not an aristocratic one. The president who claims to be a uniter not a divider is hearkening back to the myth-making of a would-be aristocracy that claims to be impartial and to stand above controversy while systematically using the machinery of mla bibliography guidelines, government to thesis statement, crush its opponents. But his is not the winning side. Not that democracy is a done deal. One recent discovery is that democracy does not mean that everyone participates in everything that affects them. Every citizen of a modern society participates in wizard, hundreds of institutions, and it is impossible to be fully informed about all of them, much less sit through endless meetings relating to all of them. There are too many issues for everyone to formula, be an expert on everything. It follows that citizens in a large modern polity specialize in college, particular issues. In fact this kind of issue entrepreneurship is thesis statement, not restricted to politics. It is central to the making of careers in nearly every institution of society.
Conservatism claims to own the theme of entrepreneurship, but then conservatism claims to essay, own every theme. In reality, entrepreneurship on formula thesis statement, the part of the common people is antithetical to conservatism, and conservatism has learned and taught little about the skills of entrepreneurship, most particularly the entrepreneurial cognition that identifies opportunities for various sorts of useful careers, whether civic, intellectual, professional, or economic. Entrepreneurship is not just for economic elites, and in fact never has been. One part of democracy, contrary to much socialist teaching, is the democratization of goods and guidelines skills, entrepreneurial skills for example, that had formerly been associated with the elite. American society has diverged dramatically from that of statement, Europe largely because of the democratization of entrepreneurship, and paper writers that trend should continue with the formula statement writing down and teaching of generalized entrepreneurial skills. The real discovery is that democracy is a particular kind of social organization of knowledge -- a sprawling landscape of overlapping knowledge spheres and essay of discipline a creative tension on any given issue between the experts and the laity. It is not a hierarchical divide between the for a thesis knowledge-authorities in mla bibliography, the professions and a deferential citizenry; instead it democratizes the skills of knowledge-making among a citizenry that is plugged together in for a statement, ways that increasingly resemble the paper writers institutional and cognitive structures of the professions. This generalized application of entrepreneurial skills in the context of a knowledge-intensive society -- and not simply the multiplication of associations that so impressed Tocqueville -- is civil society.
The tremendous fashion for civil society as a necessary complement and counterbalance to the state in a democracy, as launched in the 1980's by formula for a thesis people like John Keane, has been one of the most hopeful aspects of recent democratic culture. Indeed, one measure of the success of the discourse of civil society has been that conservatism has felt the need to destroy it by means of distorted theories of civil society that place the populace under the tutelage of the aristocracy and mla bibliography the cultural authorities that serve it. Economics, unfortunately, is still dominated by the ancien regime. This consists of three schools. Neoclassical economics is founded (as Philip Mirowski has argued) on superficial, indeed incoherent analogies to the mathematics of formula thesis, classical mechanics whose main notion is equilibrium. Thesis? Economies, it is held, are dynamic systems that are constantly moving to an optimal equilibrium, and formula thesis government intervention will only move the economy to the wrong equilibrium. For a long time this theory has dominated academic economics for the simple reason that it provides a simple formula for creating a model of any economic phenomenon. Its great difficulty is guidelines, that it ignores essentially all issues of information and institutions -- important topics in for a statement, the context of any modern economy. Austrian economics (associated with Hayek and Mises) began in my goals essay, the context of debates about the practicability of central planning in socialism; as such, it is organized around an opposition between centralized economies (bad) and decentralized economies (good). Although preferable in some ways to neoclassicism in its emphasis on information and institutions, as well as its rhetorical emphasis on entrepreneurship, it is thesis, nonetheless hopelessly simplistic.
It has almost no practitioners in guidelines, academia for formula for a thesis the simple reason that it is nearly useless for analyzing any real phenomena. A third school, a particular kind of game theory based on the work of John Nash, does have elaborate notions about information and at least a sketchy way of modeling institutions, and as a result has established itself as the major academic alternative to essay writers, neoclassicism. Unfortunately Nash game theory's foundations are no better than those of neoclassicism. Whereas neoclassicism, though ultimately incoherent, is actually a powerful and useful way of thinking about the economy, Nash game theory is based, as Mirowski again has argued, on a disordered model of relationships between people. Fortunately it has no particular politics. The state of economics is unfortunate for statement democracy. Conservatism runs on ideologies that bear only writers a tangential relationship to reality, but democracy requires universal access to accurate theories about a large number of formula statement, nontrivial institutions.
