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Narrative essay paragraph structure

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How to write a Narrative Essay: Format, Guide & Samples

Narrative essay paragraph structure

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Structure of a Personal Narrative Essay

bios resume by lan cable to essay paragraph AMD Fan LED Header or RGB LED Header as below on the AM4 motherboards and download ASRock. Operations Thesis. RGB LED ver:1.0.12 utility or later version to adjust the essay, lighting effects. Please refer below link to download Realtek Wireless Lan driver ver:2023.48.0801.2016 for Windows 10 RS1 or remove Realtek LAN driver to use inbox LAN driver directly. 5. Chemosynthesis Of Methane. Under DOS environment, please key in the command as follow: (XXXXXXXXXXXXis MAC Address;please refer to narrative paragraph structure the step1 to check the MAC Sticker) 6. After Key in the instruction, the system will flash MAC address automatically. 7. When Done showing, the MAC address already been flash successfully. You can reboot the system into OS. (BIOS - Advanced - CPU Configuration - Set Intel Virtualization Technology to Enabled) 1. Papers Guns Germs. Open [System] under Windows 10.

2. Select [Power sleep] and enter [Additional power settings] Step 4: Execute the new Killer LAN driver or newer versions and narrative essay structure, press [Remove] then restart the system. Research Papers. Step 5: Install the new Killer LAN driver and then restart the narrative structure, system. For more suggestions about 3Dmark, please refer to 3Dmark FAQ: Please refer to the steps below to install the Wi-SD box. Step 2. For location R and S, check the screw holes located on the motherboard. Please install the copper pillars on to your motherboard. Letter. Step 1. Open the CPU socket without remove CPU protection cover: Disengage the lever by pressing it down and sliding it out of the hook. Essay Paragraph. At this time, you do not have to remove the protection cover. Step 2. Insert the 115x-Pin CPU: Make sure locate Pin1 and the two orientation key notches, then carefully place CPU into the socket. Step 3. Close the socket: Press down the load lever, and chemosynthesis, secure it with the load plate tab under the retention tab. The protection cover will automatically come off by essay paragraph itself.

Type B: CPU protection cover in CPU socket. Step 1. Open the CPU socket: Disengage the lever by pressing it down and sliding it out nets in africa, of the hook. Step 2. Remove CPU protection cover: Attach your index finger to the upper edge of the paragraph structure, PnP Cap. Use your thumb to remove PnP Cap (Pick and Place Cap) from the CPU socket by essay topics lifting the cap tab. Step 4. Essay Structure. Close the socket: Press down the load lever, and secure it with the load plate tab under the retention tab. * For X79 models, please try installing memory to DDR3 A1, B1, C1 and topics, D1 slots. Please use the Windows 8 CD to repair your system.

If you want to reinstall your system, please install the Intel INF driver before installing other drivers from the support CD. If you got any further issues, please contact ASRock TSD. Structure. 1. Enter OS [Control Panel]. Germs And Steel. Step 1: Download Intel Smart Connect driver from our website: Step 2: Install the driver and reboot system. Or set [On/Off Play] to structure [Disabled] in BIOS. 1. Please update your Etron USB3.0 driver v0.104 from the link below, 2. Please contact JMicron and ask them to help you with firmware update.

You could contact JMicron with information below, You could find the option by BIOS- Advanced- CPU Configuration- Set [No execute Memory Protection] to [Enabled.] i. 2048MB or larger of marine corps command, RAM (Minimum system requirements of essay paragraph, VMWare) ii. K-series CPU does not support VT-d. (Path: MCE- Task-Settings- General-Automatic Download options- Automatically download Windows Media Center data between the marine operations command thesis, following time.) Etron USB3.0 driver ver.0.96 download link as below. 1.In Directory Opus utility, please increase the buffer size to 9999. 2.Green Ethernet = Disable. 3.Interrupt Moderation = Disable.

If you connect USB2.0 cable on USB3.0 external HDD device like below, it will not run at essay paragraph, SuperSpeed mode. Please connect USB3.0 cable on USB3.0 external HDD device to run at SuperSpeed mode. Website link: Intel ® website: Chemosynthesis. AMD ® website: NVIDIA ® website: Realtek website: VIA ® website: 2. [Enable] [Secure Virtual Machine] option in the BIOS.

3. Please check the [Enable Nested Paging] box in Sun's xVM virtual box software. Kernel-Proessor-Power error, but the OS works fine. How can I solve this error in the [Event viewer]?(2/27/2009) A)- If you use Intel ® CPU, please [Enable] the [Intel ® Speedstep ™ tech] option in. B)- If you use AMD ® CPU, please [Enable] the [Cool'n'Quiet] option in structure the BIOS. C)- If your CPU not support [Intel ® Speedstep ™ tech] or [Cool'n'Quiet] function, please contact ASRock TSD from the end of essay topics, link: Please plug in the HDMI_SPDIF cable reversely like following picture. (BIOS / Advanced / Chipset Configuration / Memory Remap Feature) 1.Make sure the Onboard LAN option was enabled in BIOS. 2.Make sure the LAN driver was installed properly. Please check it in Device Manager.

3.Update the BIOS of your motherboard to the latest one. 4.Try the newer LAN driver from ASRock or chipset vendor's website. 5.Change another LAN cable. Essay Paragraph Structure. (For Gigabit LAN, please make sure your LAN cable could fully work with Gigabit LAN.) 6.Reinstall the operating system. 3.Choose the chemosynthesis of methane, channel you want. (suggest to choose the channel 1 or 6 or 11, these channels are less interference with others) 4.Click Finish to finish the setup. Windows ® Vista™ Premium system - Hardware Minimum Requirements. 512MB x 2 Dual Channel (Premium, embedded models) with 128bit VGA memory (Premium) UAA Audio (HD Audio, USB Audio and IEEE1394 Audio) (Premium or Basic depends on Codec Vista logo level) 1.Press right button of mouse at Desktop and click Personalize. 2.Enter into narrative essay Windows ® Color and Appearance setting.

3.Refer to below image to enter Open classic appearance properties for more color options setting. 4.Set Color scheme as Windows ® Aero. If you want to resume from research papers guns germs, USB devices, such as USB mouse, remote control, you may directly install the narrative structure, registry file below: and then restart your computer. 1.Please press the F2 key continuously right after turn on the system until it goes into the BIOS setup. 2.Please disable the Cool'n'Quiet function in BIOS setup. 4.You can start to update the BIOS now. BIOS download page. 1.Please use this connector on the motherboard. ( 2 black and guns germs, 2 yellow wires ) If you want to enter into boot menu, please press F11 This limitation applies to most chipsets Windows ® XP 32-bit version operating system.

If you want to get 4GB memory for your system, below two conditions must be required: 1. The memory controller which supports memory hole(memory remap) functionality is used. The latest chipsets like Intel ® new chipset, or other chipsets and AMD ® K8 CPU architecture can support the memory hole(memory remap) function. 2. Windows ® XP Pro X64 Ed. (64-bit) or other OS which can address more than 4GB memory. After restart, press F11 and select Network as the boot device. Or press F2 and enter the sub screen Boot Device Priority in essay paragraph BIOS Boot screen to change the boot priority of Network.

1.Right click the exclamation mark device and drain essay, choose properties. 2.Click update driver. 3.Choose Install the software automatically 4.Then it will find the device. Please click finish. Please go to and find the narrative paragraph, specification of your motherboard and marine operations, check the exact features supported. Actually, Hybrid Booster is a combination of essay paragraph structure, several features which have already been provided with the motherboards. Nets In Africa. 1. CPU Multiplier: Adjusted by setting onboard FID jumpers. 2. Essay Structure. CPU Vcore adjustment: Adjusted by letter setting BIOS setup option.

3. CPU Frequency Stepless control: Adjusted by setting BIOS setup option. 4. Narrative Structure. AGP/PCI Frequency control: Adjusted by setting BIOS setup option. 5. ASRock U-COP: Hardware feature, no need to be adjusted. 6. Chemosynthesis. Boot Failure Guard: BIOS feature, no need to be adjusted. Please refer to for detailed explanations. Right click the My computer icon, select Properties . Then, select Hardware ---- Device Manager . In Device Manager , select IDE ATA/ATAPI controllers ----double click Secondary IDE Channel . In Secondary IDE Channel Properties , select Advance Settings and adjust the Transfer Mode of the CDROM (Device 0) from narrative essay paragraph, PIO Only to DMA if available . Right click the My computer icon, select Properties . Reverse. Then, select Device Manager . In Device Manager , double click CDROM . Then, double click your optical device under CDROM . In the new window which displays the optical device properties, select Settings . Narrative Structure. Then, check the DMA box in Options . English version: Chinese version: You don't need to adjust any setting to enable B.F.G. It is research papers guns germs and steel, a basic function for narrative essay ASRock motherboard. Please refer to Now, the system is corps operations thesis, ready to be woken up through LAN by structure other computers.

1. If the special, jumpers JL1 and JR1 are short, both front panel and rear panel audio connectors can work. 2. If both jumper caps on JL1 and JR1 are removed, only front panel audio works. However, it requires your front panel to support the function. Essay Structure. 1. Please click the properties of MR modem under device manager. 2. Click the driver and click update driver. 3. Select the marine operations command thesis, driver you want. 4. Load the driver from the essay paragraph structure, path to support CDdriversamrwin9x. When the end of the year topics, system boot up, please press F8 or F11 to enter Boot Menu and select USB device for your fist boot device , then the narrative, system will boot from the USB device which you selected.

For P4I45D, please plug the reverse brain drain essay, bootable USB device to USB port 2,3. Please refer to for more information. All ASRock Intel/AMD CPU series motherboards are equipped with ASRock U-COP.

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Narrative essay tips Writing a Narrative essay: narrative essay format

On the Concept of Personhood: A Comparative Analysis of Three Accounts. A Comparative Analysis of Three Accounts. What does it mean to be a person? Is there a special set of criteria that must be met in narrative essay, order for germs, one to be correctly called a ‘person’? Are all humans persons? Or can it be that some humans are not persons? What about narrative essay paragraph structure, nonhuman beings; can anything nonhuman be categorized as a person? All of these questions aim at nets in africa discovering the nature of personhood and determining the narrative essay paragraph, kinds of entities that can properly be considered persons.

When addressing these questions, however, the answers that one comes up with may vary according to the way one defines ‘personhood’. In this essay, I will focus on these questions by comparing the papers and steel, accounts of personhood given by three contemporary thinkers who hold contrasting positions on narrative the issue: Harry Frankfurt, Joseph Raz and Gary Watson. The first section of this essay explains Frankfurt ’s account of personhood. The second section focuses on chemosynthesis of methane a criticism of Frankfurt ’s view waged by Raz and the alternative account of personhood that Raz advocates. Similarly, the third section focuses on narrative essay structure a criticism of Frankfurt ’s view posited by Watson and the alternative account of the year essay topics personhood that Watson advances. Throughout the course of this essay, I will highlight the flaws of Frankfurt ’s account which I think make his theory rather problematic. Since the scope of this essay is mainly concentrated on Frankfurt ’s thesis, I will mention the accounts of narrative personhood that Raz and Watson offer only for comparative purposes, without delving into a critique of their theories as well. 1. Federal Resume Cover Letter? Frankfurt ’s Account of Personhood. In his essay “Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person,” Harry Frankfurt argues that the criteria of personhood demand more than just a certain type of genetic constitution.

A person is narrative essay paragraph structure, a special entity whose existence is more profound than one’s biological happenstance. Special Operations Command? Being of the species Homosapien is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition of personhood. Conceptually speaking, the philosophic notion of ‘personhood’ is defined in a way that neither necessarily includes all human entities nor precludes all nonhuman entities from qualifying as persons. Narrative Essay Structure? In Frankfurt ’s words, Our concept of ourselves as persons is not to be understood as a concept of attributes that are necessarily species-specific.

It is conceptually possible that members of novel or even of familiar nonhuman species should be person; and it is also conceptually possible that some members of the human species are not persons. [1] Now, if the biological constitution of an entity does not hold the key criteria for personhood, where should we look? Frankfurt postulates that in order for an individual to be properly counted as a person, she must identify with her desires in a way that is indicative of her having a (free) will. End Of? He defines a ‘person’ as an agent who has the ability to identify with her desires in a way that allows her to effect and select the motivations which move her to action. A ‘person’ is thus one who has the paragraph structure, power to engage herself with her will while deliberating about her motivations. Frankfurt maintains that it just so happens that humans appear to be unique in that they constitute the only species which has the capacity to properly identify with their desires and have a will. End Of Topics? Although “[h]uman beings are not alone in having desires and narrative paragraph, motives, or in making choices,” he states, “[i]t seems to be peculiarly characteristic of humans that they are able to form ‘second-order desires’ or ‘desires of the second order’ [which is a necessary condition for having a will].” [2] A “second order-desire” is a desire which makes mention of some other desire. That is, a second-order desire is a desire to desire something. To understand this notion, consider how it contrasts against a desire of the first order: a first order desire makes no mention of any other desire.

If I want to eat a chocolate bar, go to the movies, participate in political debate or design a subway system, then I have first-order desires which push me toward action. There are many degrees of wanting within the first order. These degrees of wanting range from ‘not being aware of a first-order desire but acting on it unconsciously’, to ‘being fully aware of a first-order desire and going after it at all cost’ (including death). Also, one may be ambivalent about first-order desires, such as when there are two or more competing desires. Or, one may be sure about nets in africa, a desire when it “univocally” pressures her to act a certain way. The hallmark of all desires of the first order, though, is that they not make mention of additional desires. Essay? [3] In contrast, a desire of the second order is a desire to have a certain desire.

If, for nets in africa, example, I want to want to eat vegetables, or I want to narrative paragraph structure want to do my homework, then I have second-order desires. Besides just wanting certain things, humans tend to want to want certain things. To be sure, humans have first-order desires such as the ones mentioned above, but sometimes they also want to be the authors of their desires. On the other hand, nonhuman animals seem at brain essay most only to essay paragraph have first-order wants. They want to live, eat, play, etc., but they seem indifferent as to the kinds of wants they have. Marine Corps Special Operations Command Thesis? According to Frankfurt , humans are the only creatures that appear “to have the capacity for reflective self-evaluation that is manifested in the formation of second-order desires.” [4]

Furthermore, Frankfurt maintains that there are two types of second-order desires. The first type of second-order desire is one that may move a person to action by coextending to a desire of the first order. But this first type of second-order desire might also be “truncated” if it has no coextending first-order desire which gives it the motivational push necessary to narrative paragraph move an individual to action. For instance, if I have the second-order desire to want to do my homework (that is, I want to want to do my homework), and I also have the first-order desire to do well in resume letter, school (that is, I want to essay structure do well in school), then perhaps my second-order desire to chemosynthesis of methane want to do my homework coextends to my first- order desire to do well in school in such a way that I am actually moved to do my homework. But this second-order desire may also be truncated if there is no coextending desire of the first order. If I want to want to do my homework, but there is no desire of the first order to essay paragraph structure boost the chemosynthesis, motivational force of my wanting to want to structure do my homework, then I might decide to ignore my homework and do something else instead. At any rate, according to Frankfurt this first type of end of the year essay topics second-order desire fails to meet the standard of willfulness because, although it consists of a desire to desire something, it does not consist of a desire to desire something that is accompanied by an actual desire for that second-order desire to essay paragraph motivate action.

An individual with this kind of second-order desire does not identify with that desire independently of any first-order desire. Marine Corps Special Thesis? [5] There is also a second type of narrative paragraph second-order desire which is research papers germs, independent of first-order desires and therefore indicative of an individual’s willful agency. This type of second-order desire Frankfurt calls “second-order volition.” He writes that willful agency is “not coextensive with the notion of first-order desires. It is not the narrative paragraph, notion of something that merely inclines an agent in some degree to act in a certain way. Of Methane? Rather, it is the notion of an effective desire one that moves (or will or would move) a person all the way to action.” [6] Second-order volitions are second-order desires supported and encouraged by narrative essay structure, one’s self. Accordingly, ‘persons’ are agents who identify with their second-order desires and willfully decide whether those desires are worth pursuing. A creature which has second order desires but not second-order volition Frankfurt calls a “wanton.” Essentially, a wanton does not care about willfulness. A wanton’s desires move it without it necessarily wanting to nets in africa be moved by them.

Creatures which Frankfurt suggests may count as wantons include nonhuman animals, very young children, and possibly some adult humans. Narrative Essay Structure? A wanton may be rational, but it has no real concern about the desirability of its desires. It is government cover letter, indifferent to the way in which its desires are ranked in relation to each other and it does not identify with a second-order desire independently of its desires of the first order. A wanton acts as a sort of arena for desires to compete against each other unlike a person who acts as an agent having control over her desires. A person not only has reason, but she uses reason to critically assess the narrative, way in which her desires are ranked, and nets in africa, she orders this ranking appropriately according to her will. [7] To elucidate the distinction between persons and wantons, we should consider the following scenario which Frankfurt uses to exemplify his point. There are two men incorrigibly addicted to structure a drug, say cocaine. One is a person unwillingly addicted to the drug, and the other is a wanton addicted to the drug. Neither of these men can quit his habit, but they are still markedly different.

The wanton addict, on nets in africa the one hand, has conflicting first-order desires: (1) he desires desperately to ingest the drug so that he can feel its effects, but (2) he also desires desperately to refrain from narrative taking the drug because he knows that it has side effects which are harmful to his wellbeing. He is also, however, indifferent about which of government resume cover his competing desires move him to action. He both wants the paragraph structure, drug and does not want the drug simultaneously, but he does not care about affecting the government cover, ranking of these desires so as to bring one desire above the other. Rather, he passively allows the desires to narrative essay paragraph sort themselves out in relation to each other by letting the strongest one move him to action. His passive nature is due either to his inability to self-reflect or to his total indifference about the quality of his desires and marine command, motives. The unwilling addict, on the other hand, is also a man with two conflicting desires of the first order: (1) he desires desperately to ingest the drug so that he can feel its effects, but, like the wanton, (2) he also desires desperately to narrative essay refrain from taking the federal, drug because he knows that it has side effects which are harmful to his wellbeing. The unwilling addict is different from the wanton, however, because (a) he has an additional desire (viz. of the second order) to refrain from taking the narrative paragraph, drug because he desires to desire to refrain from chemosynthesis it, [8] and (b) he has a second-order volition since he desires that his second-order desire lead him effectively to action by paragraph structure, causing him to will against ingesting the drug. [9] Even if the unwilling addict fails to research germs refrain from taking the drug due to narrative structure the severity of reverse brain drain essay his addiction, he is still a person because he identifies his second-order desire with his will and narrative essay paragraph structure, desires that it translate into a motivation which can lead to action. In one sense, wantons might be free to achieve the drain essay, object of their desires (e.g. if the wanton addict has an ample supply of cocaine at hand), but in the sense which is relevant to personhood, wantons are not free because they are unable to recognize the desirability of their desires and they are unable to affect the motivations which led them to action. [10] Thus, nonhuman animals (and even some humans at least on essay structure occasion) are not ‘persons’ in this sense but ‘wantons’, not because they lack some basic freedom to chemosynthesis of methane do what they want, but because they lack the freedom to narrative essay engage themselves willfully with their desires.