The socialist notion of economic democracy essentially imports the Greek deliberative model into the workplace. Essay? As such it is probably useful as a counter to conservative psychologies of internalized deference that crush people's minds and prevent useful work from being done. It is, however, not remotely adequate to the reality of an interconnected modern economy, in formula statement, which the workplace is hardly a natural unit. A better starting place is with analysis of the practical work of producing goods in social systems of actual finite human beings -- that is, with analysis of essay on the value, information and institutions, as for example in the singular work of Thorstein Veblen, John Commons, Joseph Schumpeter, Karl Polanyi, John von Neumann, Mark Casson, Joseph Stiglitz, Paul David, Bruno Latour, and Michel Callon. This work emphasizes knowledge and the very general social conditions that are required to produce and use it. Simply put, knowledge is best produced in a liberal culture. This is formula, why the most prosperous and innovative regions of the United States are also the most politically liberal, and why the wizard of oz populism most conservative regions of the formula thesis country are also the greatest beneficiaries of transfer payments. Liberals create wealth and government redistributes it to conservatives. This is, of thesis, course, the opposite of the received conservative opinion in the media, and indeed in most of academia. But it is true. Another connection between democracy and a modern economy is the statement democratic nature of entrepreneurialism.
People who reflexively defer to their social betters will never learn the social skills that are needed to found new types of social relationships. This was clear enough in the interregnum in the 19th century between the fall of the American gentry and the rise of the modern corporation. An economy of generalized entrepreneurialism, moreover, requires an elaborate institutional matrix that is part public and part private. As scholars such as Linda Weiss have argued, the conservative spectre of a conflict between government and entrepreneurial activity is my goals essay, unrelated to the reality of entrepreneurship. To be sure, much has been learned about the thesis statement kinds of government policies that do and do not lay the foundation for economic dynamism. It is quite correct, for example, that direct price controls in competitive commodity markets rarely accomplish anything. (Labor markets are a much more complicated case, in very much the ways that neoclassical economics exists to ignore.) Free trade would also be a good thing if it existed; in walmart essay, practice trade is distorted by subsidies and by uneven regulation of externalities such as pollution, and free trade negotiations are a kind of power politics that differs little from the gunboat diplomacy that opened markets in a one-sided way in former times. The point is scarcely that markets are inherently democratic. The economic properties of infrastructure and knowledge create economies of scale that both produce cheap goods (a democratic effect) and concentrate power (an anti-democratic effect).
Conservatives employ the democratic rhetoric of entrepreneurialism to promote the opposite values of corporate centralization. But the 19th century's opinions about the political and economic necessity of antitrust are still true. More importantly, a wide range of public policies is required to facilitate a democratic economy and the more general democratic values on which it depends. Lastly, an important innovation of democracy during the sixties was the thesis statement rights revolution. Rights are democratic because they are limits to arbitrary authority, and walmart essay people who believe they have rights cannot be subjected to conservatism. Conservative rhetors have attacked the rights revolution in numerous ways as a kind of demotic chatter that contradicts the eternal wisdom of the conservative order. Thesis? For conservatism, not accepting one's settled place in the traditional hierarchy of orders and classes is a kind of arrogance, and wizard populism conservative vocabulary is full of phrases such as self-important. Institutions, for statement conservatism, are more important than people. For democracy, by mla bibliography guidelines contrast, things are more complicated. The rights revolution is statement, hardly perfect. But the main difficulty with it is just that it is not enough.
A society is not founded on rights alone. Democracy requires that people learn and practice a range of essay value, nontrivial social skills. But then people are not likely to learn or practice those skills so long as they have internalized a conservative psychology of deference. The rights revolution breaks this cycle. For the civil rights movement, for example, learning to read was not simply a means of formula for a, registering to vote, but was also a means of liberation from the psychology of conservatism. Democratic institutions, as opposed to the inherited mysteries of conservative institutions, are made of the everyday exercise of advanced social skills by people who are liberated in this sense. //5 How to Defeat Conservatism. Conservatism is almost gone. People no longer worship the pharaohs.
If the gentry were among us today we would have no notion of paper writers, what they were talking about. Thesis Statement? For thousands of years, countless people have worked for the values of mla bibliography guidelines, democracy in ways large and small. The industrialized vituperations of conservative propaganda measure their success. To defeat conservatism today, the main thing we have to do is to explain what it is and what is wrong with it. This is easy enough. * Rebut conservative arguments. This is my most important prescription. Liberals win political victories through rational debate. But after a victory is won, liberals tend to drop the issue and move along.
As a result, whole generations have grown up without ever hearing the arguments in favor of, for example, Social Security. Instead they have heard massive numbers of conservative arguments against liberalism, and these arguments have generally gone unrebutted. In order to save civilization, liberals need a new language, one in which it is easy to express rebuttals to the particular crop of conservative arguments of the last few decades. And the way to invent that language is just to start rebutting the arguments, all of them. This means literally dozens of new arguments each day. Do not assume that rebutting conservative arguments is easy, or that a few phrases will suffice. Do not even assume that you know what is wrong with the formula statement conservative arguments that you hear, or even indeed what those arguments are, since they are often complicated and essay value confusing in their internal structure. Do not just repeat a stock response that worked for some previous generation of liberals, because your audience has already heard that response and already knows what the counterargument is. Conservative rhetors have invested tremendous effort in working around liberals' existing language.
In the old days, racists were racists and polluters were polluters. Formula Statement? But those old labels do not win arguments any more. Liberals must now provide new answers in plain language to the questions that ordinary citizens, having heard the arguments of conservatism, now have. Mla Bibliography? Do environmental regulations work? Why do we protect the civil liberties of terrorists? Are liberals anti-American? What do we need government for anyway? * Benchmark the Wall Street Journal. The Wall Street Journal's opinion page is the most important conservative publication, and it is often described as a bulletin board for formula for a thesis the conservatism. A better metaphor, however, would be a war room. Day by day, the Wall Street Journal's editors detect liberal arguments coming over the horizon, and immediately they gather up and distribute the arguments that conservatives will need to rebut them.
Since the retirement of short on the of discipline, its late editor Robert Bartley, the Journal's opinion page has become more sophisticated. The crude lies and formula for a statement belligerent irrationality of the wizard of oz populism thesis Bartley era have not disappeared, but they have certainly been attenuated. Daniel Henninger in particular does something interesting with clouds of associations that are subrational but not quite fallacious. Liberals should not imitate the antireason of the Journal or other distribution channels of formula for a, conservative opinion. Instead, as part of the hard work of inventing democracy, it will be necessary to tell the difference between methods that liberals ought to be applying in short value, their own work, such as the day-to-day rebuttal of arguments, and formula thesis statement methods that liberals need to analyze and place in mla bibliography, the same category as the formula thesis statement priesthood of Egypt. * Build a better pundit. Political pundits in the media today are overwhelmingly conservative, and the few liberal pundits are overwhelmingly journalists rather than ideologists. It is wizard populism thesis, difficult to identify a single pundit in the media who consistently explicates liberal ideology. Statement? It is time to build a democratic punditry. To start with, everyone in my goals college, a modern democracy ought to receive practical instruction in the communication genres of the for a thesis statement mass media. Essay On The Of Discipline? There is no reason why every student cannot learn to write a clear 700-word op-ed column that traces an formula statement arc from a news hook to some ideology to a new and useful argument that wins elections.
A society in college, which the average citizen writes an occasional op-ed column would certainly be a step toward democracy. But even if the skills of punditry are widespread, there is no substitute for professional pundits who can make brand names of themselves in formula for a, the media, and talented people will not make careers out of democratic punditry until they are reasonably assured of being able to make money at it. This is where think tanks and their philanthropic funders come in. Universities do not substitute for think tanks, because research is quite a different activity from punditry. Simply put, professional pundits need a wide variety of fallback options between media gigs. Conservative pundits grow fat on their own think tanks, and liberals need their own war rooms of democratic reason. * Say something new. Conservative rhetors win audiences largely because the things they are saying seem new.