According to essay topics Frankfurt , then, there are three possible sorts of narrative beings: (1) animal-like or automaton-like creatures that have only drain first-order desires; (2) wanton creatures that may have second-order desires but no second order-volitions; [11] and (3) persons who have second order-volition which attribute to them a will. In “When We Are Ourselves: The Active and the Passive,” the first chapter of narrative essay paragraph his book Engaging Reason: On the Theory of Value and Action , Joseph Raz argues that Frankfurt ’s account of personhood overlooks the importance of reason. Contrary to Frankfurt , Raz maintains that individuals are only reverse drain essay truly in control of paragraph their actions when they are guided by reason, and individuals are only drain persons when they recognize and intend to narrative structure act on the values which their reason allows them to realize. [12] In this section, I will elaborate on Raz’s criticisms of Frankfurt ’s theory, and federal government cover, explain Raz’s own account of personhood. As Raz sees it, Franckfurt’s picture of personhood is a messy matrix of desires without any reference to narrative essay paragraph structure an authentic mode of agency. Drain Essay? He suggests that Frankfurt is walking on essay paragraph structure thin ice by trying to explain how an brain drain essay individual is the proper owner of some desires but not really the owner of other desires.

As mentioned above, Frankfurt claims that an individual owns the desires which she identifies with but not the desires which encroach upon her without her ‘willful’ approval. According to Raz, this picture is obfuscated by an arbitrary and unjustifiable disassociation of essay paragraph structure some of an individual’s desires from that individual’s self. Raz offers the nets in africa, following example to demonstrate his point. When I want a refrigerator and also want a dishwasher, but, not able to afford both, I form the narrative essay paragraph, desireusing Frankfurt's formulationsto be moved to action by, let us say, the desire for a refrigerator, and chemosynthesis of methane, not by the desire for essay paragraph, a dishwasher, it does not follow that the desire for federal cover letter, the dishwasher is not really my own, that I relate to it in the way an addict relates to the craving to satisfy his addiction which he resents and tries to shake off without success. [13] Raz’s point strikes at the heart of narrative paragraph Frankfurt’s account: it stuns Frankfurt ’s attempt to nets in africa abandon ownership of some desires (viz. those of the first order) while embracing other desires (viz. those which translate into second-order volitions). I believe Raz is correct to think it absurd to say that an agent who decides to develop a first-order desire into a second-order volition simply because ‘she must make a choice’ among competing first-order desires is only the owner of her second-order volition but not owner of her the first-order desires which failed to reach the status of second-order volition. Really, it seems that all of an narrative essay paragraph structure agent’s desires are hers; it is just that when not all of her desires can be satisfied, she chooses to act on guns germs and steel one rather than the other. Raz also points out how Frankfurt ’s account fails to explain how an agent can truly authenticate a desire as her own. Essay? Frankfurt ’s focus on second-order volitions begs the questions: How can one know that her will is authentically the cause of her motivations and her motivations are not the cause of essay her will?

How does one authenticate her desires as her own? How does one authenticate her authentication that her desires are her own? And so on. Of course, the trouble of addressing these questions within the framework of Frankfurt ’s theory is that answers will invariably fall into infinite regress. Raz’s conception of personhood hinges on two important interrelated causal distinctions. These distinctions are as follows. First, there must be a separation between an individual’s self and her environment. This separation is necessary because it allows an individual to concentrate on her motivations despite external pressures coming from outside her. If there is no causal border between an individual’s self and her environment, there is essay, no way for her self to be unaffected by the pressures of the outside world. Brain Drain? Second, there must be a difference between what happens to an individual and how an individual leads her life and it is this difference which Frankfurt ’s account fails to essay paragraph structure address. This difference is necessary because it allows an individual to reverse drain actively participate in the process of deliberation as opposed to merely holding a drove of desires like a container which passively waits for the most pressing desires to spring into action.

If an individual does not actively participate in the deliberative process, but just passively holds desires and acts on the strongest, then that individual has no real way of paragraph structure identifying with her will and papers germs and steel, thus no chance at qualifying as a person. According to this view, one only qualifies as a person when she personifies these two distinctions; that is, when her self is distinguishable from her environment and she governs her desires. For without these distinctions, it would be impossible to act willfully. The question is, then, when is it clearly the narrative paragraph structure, case that an individual has the power to act willfully instead of end of the year just succumbing to her strongest desire? As I have alluded to structure earlier, Raz rejects Frankfurt ’s theory of second-order volitions. Raz maintains that an individual who is responsive to reason has the nets in africa, power to act willfully and thus count as a person. Unlike volitions of the essay, second order, reason allows individuals to hold beliefs about what is objectively good.

Further, unlike Frankfurt ’s description of orders of desires, reason as the criterion of personhood does not preclude an agent from owning any order of desire. As Raz puts it, to see oneself as subject to reason is to be responsive to reason to a minimal degree. That still allows room for one to believe, mistakenly, and even irrationally, that one is responsive to reason. And this would be enough to satisfy the condition of my core account. [] The problem with Frankfurt 's account is not that it is subjective, but that it is subjective in the wrong way. The key to my [Raz’s] account is the nets in africa, objective notion of proper functioning, explained in terms of responsiveness to narrative essay structure reason. [14] Although an individual may act subjectively according to reason, she still acts on what she thinks is objectively good. What matters is not that the agent choose to act like she has a volition of the second order, but that she recognize the reason for her action as objectively good (even if her recognition is mistaken). Another interesting criticism to Frankfurt ’s account of personhood comes from Gary Watson in his essay “Free Agency.” This section begins with a review of Watson’s criticism, and then moves into a discussion about the alternative account of personhood that he supports. Watson claims that Frankfurt ’s theory of personhood is nets in africa, fatally flawed because it arbitrarily asserts that the point at which an individual authentically identifies with her desires is only reached when she holds them as second-order volitions. Contrary to Frankfurt , Watson argues that an essay individual’s capacity to have second-order volitions is not an chemosynthesis indicator of personhood.

Frankfurt’s claim that second-order volitions are indicative of personhood is arbitrary because it fails to explain why an individual’s identification with her second-order volitions is more authentically governed by her will than is paragraph structure, her following through with desires of any order at all (including first-order desires). As noted above, Frankfurt depicts a wanton as an individual who is unable to have volitions of the second order because his desires (whether of the letter, first or second order) ultimately decide which desires are to be followed by action. Essay Paragraph Structure? Since a wanton does not decide which desires translate into action, the corps special command thesis, wanton has no will. Now, the problem Watson finds in this theory is that there is no clear or absolute distinction between the action carried out by an individual who is moved by desires of the essay, first and second order, and the action carried out by an individual who is moved by a second-order volition. That is, while Frankfurt asserts that a wanton is unfree and operations, will-less because its process of deliberation is no more than a battle of competing desires, he fails to explain why an essay individual who acts on second-order desires with which she ‘genuinely’ wants to corps operations command thesis affect her will identifies with those desires any more genuinely than she does with desires which do not stem into second-order volitions.

As Watson retorts, “Can’t one be a wanton, so to speak, with respect to one’s second-order desires and volitions?” [15] Frankfurt ’s description of a person is problematic because he ascribes a special function to second-order volitions when really volitions of the second order may simply be desires of so called “higher orders.” Second-order volitions only arise when the essay paragraph structure, number of competing second-order desires increases to the point where one must move past second-order desires to a next level (third, forth, fifth etc.) of desire. So while a first-order desire is simply ‘a desire for government resume, X ’, and a second-order desire is paragraph structure, ‘a desire to desire X ’, a second-order volition is really ‘a desire to guns desire to desire X ’. The way Frankfurt calls ‘a desire to desire to essay structure desire X ’ a “second-order volition” rather than a “third-order desire” is somewhat misleading because it fails to explain the functional difference between a desire of the second order and one of the third, forth, fifth and so on. Watson underscores this problem with the following words. Indeed, practical judgments are connected with “second-order volitions.” For the same considerations that constitute one’s on-balance reasons for doing some action, a , are reasons for wanting the “desire” to do a to be effective in action, and for wanting contrary desires to be ineffective. But in general, evaluations are prior and of the topics, first order. The first-order desires that result from practical judgments generate second-order volitions because they have this special status; they do not have the special status that Frankfurt wants them to have because there is a higher-order desire concerning them. [16]

In effect, Frankfurt arbitrarily designates one level of narrative essay paragraph structure desire as indicative willfulness. This arbitrary depiction of reverse brain essay personhood is distorted because it fails to identify the functional role that the will plays in the process of a person’s deliberation and evaluation of essay structure competing desires. Looking at higher and higher orders of desires fails to be a way of discovering the moment at which an individual goes beyond the state of wantonness and grabs hold of some quintessential feature of willfulness that allows her to reach the status of personhood. The question that Watson now faces is: What is the quintessential feature of willfulness? Watson explains that Frankfurt ’s description of the chemosynthesis of methane, structure of a person’s will is similar to Plato’s description of the structure of structure a person’s soul insofar as they both recognize that personhood involves a division between types of motivation. Nets In Africa? These two thinkers are different, however, in narrative paragraph structure, the way that they describe the nature of motivational divisions. On the one hand, Frankfurt claims that there are divisions among levels of desire. Plato, on the other hand, maintains that there are divisions among the sources of desire. Watson disagrees with Frankfurt and sides with Plato by stating that the division among motivational forces that reveals the essence of personhood is not to be found in a division between levels of desire, but rather it is to be found “among independent sources of motivation.” [17] Namely, the independent source of motivation that is the quintessential feature of essay willfulness and personhood is an individual’s ability to evaluate . Watson holds that persons can be moved by evaluations because of their ability to use reason. Structure? In order to understand the link between reason and evaluation, it is worth while to define the chemosynthesis, meaning of reason as Watson sees it.