People who read them or listen to them continually get the impression that they are being informed. If news and opinion editors seem biased against liberals, one reason is simply that liberals are not delivering the goods. Whenever you get ready to express a political opinion in the media, first ask whether you have ever heard that opinion in of oz thesis, the media before (as opposed, for example, to scholarly works). If so, figure out what the counterarguments are -- because there will be counterarguments -- and then proceed to base your column on the counterarguments to that. Get ahead of the curve. Democracy requires that the great majority of citizens be capable of formula thesis, logical thought. The West, starting with the Greeks, has always taught logic in a narrow way. Logic does include the syllogism, but it also includes a great deal of savoir faire about what constitutes a good argument, a good counterargument, and mla bibliography a good counterargument to formula for a, that.
In particular, the citizen must have a kind of map of the arguments. A caller to Rush Limbaugh said that liberals can't do the arguments, and he was right. Existing curricula on critical thinking are unfortunately very weak. Guidelines? They should be founded on close analysis of actual irrationality. Many on the left unfortunately abandon reason because they believe that the actual basis of politics is something they call power.
People like this have no notion of what power is. For A Thesis Statement? For example, they will argue that reason is useless because the powers that be will not listen to reason. This is thesis, confusion. The purpose of statement, reason is not to mla bibliography guidelines, petition the authorities but to statement, help other citizens to cut through the essay paper darkness of conservative deception. Others on the left believe that reason is the property of the elite. This is true historically, but that is simply because the essence of formula thesis statement, conservatism is to deprive the walmart essay common people of the formula thesis statement capacity to writers, engage in democracy. Many bad theories of statement, democracy actually reinforce conservatism, and this is one of them. Similarly, others on the left argue that requiring politics to be based on reason tilts the playing field in favor of the elite.
This is historically true as well, and politics based on money does the same thing. But that is reality. The fact, again, is paper, that democracy needs the citizenry to be educated, and formula for a thesis statement the skills of reason are the wizard of oz thesis foundation of democratic education. Democracy cannot be established in any other way. Aristocratic rule is not reinforced by the use of reason. The situation is for a thesis, quite the essay on social reverse: in order to fight off democratic values, conservatism must simulate reason, and pretend that conservative deception is itself reason when it is formula statement, not.
Many conservative pundits, George Will and Thomas Sowell for example, make their living saying illogical things in a reasonable tone of voice. Democracy will be impossible until the great majority of my goals college, citizens can identify in reasonable detail just how this trick works. * Conservatism is the problem. Contemporary conservatism's discourse is engineered with tremendous sophistication to get past the specific arguments that liberals know how to make. Conservative strategists, moreover, are willing to achieve their goals incrementally, depending on the arguments that liberals are capable of making at a given moment. Of course it is important for liberals to make the arguments against formula for a statement, each increment. But it is more important to explain what conservatism is in general, and short of discipline then to statement, explain what is wrong with it. For example, I once heard Rush Limbaugh discussing with a listener how school vouchers were just a conservative tactic, and how conservatives' real goal was to eliminate public funding for education altogether. This is the sort of mla bibliography guidelines, thing that loses elections, and yet I have never heard a liberal pundit discuss it. The extreme nature of conservatism -- not just the extremity of its rhetoric but the oppressiveness of for a thesis statement, its prescriptions for society -- is clear enough in the conservatives' own literature, but American culture no longer has the categories to identify what it is. Short Essay Value Of Discipline? Indeed, one can hear fascism, never mind conservatism, on for a thesis statement, the radio any day of the week.
But Americans have mostly forgotten what fascism even is, so that they can listen to fascist rhetoric and it will actually sound kind of fresh. * Critically analyze leftover conservative theories. Liberal ideology is in disarray. After all, conservative ideology has dominated human thought for thousands of years, and of oz it takes concentrated effort to liberate oneself from formula for a thesis statement, it. Such intellectual liberation will never happen without a detailed history of walmart essay, conservative theories -- which is to say, the ways in which these theories have been designed to thesis statement, subordinate people's minds to a hierarchical social order dominated by essay paper an aristocracy. Lacking such a history, liberal ideology draws in random and formula for a thesis confused ways on conservatism, giving it a sentimental update without particularly changing it. Or else liberalism spins out into something wishfully called radicalism, which at best inverts conservatism into something that does not work as well and does not liberate anyone either. A genuine tradition of liberatory social thought does indeed exist, but it must be disentangled from its opposite. As an example, let us consider the notion of social capital, which has been fashionable among both conservatives and liberals for some time now.
The conservative version of the of oz populism social capital is a medieval ideology that justifies the hierarchical conservative order in terms of the values of community. This medieval notion of community is particularistic in nature: everyone in a community is knitted to for a thesis statement, everyone else through a system of walmart essay, roles and relationships into which they are born, and which they supposedly accept and love. This network of relationships is made to sound harmonious, and objections to it are made to sound divisive, by neglecting to mention the oppression of the life-long hierarchical bonds that make it up. This is the kind of thesis statement, society whose passing Tocqueville lamented, and my goals college that is at the core of modern conservatism in authors such as Robert Nisbet. For Nisbet, modernity could only formula for a thesis be understood in problems, a negative way as an erosion of the particular types of community and order that traditional institutions provided. This is what many conservatives mean when they value social capital, regret its decline, and urge its revival. This notion of social capital should be contrasted, for example, with Ernest Gellner's notion of the modern democratic citizen as modular, that is, as capable of moving about within the society, building and rebuilding relationships and associations of diverse sorts, because of a set of social skills and social institutions that facilitate a generalized, dynamic mobility. The modular citizen gets a place in for a thesis statement, society not through birth or the on social in america bonds of an formula inherited order but through a gregarious kind of entrepreneurial innovation.
The difficulty with too many liberal notions of social capital is that they are oblivious to the tension between conservatism and democracy. As a result, they are vague and ambiguous as to the nature of social capital, how it might be measured, and what kinds of institutions might erode or encourage it. For example, a theory of walmart essay, social capital that locates it in plain numbers of social network connections is insufficient because it undervalues social skills and overvalues particularistic forms of community that are not adaptive in a dynamic modern economy. This is how liberals end up quoting Tocqueville and sounding indistinguishable from for a thesis statement, conservative theorists of essay on the value, intermediary institutions. Social capital is just one example of a general crisis of liberal ideology. The first step in resolving this crisis to get clear about what conservatism is and for a thesis what is wrong with it. Post-sixties, many liberals consider themselves to be watered-down Marxists. They subscribe to a left-to-right spectrum model of politics in which they, as democrats, are located in some hard-to-identify place sort-of-somewhat-to-the-left-of-center, whereas the Marxists have the high ground of a clear and definite location at the end of the spectrum. These liberals would be further out on the left if they could find a politically viable way to do it. Wizard Thesis? Conservative rhetors concur with this model, and indiscriminately calling liberals communists is back in formula for a statement, style.
This is all nonsense. Marxism is not located anywhere on a spectrum. It is just mistaken. It fails to describe the real world. Attempts to implement it simply created an ugly and shallow imitation of conservatism at essay, its worst. Democracy is the right way to live, and conservatism is the wrong way. Marx was a brilliant analyst for his time. His analysis of technology's role in for a, the economy was wholly original.
He was the first to analyze the structural dynamism of a capitalist economy. Essay On Social In America? But his theory of modern society was superficial. It overgeneralized from the situation of its time: the recent discovery of economies of for a thesis, scale, crude market institutions, no modern separation of ownership and control, and a small middle class. Marx followed the political economy of essay, his day in analyzing markets as essentially independent of the state. But this is not remotely the case. One difficulty with Marx, which is the topic of a vast literature, is that his theory requires a periodization of history that does not correspond to historical reality. Capitalism, for formula for a statement example, is supposed to be a discrete totality, but claimed starting dates for this totality range across a good four hundred years. College? His economistic analysis of society, though indisputably productive in the way that many powerfully wrong ideas are, makes history seem more discontinuous than it is.
In fact, the relationship between conservatism and democracy is more or less constant throughout thousands of years of history. One evidence of this, for example, is Orlando Patterson's stunning discovery that Western notions of freedom were invented by former slaves in the ancient world and have remained more or less constant ever since. In economic terms, Marx's theory is mistaken because he did not analyze the role the formula statement capitalist plays as entrepreneur. The entrepreneur does an essay important and distinctive type of work in inventing new ways to bring together diverse factors of production. Now in fact the nature of this work has remained largely hidden throughout history for a wide variety of reasons. Because Marx had no notion of it, the capitalist's profit seemed to statement, him simple theft. It does not follow, though, that entrepreneurs earn all of mla bibliography, their money. The theories of mainstream economics notwithstanding, serious how-to manuals for entrepreneurs are quite clear that the entrepreneur is trying to identify a market failure, because market failures are how you make money. The relationship between entrepreneurship and the state is formula thesis statement, much more complicated than economics has even tried to theorize. Capitalists, moreover, are not a class. Particular networks of capitalists and other well-off or otherwise connected personages may well try to constitute themselves as an aristocracy, but this is a phenomenon with several more dimensions than just economics.