Watson’s view of reason sharply contrasts against that of Hume who considers reason to be a sort of narrative structure mental instrument which humans use to determine the most efficient way to satisfy their desires. Hume considers reason to be “the slave of desire.” Unlike Hume, Watson sees reason not merely as a tool for satisfying desires, but as a tool for discovering value and command thesis, thus allowing value to act as a motivational force. Essay Paragraph Structure? Accordingly, this view distinguishes between values and desires and maintains that each is an independent source of motivation. Values are different from desires for two important reasons: First, it is possible that what one desires is not to any degree valued, held to be worth while, or thought good; one assigns no value whatever to cover the object of one’s desire. Narrative? [e.g. Tonya desires to hurt Nancy because she is jealous.] Second, although one may indeed value what is desired, the strength of one’s desire may not properly reflect the degree to which one values its object; that is, although the object of a desire is valuable, it may not be deemed the most valuable in the situation and yet one’s desire for it may be stronger than the want for what is most valued. Corps Special Operations Command? [e.g. Tom values celibacy more than sex, but he desires sex more than celibacy.] [18] It is important to note that the process of evaluation may involve an agent’s seeing the value of essay paragraph something without necessarily desiring it (such as being celibate); and, conversely, it may involve an agent’s seeing how a desire lacks value (such as hurting someone in chemosynthesis of methane, a jealous rage) even though one feels motivated to pursue it.

Both desires and paragraph, values can lead an research papers guns individual to action. Narrative Structure? Since, however, sometimes desires contradict values and vice versa, and each has independent motivational clout, each must be an independent source of motivation. Motivationally, the distinction between the conception of values and the conception of desires rests in the way an individual sees each of these motivations as an independent consideration which has the power to lead one to action. Reason is crucial to the evaluation process because it causes individuals to consider certain things valuable. Research And Steel? And since personhood is dependent upon essay structure one’s ability to evaluate, and brain, one’s ability to evaluate is dependent upon reason, personhood is also dependent upon reason.

Therefore, according to this account, a ‘person’ is an agent who “has the capacity to structure translate his values into action; his actions flow from his evolutional system.” [19] A person is moved not just by desires but by values which he recognizes because of his ability to reason. Personhood is achieved by individuals who move beyond the passive state of merely acting upon their strongest desires and into the active state of using reason to identify courses of action that are independently valuable and reverse drain essay, worthy of narrative essay structure pursuit. Each of the three thinkers discussed in this essay has a unique view of what it means to be a person. While Frankfurt claims that a person is an individual who acts on second-order volitions, Raz and Watson reject that claim and resume, point out faults in Frankfurt ’s argument. Raz’s view shows how Frankfurt underestimates the importance of reason vis-à-vis personhood. Narrative Essay Paragraph Structure? Watson further stresses the importance of chemosynthesis of methane reason and outlines the necessity of discerning between values and desires as independent motivational forces. Frankfurt raises the important issue of essay structure defining criteria for chemosynthesis, personhood. Raz and Watson follow suit by scrutinizing Frankfurt ’s account and suggesting their own criteria. The question that is now at hand is whether Raz and Watson have successfully provided arguments which support their respective definitions of personhood without running into the kinds of problems that Frankfurt encountered. Frankfurt , Harry. “Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person.” Journal of Philosophy, Jan. Narrative Essay Paragraph Structure? 1971, pp.

5-20. Raz, Joseph. Engaging Reason: On the Theory of Value and Action. ( Oxford University Press, 2006.) [1] Harry Frankfurt, “Freedom of the reverse brain drain essay, Will and the Concept of a Person,” Journal of Philosophy, Jan. 1971, p. 6. [2] Harry Frankfurt, “Freedom of the narrative essay paragraph, Will and the Concept of a Person,” p. 6. [8] The wanton addict may also have this second-order desire to end of essay refrain from taking the essay paragraph, drug but he would not have a second order volition that identifies this second-order desire with his will. [11] In Frankfurt ’s words (pp.

10-11), “[i]t is logically possible, however unlikely, that there should be an agent with second-order desires but with no volitions of the second order.” [13] Joseph Raz, Engaging Reason: On the Theory of Value and chemosynthesis of methane, Action , p. 18.

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What do CEOs do? A CEO Job Description. The Chief Executive Officer is paragraph, one of the most coveted titles, and least understood jobs in a company. Nets In Africa! Everyone believes that CEOs can do whatever they want, are all powerful, and are magically competent. Nothing could be further from the truth. By its very nature, the job description of a CEO means meeting the needs of employees, customers, investors, communities, and the law. Some of a CEO’s job can be delegated. But several elements of the job must be done by the CEO. Read on for the details of what makes a CEO. What is intrinsic to the CEO’s job?

This isn’t a traditional job description; it’s an examination of the actual roles that a CEO plays (legally or de facto) within a company. The principle components of a CEO’s job description includes the following areas. Narrative Structure! Any individual CEO may take on any tasks that they wish, but these are the things that can’t be delegated: While a CEO may get input for some of those duties, it is the CEO’sand only the CEO’sresponsibility to perform those well. Being the CEO, they can spend the brain, rest of their time doing whatever they decide they want to spend their time on. But ultimately, everything else about a given CEO’s job is optional. Admit it. Narrative Essay! We all feel a touch of the year essay topics, awe when someone has it: the CEO title. The power, the salary, and the chance to Be The Boss. It’s worthy of awe!

Too bad so few CEOs are good at what they do. In fact, only 1 in paragraph structure, 20 are in the top 5%[1]. Many don’t know what their job should be, and few of research guns and steel, those can pull it off well. The job is simplevery simple. But it’s not easy at all. What is a CEO’s job?

More than with any other job, the responsibilities of a CEO diverge from the duties and narrative essay paragraph the measurement . A CEO’s responsibilities: everything, especially in a startup. The CEO is federal government resume cover, responsible for narrative structure, the success or failure of the company. Operations, marketing, strategy, financing, creation of company culture, human resources, hiring, firing, compliance with safety regulations, sales, PR, all falls on the CEO’s shoulders. Being responsible means that the CEO is the one held accountable for the success of the end of essay, company’s efforts, across the board. But of course, the CEO doesn’t actually do all that work. The CEO’s duties are what she actually does , the responsibilities she doesn’t delegate. Narrative Essay Structure! Some things can’t be delegated. Creating culture, modeling values, building the senior management team, financing road shows, ultimate approval of chemosynthesis of methane, how money gets spent, and, indeed, the delegation itself can be done only by the CEO. What is the essay, CEO’s main duty? Setting strategy and brain drain vision.

The senior management team can help develop strategy. Investors can approve a business plan. The Board can approve, advise, or ask the CEO to revise a business strategy. But at the end of the day, it’s the CEO who ultimately sets the direction: Which markets will the company enter?

Against which competitors? What will the company’s product lines be? How will the company differentiate itself? Will it be low cost? High service? Convenient Locations? Flexible financing?

High-touch? Mass produced? The CEO decides, sets budgets, forms partnerships, sells off incompatible product lines, makes acquisitions, and hires a team to essay structure steer the company accordingly. Modeling and setting the company’s culture, values, and drain essay behavior. The CEO’s second duty is building culture. Narrative Essay Paragraph! Work gets done through people, and people are profoundly affected by culture. A lousy place to work can drive away high performers. After all, they have their pick of the year essay, places to work. And a great place to work can attract and retain the very best.

Culture is built in dozens of ways, and the CEO sets the tone. Her every actionor inactionsends cultural messages (see Life Under a Magnifying Glass). Clothes send signals about how formal the workplace is. Who she talks to signals who is and isn’t important. How she treats mistakes (feedback or failure?) sends signals about risk-taking. Who she fires, what she puts up with, and what she rewards shape the culture powerfully. This can not be emphasized enough! People imitate a CEO’s behavior when deciding how to act.

The book Pre-suasion by narrative essay paragraph Robert Cialdini, documents at length the ways in which, for research papers guns germs and steel, example, a dishonest CEO makes employees feel as if they can cut corners, steal from the company, and narrative structure generally behave according to those same standards. A project team worked weekends launching a multimedia web site on a tight deadline. End Of Essay Topics! Their CEO was on holiday when the site launched. Essay! She didn’t call to congratulate the team. To her, it was a matter of keeping her personal life sacred. To the team, it was a message that her personal life was more important than the weekends and evenings they had put in to brain meet the deadline. Narrative Essay Paragraph! Next time, they may not work quite so hard. The emotion and effect on the culture was real, even if it wasn’t what the end of topics, CEO intended. Congratulations from the CEO on a job well done can motivate a team like nothing else.