Nor is Marxism of any use as politics. All that Marx offered to people who worked in deadening factory jobs was that they could take over the factory. While unions and collective bargaining exist in many contexts for good economic reasons, they are an essentially medieval system of negotiations among orders and classes. They presuppose a generally static economy and society. They are irrelevant to knowledge-intensive forms of work. Nor do they provide any kind of foundation for democratic politics. People want their kids to be professionals, not factory workers, and democracy helps people to knit themselves into the complicated set of guidelines, institutions that enable people to build unique and productive lives.
Despite all of the conservative attacks, American English remains a useful language. For A Thesis? So use it, and learn to say democratic things in essay in america, it. There is a style of academic theory-talk that claims to be advanced and sophisticated but actually lacks any precision. Privilege, for formula statement example, is not a verb. If new words are needed and are actually good for analyzing the deception of walmart essay, conservatism or the invention of democracy, go ahead and teach them. Integrate them into the vernacular language. While you are at it, forget the whole strategy of the counterculture. For A? Be the culture instead. * Stop surrendering powerful words. Many liberals abandon any word that conservatives start using.
That means, since conservatives systematically lay claim to every word of the English language, that liberals have been systematically surrendering powerful words such as family, nation, truth, science, tradition, and religion. This has made it increasingly difficult for liberals to explain what they believe. There is no alternative: if conseratives have been twisting a powerful word, then you have to explain in essay college, concise American English what the word really means and how the for a conservatives have distorted it. Populism? Contest the signifiers. Use the words. * Tipper Gore is right. Snoop Dogg's music really is for a statement, garbage. Some liberals, however, argue that racists hate rap and so therefore any disapproval of rap abets racism. This is bad logic and stupid politics.
If racists hate rap then the logical, rational, politically efficacious thing to do is to say that some rap is mla bibliography, good and some rap is bad, and that good rap is an art form like any other, and that the bad rap exists because the people who rap it are bad people. Do not be afraid of losing contact with young people. If all you know about youth culture is Snoop Dogg, then I suppose it is time for some focus groups. Use the focus groups to identify language that Martin Luther King would approve of. Besides, there is plenty of good politics in mass culture, as cultural studies professors have explained at length. Nor should you be afraid of losing campaign contributions from the entertainment industry.
The Hollywood moneybags will keep funding liberal candidates for the simple reason that many conservatives really do support censorship, where liberals do not. That said, there is certainly a disconnect between some liberal entertainers and the liberals who win elections. Formula Thesis? Some entertainers are willing to get up on stage and on the value embarrass John Kerry. Scorn them. * Assess the sixties. Make a list of the positive and lasting contributions of the sixties. Americans would benefit from formula for a statement, such a list. The spiritual leader of modern liberalism, Martin Luther King, taught nonviolence. This has been narrowly construed in terms of wizard of oz thesis, not killing people. But, as King made clear, it has other meanings as well.
You have to love your enemies. This is difficult: the reality of for a thesis statement, conservatism is so extreme that it is difficult even to discuss without sounding hateful. Essay On Social Problems? There is formula for a, also an intellectual dimension to nonviolence. Mla Bibliography? Nonviolence means, among other things, not cooperating in the destruction of formula for a statement, conscience and language. Essay? Nonviolence implies reason. Analyze the various would-be aristocracies, therefore, and explain them in formula for a statement, plain language, but do not stereotype them. Nonviolence also has an epistemological dimension. Few of us have the on social in america skill to hate with a clear mind.
Conservatism is very complicated, and you cannot defeat it by shouting slogans. Formula For A? This is the difficulty with Michael Moore. He talks American, which is good. But he is not intellectually nonviolent. He is not remotely as bad as Ann Coulter, and mla bibliography guidelines liberals have criticized him much more thoroughly than conservatives have criticized Ann Coulter. But he is not a model for liberal politics. There is statement, no doubt that Martin Luther King would be in on social in america, George Bush's face. But how? That is why liberals need a language. * Tell the taxpayers what they are getting for their money. Civilization requires a substantial number and variety of formula for a thesis statement, public services, which in essay paper writers, turn require moderate and reasonable amounts of taxes.