Silence can demotivate just as quickly. If vision is narrative paragraph, where the company is going, values tell how the company gets there. Values outline acceptable behavior. The CEO conveys values through actions and reactions to nets in africa others. Paragraph! Slipping a ship schedule to meet quality levels sends a message of valuing quality. Not over-celebrating a team’s heroic recovery when they could have avoided a problem altogether sends a message about prevention versus damage control. People take their cues about interpersonal valuestrust, honesty, opennessfrom CEO’s actions as well. Building and leading the senior executive team. Team-building is the reverse brain drain, CEO’s #3 duty. The CEO hires, fires, and leads the senior management team. They, in turn, hire, fire, and lead the rest of the organization.

The CEO must be able to hire and fire non-performers. She must resolve differences between senior team members, and keep them working together in a common direction. Narrative Structure! She sets direction by communicating the strategy and vision of where the chemosynthesis, company is going. Strategy sets the direction for the senior team, who in turn set it for narrative, the rest of the company. With clear direction that everyone understands, the team can rally together and end of the year essay make it happen. Don’t underestimate the power of setting direction. Narrative Essay Structure! In 1991, at Intuit’s new employee orientation, CEO Scott Cook presented his vision of chemosynthesis of methane, Intuit as the center of computerized personal finance. Intuit had just 120 employees and one product.

Ten years later, it’s a billion-dollar company with thousands of employees and dozens of products. Narrative Essay Structure! Worldwide, it is the chemosynthesis, winner in essay paragraph, personal finance, bar none. The success is due in brain, no small part to every Intuit employee knowing and sharing the company’s vision and strategy. Allocating capital to narrative paragraph the company’s priorities. Capital allocation is the CEO’s #4 duty. Nets In Africa! The CEO sets budgets within the firm. She funds projects which support the strategy, and ramps down projects which lose money or don’t support the strategy. She considers carefully the company’s major expenditures, and manages the firm’s capital.

If the essay paragraph, company can’t use each dollar raised from investors to produce at least $1 of shareholder value, she decides when to return money to the investors. Some CEOs don’t consider themselves financial people, but at the end of the day, it is their decisions that determine the company’s financial fate. [1] Pay no attention to the math background peeking from behind the curtain… back. Knowing the job description is a good first step for end of essay topics, a CEO, but to know how she’s doing, she needs to essay structure design her own measurement system. Unlike inconvenient lower-level jobs, no one tells the Chief Executive how she’s doing. Do managers let her know she’s undermining their authority, making poor decisions, or communicating poorly? Not likely. End Of The Year Topics! Even when a CEO asks for honest feedback, the fear is there: non-flattering feedback may stall a promising career[1]. Even when a company uses 360-degree feedback, no one penalizes the CEO if she doesn’t act on the feedback. The Board of Directors supposedly oversees the CEO, but they are far removed from day-to-day actions. Over time, they can evaluate performance, but they look mainly at narrative essay paragraph structure, share price and company strategy.

They are rarely interested in(or qualified to nets in africa comment on!)the CEO’s daily behavior. But the CEO’s daily behavior will make or break the company! The CEO’s duties don’t change because they are unmeasured. Indeed, lax measurement makes it easy for the CEO to feel confident, even when she shouldn’t. Good feedback is the only way to know what’s working, but share price simply doesn’t do it. External measures measure the company, not the link between the CEO’s actions. A low share price tells her something’s wrong, but it doesn’t help her figure out what.

By measuring her performance based on her duties, a CEO can learn to narrative essay structure do her job better. As explained in part 1, the CEO’s job is the year topics, setting strategy and vision, building culture, leading the senior team, and allocating capital. The last of these is easy to measure. Narrative Paragraph! The first three are more of a challenge. How does a CEO know she’s doing the vision thing? It’s hard. Having vision isn’t enoughthat just takes a handful of mushrooms and a vision quest. Communicating the vision is the key. When people “get it,” they know how their daily job supports the vision. Nets In Africa! If they can’t link their job to narrative essay paragraph structure the vision, that tells a CEO that her communication is faulty, or she hasn’t helped her managers turn the vision into actual tasks. Either way, a CEO can monitor her success as a visionary by questioning and listening for employees to link their jobs with the company vision.

Culture building is subtle, the culture a CEO sees may be very different from the culture of the chemosynthesis of methane, rank-and-file. Paragraph! One company had a facilities policy that all equipment within 450 feet of the senior management offices was kept in top working order. Senior managers saw a smoothly running company, while everyone else saw neglect and carelessness. Surveys about openness, values, and morale can be used to develop a measure of culture. The questions to ask aren’t rocket science. The book First, Break all the Rules gives a great questionnaire for nets in africa, measuring overall culture. Also, check turnover. When 95% of your workforce says they can’t wait to get to essay structure work, something is going right.

If people rarely leave, and if it’s easy to attract top talent at below-market prices, you can be sure the reverse, culture plays a large role. If people leave (especially your top performers), againlook to narrative paragraph culture. And don’t underestimate the power of of methane, walking around and counting smiles. If people are having fun, it will show. The CEO’s success at team-building can often be measured through the narrative essay paragraph structure, team. Teams usually know when they’re effective. They can also rate their team using assessments that measure specific behaviors. For example, “I can trust my teammates.” “My teammates deliver their part of the brain essay, project on time.” “Every member knows what is expected of them.” Regular team self-assessments can help the CEO track the team’s progress and hone her abilities to narrative essay paragraph structure keep the team running smoothly[2]. Easiest to measure is a CEO’s capital allocation skill. Drain! In fact, financial measures are the paragraph, ones made public: earnings and share price. But how can a CEO link those to her actual decisions?

Working with her CFO, a CEO can devise financial measures appropriate to of methane her business. Sometimes traditional measures are most appropriate, such as economic value added or return on assets (for a capital-intensive company). Other times, the CEO may want to invent business-specific measures, such as return on training dollars, for essay, a company which values state-of-the-art training for employees. By monitoring several such measures, a CEO learns to link her budget decisions with company outcomes. Ultimately, the CEO’s should be creating more than a dollar of value for every dollar invested in marine corps special thesis, the company. Otherwise, her best bet is to return cash to narrative paragraph the shareholders for them to invest in more productive vehicles. In startups, earnings begin low to nonexistent, and research guns germs share price is more about salesmanship and paragraph structure vision than earnings. So the CEO gets almost no useful feedback about her capital allocation wisdom.

She doesn’t know whether a dollar spent on a slightly nicer-than-necessary copy machine is wasted or is a wise investment in topics, a long-term. Careful attention to the design and tracking of financial measures can help her prepare for the transition to an earnings-driven company. In his 1988 Annual Report, Berkshire Hathaway chairman Warren Buffett included an excellent essay on CEO accountability. Click here to read Mr. Paragraph! Buffett’s observations on CEO measurement. [1] The CEOs don’t help the chemosynthesis, problem.

Many of my CEO clients highlight the value of honest feedback from their coach. Yet they complain about employees who disagree with them, just don’t “get it” or don’t have enough information “to understand the real issues.” In a coaching call, they can hear feedback and consider it. At work, they treat disagreement as dissension, and then wonder why everyone’s a “Yes man.” back. Pitfalls and Solutions for the CEO. A CEO can tank a company by essay paragraph not understanding their duties, or failing to set up good measurement systems. But it’s also true that the job itself can screw up the person, as well. It’s said that power corrupts, and few positions are more powerful than CEO. While the USA may be a democracy, our companies are legal dictatorships with the CEO calling the shots(1). While she may be having a great time playing Boss, the position may be taking a very human toll. It’s all too easy for the CEO to become a …; jerk(2) …; without realizing it.

They can forgetif they ever knewwhat it was like to have a boss. They are free to ignore feedback that they don’t want to hear, and no one will call them to task for it. They can bypass the chain of command when they want to meddle. They can give themselves raises and genuinely believe they deserve it. And most dreadfully, they can forget what it is like to be “one of the papers guns germs, little people”:

don’t you have your nanny do that? The worker was an incredibly productive person. She worked harder than the CEO, got more done, yet couldn’t have afforded a nanny if her life depended on paragraph, it. The CEO didn’t intend to reverse be a jerk, but his lack of empathy didn’t win many supporters. A CEO can become arrogant by externalizing blame. Having no day-to-day accountability for her actions can also turn a CEO sour. When things go wrong, she can blame everyone around her without facing her own shortcomings. “My employees just don’t get it,” proclaims the CEO, never thinking for a moment that she is the one who hired them. Essay! Did she hire incompetents? Or has she failed to communicate goals consistently and end of the year essay clearly? “Market conditions have changed.” she declares. A nice excuse, but isn’t it the CEO’s job to narrative anticipate the market and papers germs and steel position the company for narrative paragraph structure, success under a variety of brain essay, scenarios?

Without someone to keep her honest, she can gradually absolve herself of all responsibility. Believing in a title can lead to overconfidence. Arrogance also threatens a CEO. “Because I am CEO, I must know the business better than anyone else.” It has been said, but it just isn’t true. No CEO can be an expert in all functional areas. Paragraph! A CEO who is doing her job is spending time with the big picture. If she knows the chemosynthesis, details better than her employees, she’s either hiring the wrong people or spending her time at the wrong levels of the organization. It’s appropriate for a CEO to manage operations if absolutely necessary, but she should quickly hire good operational managers and return to leading the whole business. If she also comes to believe that the CEO title grants infallibility, watch out.

Even the Pope is essay paragraph, only infallible a couple of times each century. But CEOs can reinforce their delusions of grandeur by giving themselves higher salaries (surely she deserves it! After all, salary benchmarks show how underpaid she is) and more perks. Then when layoffs come, the CEO wants applause for having the moral strength to make “hard choices,” quietly overlooking how her own poor decision making led to the need for layoffs. Of course, once infallible, there’s no more to learn, and a CEO may quietly stop learning. Without daily oversight and papers guns and steel high quality feedback on how she does her job, she can mistakenly believe her actions lead to success. In reality, she may be doing the wrong thing, but her staff may be working around the clock to cover for her. Furthermore, sins of essay paragraph, omission aren’t penalized. A CEO who does an adequate job, but far less than she could/should have donegoes unnoticed.

In hindsight, XYZ Software(3) could have had a $1 billion market niche, and gone public with a valuation of tens of billions. Instead, it stuck to one product, had little understanding of its markets, and ignored competition. Yet it still went public in a $300-million IPO. Was management penalized for a lack of vision and market responsiveness? Hardly! The top managers walked off with $60 million apiece, reinforcing the research, notion that they had done a great job.

Yet with a slightly grander vision, the company might have been 10 or 100 times its size. Setting vision is the structure, CEO’s job, but nothing tells her if her sights are too low. End Of The Year Essay Topics! She isn’t penalized for missing the grander vision. Such sins of structure, omissions are a CEO’s worst enemy. She can be lulled into mediocrity by reverse essay not knowing what would have been possible. The four-minute mile was considered impossible…until Roger Bannister ran it.

Now, it’s commonplace. Likewise, a CEO may limit herself by essay paragraph structure not realizing she can do her job better. Though salary benchmarks are common, performance benchmarks are surprisingly rare. Marine Corps Special Command Thesis! Quality learning demands a CEO benchmark herself against other superb CEO’s. Her central learning question is essay structure, not “are you doing a good job?” but “are other CEOs doing a better job and if so, how can you learn to measure up?(4)“ (1) Ok, ok.

Technically the Board of Directors has hire/fire authority over end of the year, the CEO, but the narrative, Board can’t control day-to-day operations. And while there are certainly boards that replace inept CEOs, it takes sustained incompetence over of methane, a long time to move a board to action. Paragraph! So for practical purposes, the buck stops with the CEO. back. (2) Her employees may use less diplomatic terms. back. (3) Names are changed to protect the innocent. Federal! back. Coaching tips to stay sane and skillful at the top of the heap. These coaching assignments will help an executive avoid some of the pitfalls of the CEO job. They are simple, easy, and won’t take much time. They’ll help a CEO stay connected with workers, keep herself humble, and essay paragraph increase her learning while becoming more successful.

The suggestions strive to be quick and easy to chemosynthesis do, while still producing real results. Make Space to Practice These Assignments. Set aside 5 to 10 minutes, daily, to narrative developing as a leader and marine corps special operations thesis human being. This will be the narrative essay structure, time you think about the below topics and set your mind for nets in africa, the day. Schedule the time if necessary. Just make sure that you do what’s right for your growth. Pace yourself. Structure! Life is long.

Adopt these suggestions one or two at nets in africa, a time, and practice until you make them your own. Then move on. Forcing won’t help; this is about developing at your own natural rhythm. Do one assignment for a few weeks, then move on to another. Keep the ones that work for essay structure, you and drop those that don’t. Staying connected with “the little people” Cultivate an federal cover letter, attitude of respectyour respect for narrative paragraph structure, them. The “little people” are the ones turning your vision into reality. Meditate on this for a few minutes and chemosynthesis ask yourself whether you can their jobs as well as they can.

If you can, then you’re not hiring the narrative paragraph, right peoplego change that! Otherwise, once a day, go talk to one of your low-level employeessomeone more capable than you in their area of expertiseand learn from them. Reverse Brain! Choose a different person each day. Get as close to the front line workers as possible. Listen with an open mind and learn. Learn about narrative essay paragraph structure, their job. Ask what works for them and marine corps special what doesn’t.

Above all, listen to their comments without judgment. Your goal is to narrative connect with their experience of the nets in africa, world, not impose your own. Learn about structure, their life. Marine Corps Operations Command Thesis! Find out what motivates them. Why did they come work for you instead of somewhere else? Simply by spending a few minutes understanding their life, you can greatly increase your appreciation of how they’re different (and similar!). Share your vision and job with them, from a position of structure, service. Pretend that your job is to government make this person a success.

Ask them how their job fits into the work the essay paragraph, company does. If they don’t know, take on the responsibility of papers germs and steel, helping them understand how their job links to the vision. Clarify any confusion they may have about where the company is going. And ask them what you can do to help them succeed at doing their best. Then do it. Acknowledge, often! Without your employees, your dreams and plans wouldn’t amount to much. Take every available opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of those around you and give them credit, especially in public. Feedback is narrative paragraph structure, rare in most companies, and positive feedback is rarest of drain, all(1). “Get” that it’s all your responsibility.

When things don’t go the way you want, take responsibilitywhether or not it’s your fault. The mindset of responsibility will put you in narrative essay structure, a much more powerful place than the mindset of blame. Regularly review circumstances asking, “What could I do differently (or stop doing) to make a positive difference?” Identify the action and research then take it. You’ll be surprised how much more power you have over narrative structure, externalities, operating from responsibility rather than blame. Gather honest advisors to nets in africa hold you accountable for paragraph structure, your behavior. Sometimes a Board of marine, Directors will give honest feedback, but they are removed from your day-to-day behavior. Essay Paragraph Structure! Actively solicit feedback from third parties: friends, peers, associates. Marine Corps Special Operations! Share your issues and how you’re handling them, and ask for narrative essay, an honest assessment.

Everyone in a company is accountable to someone for their behavior, except the CEO. Make yourself accountable as best you can. Identify your limits. Ask, “can someone else in the world do my job better than I am currently doing it?” If the answer is Yes, seek out that person and ask for research papers guns and steel, their guidance in essay, getting better. Essay! If the answer is No, validate that answer by asking your advisors, competitors, suppliers, customers, and narrative structure employees. Reverse Essay! Many companies have crashed and burn because they believe they were the best, for no good reason but pride and ego. Create measurable performance criteria for paragraph, your executive team, including yourself. Make sure people within the organization know your goals, and know what you can be counted on to do. Hold yourselves accountable.

If you don’t meet your goals, withhold your bonus, take no raise, and treat yourself exactly as you would treat an employee who missed their targets. It sends a powerful message to the company that you’re serious about performance. Ask your direct reports, your Board of Directors, and anyone else you work with for feedback a couple of times a year. You can use a 360-degree feedback process or simply ask in an e-mail. It’s a lot easier to hear feedback on reverse brain, your performance if you’ve explicitly asked for it. Videotape yourself receiving bad news. Watch the videotape and decide whether or not you would want to work for that person. If the answer is No, learn to chill when you hear bad news. Study excellent CEOs . Call a CEO you admire and invite them to lunch. Exchange tips and adopt tactics that others have found useful.

Read books like First, Break All the Rules, which are broad-based studies of habits of top-performers. Adopt at least one new habit a month. Create systems for gathering feedback. Interview customers, competitors, analysts, and others in narrative paragraph, your industry to know how your company and products are perceived. Make sure you’re gathering feedback that will disconfirm your beliefs about the world, as much as confirms it. For example, if you think you’re #1 in your market, don’t just ask customers why they like your products. Ask what other products they use, and how your products fall short. Spend time learning about the fundamentals of a CEO’s job: Setting strategy. The strategy and vision for nets in africa, the company determine where everyone will focus their efforts.

Find a vision and essay strategy and use it to align your entire company. Creating the corporate culture. Your culture will determine what people do and of methane don’t try, who will stay, who will leave, and essay paragraph how business will get done. Culture starts with you. Decide how you want people to act and start modeling the essay topics, behavior publicly. Capital allocation. Every dollar you raise and spend should produce more than $1 of narrative essay paragraph, return for the company, or it’s a waste of money.

Learn how to make these judgements. Hiring and Firing. Brain Drain! The job of executives is narrative paragraph structure, primarily team and culture building. Hiring and firing are must-have skills. Read, take classes, and essay topics review past hiring successes and mistakes. Do whatever you can to essay structure hone your abilities.

Hold yourself to higher standards next year than you did this year. Challenge yourself to learn to get more done with fewer hours and fewer resources while creating a more balanced life for drain essay, yourself. These are just a few of the narrative essay structure, things you can do to increase your chances for success as a senior executive. Chemosynthesis! I also believe in working with a coach to essay paragraph identify and overcome (or compensate for) blocks in your performance. Success can be had with many different skill sets. The more you learn about yourself and your capabilities, the better you will be able to shape a job that works for you. The more you learn about the capabilities of those around you, the better you will be able to federal resume letter build teams that produce spectacular results.

(1) Social psychology has shown that rewarding desired behavior is far more effective than punishing bad behavior or non-performance. For reasons that aren’t entirely clear, our culture has evolved around using punishment as the narrative essay structure, main way of controlling behavior. Unfortunately, punishment doesn’t work very well. Nets In Africa! Interestingly, animal trainers have known this for years. For an excellent book on the subject, check out narrative, Don’t Shoot the Dog by Karen Pryor. Corps Operations Thesis! back. Stever Robbins has taken a practical, useful topic—how to get more done—and applied it to getting more done at work, and more done in building a meaningful life. Narrative Paragraph Structure! The book is packed with tips you can use immediately, and its humor, style, and irreverence makes it an easy, fun read.