Despite decades of conservative rhetoric, a majority of Americans are perfectly happy to pay their taxes. And yet liberals keep letting conservatives clobber them with rhetoric that makes taxes sound like a bad thing. Formula For A Statement? It is time for liberals to stop losing this argument. To start with, do not talk about amounts of money (we should spend $15 billion on health care). Instead, talk about what the essay paper money buys (we should provide medical care to 15 million children). And stop letting Bush call his tax policies tax cuts: he is not cutting those taxes; he is for a thesis statement, just postponing them. * Make government work better for wizard populism thesis small business. The market continually undermines both conservatism and democracy. Formula? Both systems must continually improvise to accommodate it. The difference is that conservatism pretends to be a timeless order whereas democracy is essay paper writers, all about formula statement, experiment, innovation, and entrepreneurial culture.
Conservatives have historically tried to include entrepreneurs in their coalition, even though conservatism is almost the opposite walmart essay, of the cultural conditions of a modern economy. Formula Thesis? A certain amount of tension between democracy and the market is indeed irreducible. But a great deal has been learned about markets and their relationship to government, and the democratic culture of wizard of oz, innovation can reduce the unnecessary tensions between small business and government while providing for social values such as urban design, consumer information, and thesis the environment. An excellent example of essay writers, this is duplicative paperwork. Small business people must often fill out dozens of formula for a thesis statement, forms for mla bibliography various government bureaucracies. This is a significant expense. These forms should be combined and given a clean and unified interface. The bureaucracies, however, each analyze things in their own incompatible ways, and so the statement forms cannot simply be merged. Like much of my goals, democracy, this is an interesting design matter. * Clone George Soros. George Soros is an excellent citizen.
Conservatism has gotten so out of sync with the conditions of a modern economy that significant numbers of wealthy people, especially young entrepreneurs who live and breathe the liberal culture that makes successes like theirs possible, would be happy to help build the institutions that a democratic society needs. What is needed right now are institutions that train people to win arguments for democracy in the mass media. Antireason has become thoroughly established in the media, and it will take real work to invent languages of reason that are fresh and thesis cool. And this work just costs money. * Build the Democratic Party. Your model should be Pat Robertson. He is as extreme on the right as anybody in the United States is on the left. Yet his people took over essay writers, large parts of the formula Republican Party.
They did this in three ways: laboriously designing a mainstream-sounding language, identifying large numbers of talented activists and training them in the day-to-day work of issue and essay on the value of discipline party politics, and building their own communications systems. Formula Thesis Statement? Liberals should do the of oz populism same. Now, many liberals argue that the formula for a Democratic Party would magically start winning again if it would only move to the left. This is of oz populism, lazy nonsense. The Democratic Party has moved to the right for the simple reason that liberals do not have a language that wins elections.
To take over the Democratic Party, liberals need to replace the left-wing policies that do not work and, for the policies that do work, get a language that moves 51% of likely voters to vote Democratic. Other liberals argue that the Democratic Party, and formula for a statement the system in general, are irretrievably broken, and that they must build a third party, such as the wizard Green Party with its endorsement of Ralph Nader. For A Thesis Statement? The difficulties with this notion are hard to count. For one, splitting the left is a certain recipe for centuries of aristocratic domination. For another, building a party with only people who share your opinions to essay problems, the nth degree is a certain recipe for factionalism and isolation. For another, the Green Party is statement, a chaotic mess that has no serious chance of becoming a mass-based political party. Life under aristocratic domination is horrible. The United States is my goals essay, blessed to have little notion of what this horror is like. Europe, for example, staggered under the weight of its aristocracies for thousands of years. European aristocracies are in decline, and Europe certainly has its democratic heroes and its own dawning varieties of civilized life, and yet the psychology and institutions that the aristocracies left behind continue to make European societies rigid and blunt Europeans' minds with layers of internalized oppression.
People come to America to get away from all of that. Conservatism is as alien here as it could possibly be. Only through the most comprehensive campaign of for a thesis, deception in human history has it managed to establish its very tentative control of the country's major political institutions. Conservatism until very recently was quite open about the fact that it is incompatible with the modern world. That is right.
The modern world is on the of discipline, a good place, and it will win.