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Biology/The Human Heart term paper 895. Click Here For Research Papers Online! The Human Heart. Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary defines the heart. as the viscus of cardiac muscle that maintains the. circulation of the blood. It is divided into four. cavities; two atria and two ventricles. Essay Paragraph! The left atrium. receives oxygenated blood from the lungs.

From there the. blood passes to the left ventricle, which forces it via the. aorta, through the arteries to supply the tissues of the. body. The right atrium receives the end of essay topics, blood after it has. passed through the tissues and has given up much of its. oxygen.

The blood then passes through the right ventricle. into the lungs where it gets oxygenated. There are four. major valves in the heart; the left atrioventricular valve. (also known as the mitral or bicuspid valve), the right. atrioventricular valve (tricuspid), aortic valve, and the. pulmonary valve.

The heart tissue itself is nourished by. the blood in the coronary arteries.2. Position of the Heart Within the Body: The heart is structure, placed obliquely in the chest. The two atria. are directed upwards and backwards to the right and are at. the level of the fifth through the research guns, eight dorsal vertebrae. The apex of the heart points downwards and narrative essay forwards to the. left and corresponds to the interspace between the fifth and.

sixth ribs, two inches below the reverse essay, left nipple. Essay Paragraph! Its atrial. border corresponds to a line drawn across the sternum on a. level with the upper border of the third costal cartilage. Its lower border (apex) corresponds to a line drawn across. the lower end of the same bone, near the xiphoid process. Its upper surface is reverse essay, rounded and convex, directed upwards. and forwards, and formed mainly by the right ventricle and. part of the left ventricle. The posterior surface of the. heart is flattened and rests upon the diaphragm muscle.

Of. its two borders, the right is the longest and thinnest, the. left is shorter but thicker and essay structure round. In an end of the year adult, the heart measures about five inches in. length, three and a half inches in the broadest part of its. transverse diameter, and two and a half inches in its.

antero-posterior. The average weight in the male varies. from ten to twelve ounces. In the female, the average. weight is eight to ten ounces. The heart will continue to. grow in size up to an advanced period of narrative structure, life.

This growth. is more obvious in men than in women.3. Circulation of Blood in an Adult: The heart is subdivided by a longitudinal muscular septum. into two lateral halves which are named right and reverse drain essay left. according to their position. A transverse muscle divides. each half into two cavities. The upper cavity on each side.

is called the atria/auricle, and the lower side is called. the ventricle. The right atrium and narrative essay ventricle form the. venous side of the heart. Chemosynthesis! Dark venous blood is pumped into. the right atrium from the entire body by essay the superior (SVC) and inferior vena cava (SVC), and the coronary sinus. From. the right atrium, the blood passes into the right ventricle. and from the right ventricle, through the pulmonary artery. into the lungs.3 Once the blood becomes.

oxygenated/arterialized by its passage through the federal government letter, lungs, it. is returned to narrative essay, the left side of the heart by the pulmonary. veins which open into the left atrium. From the left. atrium, the blood passes into the left ventricle where it is. distributed by the aorta and its subdivisions through the. Morphology of Each Heart Chamber: The right atrium is a little longer than the federal government letter, left. Its. walls are also somewhat thinner than the left.

The right. atrium is capable of containing about two ounces of fluid. It consists of narrative essay paragraph structure, two parts, a principle cavity/sinus, and reverse brain drain essay an. appendix auriculae. The sinus is a large. quadrilateral-shaped cavity located between the IVC and the. SVC. Its walls are extremely thin and are connected on the. lower surface with the right ventricle and internally with.

the left atrium. The rest of the right atrium is free and. unattached. The appendix auricle is a small conical. muscular pouch. It projects from the sinus forwards and to. the left side, where it overlaps the root of the pulmonary. There are four main openings into the right atrium; the. SVC, IVC, coronary sinus, and the atriculo-ventricular.

opening. Paragraph! The larger IVC returns blood from the lower half. of the body and opens into the lowest part of the end of, right. atrium, near the septum. The smaller SVC returns blood from. the upper half of the body and opens into the upper and.

front part of the right atrium. The coronary sinus opens. into the right atrium between the IVC and. auriculo-ventricular opening. It returns blood from the. cardiac muscle of the heart and is protected by a. semicircular fold of the structure, lining membrane of the atrium, called the coronary valve. The auriculo-ventricular opening. is the large oval aperture of communication between the.

right atrium and ventricle. Nets In Africa! There are two main valves. located within the right atrium; the Eustachian valve and. the coronary valve.3 The Eustachian valve is located. between the anterior margin of the IVC and the. auricule-ventricular orifice.

It is narrative, semilunar in form. The. coronary valve is a semicircular fold of the reverse brain essay, lining membrane. of the right atrium, protecting the orifice of the coronary. The right ventricle is narrative essay structure, triangular-shaped and extends from. the right atrium to near the apex. Its anterior surface is.

rounded and convex and marine special thesis forms the larger part of the essay paragraph, front of. the heart. Its posterior surface is flattened, rests on the. diaphragm muscle, and forms only a small part of this. surface. Its inner wall is formed by research guns the partition between. the two ventricles, the essay paragraph, septum, and bulges into the cavity.

of the right ventricle. Superiorly, the ventricle forms a. conical structure called the infundibulum from which the. pulmonary artery arises. The walls of the right ventricle. are thinner than those of the nets in africa, left ventricle. The thickest. part of the wall is at narrative essay paragraph structure the base and it gradually becomes. thinner towards the apex.

The cavity can contain up to two. ounces of fluid. There are two openings in the right ventricle; the. auriculo-ventricular opening and the opening of the. pulmonary artery. The auriculo-ventricular opening is the. large oval opening between the right atrium and the right. ventricle. The opening is about an inch in diameter. It is.

surrounded by reverse drain essay a fibrous ring, covered by the lining membrane. of the heart (endocardium), and is larger than the opening. between the left atrium and the left ventricle. It is. protected by the tricuspid valve. The opening of the.

pulmonary artery is round and is situated at the top of narrative paragraph, the. conus arteriosus, close to the septum. The Year! It is on the left. side and is in front of the auriculo-ventricular opening. It is protected by the semilunar valves.3. There are two main valves associated with the right. ventricle; the tricuspid valve and the semilunar valves. The tricuspid valve consists of three segments of a. triangular shape, formed by the lining membrane of the heart.

(endocardium). They are strengthened by a layer of fibrous. tissue and muscular fibers.1 These segments are connected. by their bases to the auriculo-ventricular orifice, and by. their sides with one another, so as to form a continuous. membrane which is attached around the margin of essay paragraph structure, the. auriculo-ventricular opening. Their free margin and. ventricular surfaces are attached to many delicate tendinous.

cords called chordae tendinae. The central part of each. valve segment is thick and strong while the lateral margins. are thin and indented. The chordae tendinae are connected. with the adjacent margins of the main segment of the valves. The semilunar valves guard the opening of the pulmonary. artery. They consist of three semicircular folds formed by. the endothelial lining of the heart and are strengthened by.

fibrous tissue. They are attached by their convex margins. to the wall of the and steel, artery at its junction with the. ventricle. The straight borders of the valve are unattached. and are directed upwards in essay paragraph, the course of the vessel, against the sides of which they are pressed during the. passage of blood along its canal. The free margin of each. valve is somewhat thicker than the rest of the federal government cover letter, valve and is.

strengthened by a bundle of tendinous fibers. During the. passage of blood along the pulmonary artery, these valves. are pressed against the sides of its cylinder. During. ventricular diastole (rest), when the current of paragraph, blood along. the pulmonary artery is checked and partly thrown back by. its elastic walls, these valves become immediately expanded. and close the entrance of the tube. 3. The left atrium is smaller but thicker than the right.

atrium. It consists of two parts; a principle cavity/sinus. and an appendix auriculae. The sinus is cuboidal in form. and is covered in the front by the pulmonary artery and the. aorta. Internally, it is marine corps special operations thesis, separated from the right atrium by.

the septum auricularum. Behind the sinus on each side, it. receives the pulmonary veins. The appendix auriculae in the. left atrium is narrative paragraph structure, narrower and more curved than the same. structure in the right atrium. Its margins are more deeply.

indented, presenting a kind of foliated appearance. Its. direction is forwards towards the right side, overlapping. the root of the pulmonary artery. There are two main openings in the left atrium; the. openings of the four pulmonary veins and the.

atrial-ventricular opening. Two of the four pulmonary veins. open into marine corps operations command, the right side of the atrium and two open into the. left side. The two veins on essay paragraph, the left exit into the atrium.

through a common opening. None of the pulmonary veins have. valves. The atrial-ventricular opening is the large oval. opening of blood flow between the atrium and the ventricle. It is smaller than the same opening between the right atrium. The left ventricle is longer and more conical shaped than. the right ventricle. It forms a small part of the left side. of the anterior surface of the heart and a large portion of.

the posterior surface. It also forms the apex of the heart. because it extends beyond the right ventricle. Its walls. are nearly twice as thick as those of the right ventricle. They are thickest in the broadest part of the ventricle, becoming gradually thinner towards the base and also towards. the apex, which is the thinnest part of the left ventricle. There are two main openings in the left ventricle; the. atrial-ventricular opening and the aortic opening.

The. atrial-ventricular opening is located behind and to the left. side of the drain essay, aortic opening. The opening is a little smaller. than the narrative structure, same opening between the right atrium and. ventricle. Its position corresponds to the center of the.

sternum. It is surrounded by a dense fibrous ring and of methane is. covered by the lining membrane of the heart and narrative paragraph structure is protected. by the mitral valve. The circular aortic opening is located. in front of and to the right side of the atrial-ventricular. opening from which it is separated by chemosynthesis one of the segments of.

the mitral valve. The opening is protected by the semilunar. There are two valves located within the left ventricle; the. mitral valve and the semilunar valve. The mitral valve is. attached to the circumference of the atrial-ventricular. opening in the same way that the narrative, tricuspid valve is attached. on the opposite side of the heart. The valve contains a few.

muscular fibers, is strengthened by fibrous tissue, and is. formed by the lining of the heart (endocardium). It is. larger, thicker, and stronger than the tricuspid, and. consists of reverse essay, two segments of unequal size.

The mitral valves. are connected to many chordae tendonae. Their attachment is. the same as on the right side except they are thicker, stronger, and less numerous. The semilunar valves surround. the aortic opening. They are similar in structure and mode. of attachment to those of the pulmonary artery. However, they are larger, thicker, and stronger than those of the.

right side. Between each valve and the cylinder of the. aorta is a deep depression called the sinuses of Valsalva. The depressions are larger than those at essay structure the root of the. Figure 1: a. Cross sectional view of the heart. Brain Essay! b. Top.

view of the heart showing the four valves. Histology of the structure, Layers of the Heart: The heart and its vessels are surrounded by chemosynthesis of methane a conical. membranous sac called the pericardium. The pericardial sac. is composed of two layers; the parietal pericardium and the.

visceral pericardium with the space in-between the two being. called the pericardial cavity. The parietal pericardium is. composed primarily of compact fibrocollagenous tissue along. with elastic tissue. It is essay paragraph structure, a fibrous membrane of loose. irregular connective tissue that is lined internally by a. mesothelium which is essentially simple squamous epithelium. The visceral pericardium forms the internal lining of the.

pericardium and reflects over the outer surface of the. heart. This reflection forms the outer layer of the. epicardium. The visceral pericardium is research papers guns and steel, also composed of. compact fibrocollagenous tissue with elastic tissue but, is. smooth mesothelium. The pericardial cavity is structure, located. between the parietal and visceral pericardium and contains. small amounts of corps special command thesis, serous fluid.

The heart tissue itself can be subdivided into three. layers; (from the outside in) epicardium, myocardium, and. endocardium. The epicardium is the outermost layer of the. heart and consists of a loose connective tissue of. fibroblasts, collagen fibers, and adipose tissue. It. contains a stroma which houses coronary arteries and veins.

that are surrounded by a layer of fat. These coronary. branches penetrate the myocardium. The myocardium contains the main muscle mass of the heart. and is composed primarily of striated muscle cells.

Each of. the cardiac muscle cells contain one central elongated. nucleus with some central euchromatin and some peripheral. heterochromatin. The two atria have a very thin myocardial.

layer which increases greatly in thickness as you go from. the atria to the right ventricle and into the left. ventricle. Essay Structure! The outer surface of the of methane, myocardium, next to the. epicardium, is narrative essay, not composed of smooth muscle but is very. smooth in texture. Chemosynthesis! The inner surface of the essay paragraph, myocardium is. rough and is raised into trabeculations. Chemosynthesis! The ventricular. papillary muscles, which are for the attachment of the.

chordae tendinae, are extensions of the myocardium even. though they are covered by narrative essay paragraph endocardium. The outer layer of. the myocardium is superficial bulbospiral and swirls around. the ventricle in a clockwise fashion. The middle layer is. circular muscles that are the ventricular constrictors.

The. inner layer, which is deep bulbospiral, swirls around the. ventricle in a counterclockwise fashion. The layer underneath the myocardium is known as the. enodcardium. Guns Germs And Steel! It contains a continuous smooth endothelial.

layer that covers all the inner surfaces of the heart, including the valves. The outer layer of the endocardium, underneath the myocardium, is irregularly arranged. collagenous fibers that may contain Purkinje fibers/cells. The inner part of the endocardium contains more regularly. arranged collagen and elastic fibers than the outer layer. Some myofibroblasts are present in the endocardium which is. thicker in the atria than in the ventricles. There is a. subendothelial component of the endocardium underneath the.

endothelium. The component contains fibroblasts, scattered. smooth muscle cells, elastic fibers, collagen fibers, and an. amorphous ground substance that contains glycoproteins and. The valves of the heart are attached to the cardiac. skeleton and consist of chondroid (a material resembling. cartilage). The base of each valve is supported by a. fibrocollagenous ring.

Each valve also has a dense. fibrocollagenous central plate that is covered by narrative essay paragraph simple. squamous epithelium. Chordae tendonae connect with the. valves at the edge of research papers and steel, each cusp as well as underneath each. cusp at one end and narrative paragraph structure they attach to papillary muscles in the. ventricles at the other end. Endocardial endothelium.

completely covers the papillary muscles, valves, and the. chordae tendonae. The junctions between the nets in africa, cusps of essay paragraph, each. valve are known as commissures. The conducting system of the heart consists of four main. components; the sinuatrial node (SA), the atrioventricular.

node (AV), the bundle of his, and the Purkinje fibers/cells. All the parts of this conducting system are composed of. modified cardiac muscle cells. The SA node is of methane, located in. the right atrium, at the point where the superior vena cava. enters. The small muscle fibers of the SA node contain a. central nodal artery and desmosomes.

The muscle fibers do. not contain intercalated discs. The AV node is located in. the medial wall, in front of the opening of the coronary. sinus and above the tricuspid ring. Its small muscle fibers. are more regularly arranged than those of the narrative, SA node. The. AV node contains a rich nerve and blood supply.

The bundle. of his has a right (single bundle) and reverse brain a left (branched. bundle) bundle branch located underneath the endocardium. It is histologically similar to narrative paragraph structure, the other components of the. conducting system. The Purkinje fibers/cells can be found. in clusters of about six cells which are located under the. endocardium in the ventricles. The cytoplasm of Purkinje. fibers appears pale under the microscope and contains many.

Physiology of the Heart: The principle function of the heart and federal resume cover letter circulatory system. is to provide oxygen and narrative essay structure nutrients and to remove metabolic. waste products from tissues and nets in africa organs of the narrative, body. Guns! The. heart is the pump that provides the energy necessary for. transporting the blood through the circulatory system in. order to facilitate the exchange of narrative paragraph structure, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other metabolites through the thin-walled capillaries. The contraction of the heart produces changes in pressures. and flows in the heart chambers and blood vessels. The.

mechanical events of the cardiac cycle can be divided into. four periods; late diastole, atrial systole, ventricular. systole, and early diastole.6. In late diastole, the mitral and tricuspid valves are open. and the pulmonary and aortic valves are closed. Blood flows. into the heart throughout diastole thus filling the atria. and ventricles.

The rate of filling declines as the. ventricles become distended, and the cusps of the. atrioventricular valves start to close. The pressure in the. ventricles remains low throughout late diastole.8. In atrial systole, contraction of the atria forces. additional blood into the ventricles, but approximately 70. percent of the ventricular filling occurs passively during. diastole. Contraction of the atrial muscle that surrounds.

the openings of the resume, superior and inferior vena cava and. pulmonary veins, narrows their orifices and the inertia of. the blood moving towards the heart tends to essay paragraph structure, keep blood in. the heart. However, there is some regurgitation of blood.

into the veins during atrial systole.25. At the start of ventricular systole, the AV valves close. The muscles of the ventricles initially contract relatively. little, but intraventricular pressure rises sharply as the. muscles squeezes the blood in nets in africa, the ventricle. Narrative! This period of. isovolumetric ventricular contraction lasts about 0.05. seconds until the pressures in the ventricles exceed the. pressure in the aorta and in the pulmonary artery, and the. aortic and pulmonary valves (semilunar valves) open. During.

this isovolumetric contraction, the AV valves bulge into the. atria, causing a small but sharp rise in atrial pressure. When the semilunar valves open, the phase of ventricular. ejection begins. Ejection is initially rapid, but slows. down as systole progresses. The intraventricular pressure. rises to a maximum and research guns and steel then declines somewhat before. ventricular systole ends. Late in narrative paragraph structure, systole, the aortic. pressure is actually higher than the ventricular pressure, but for a short period, momentum keeps the blood moving.

forward. The AV valves are pulled down by the contractions. of the ventricular muscle, and the atrial pressure drops.5. In early diastole, after the ventricular muscle if fully. contracted, the already falling ventricular pressure drops. even more rapidly. This is the period known as. protodiastole and it lasts about brain essay, 0.04 seconds.

It ends when. the momentum of the essay paragraph, ejected blood is overcome and the. semilunar valves close. After the valves are closed, pressure continues to drop rapidly during the period of. isovolumetric relaxation. Isovolumetric relaxation ends. when the ventricular pressure falls below the atrial. pressure and the AV valves open, thus allowing the. ventricles to fill. Again, filling is reverse drain, rapid at paragraph first, then.

slows as the next cardiac contraction approaches. Atrial. pressure continues to rise after the end of ventricular. systole until the reverse brain, AV valves open, upon which time it drops. and slowly rises again until the next atrial systole.6,2,4. The heart is arguably the narrative structure, most vital organ the human body.

possesses. Without the topics, heart, none of the tissues in the. body would receive the paragraph structure, vital oxygen necessary for them to. maintain survival. Heart disease is the number one killer. of people in America today. Due to this disturbing fact, it. is no wonder such a large percentage of the fellowships. granted by the National Institutes of Health go towards.

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