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Best Websites for Speech Language Pathologists. Many children grow up with speech and language developmental delays, which can extend into adulthood if untreated, making it difficult to do well in school and in the workplace. Communication is a crucial part of daily living, and speech disorders, from stuttering to apraxia of speech, can significantly hinder a person#8217;s ability to excel. Autobiography Ben Franklin? Speech-language pathologists earn their degrees to discover the origins of speech development delays, and how to help others work past them. Jump to a section with the essay school, links below. Many speech-language pathologists and parents of children with apraxia of autobiography, speech have taken to blogging to share resources, teaching tips, and technology recommendations for making speech development easy and presentation, fun. The sites below are the best we could find for anyone with an interest in speech-language pathology. These blogs cover the gamut of speech-language pathology topics, from different types of speech development delays in children, adolescents, and adults, to linguistics and SLP education. A chronicle of essays autobiography, one woman’s life as a speech pathologist, with recommendations for papers on martin luther how to ben franklin, raise a family right, teach, and progress in a speech-related career. The author of this blog specializes in recommending iPad apps that can be useful in speech therapy. This blog chronicles the personal stories of a speech pathologist who also cares for a disabled husband and several children.
This is the why art, official blog of a pediatric therapy practice. The therapists write about assorted issues that arise when providing therapy to children, including speech therapy studies and other hard data. The blog of a professional speech-language pathologist, Smart Speech Therapy features equal parts stories of success and difficulty in providing speech therapy to children, and recommendations for parents and other SLPs for useful activities, games, and tools. This site is packed with resources for SLPs and parents of children who need speech therapy, as well as adult speech therapy tips. Many downloadable tests and tools make this site a great resource for anyone involved in essays autobiography ben franklin, speech pathology. The site brands itself as a repository of “Speech-Language Resources for Education Professionals,” and it fills the role nicely.
Speechlanguage-Resources offers free activities, ebooks, and other downloadable content for presentation websites educators. Carol’s Speech and Language Disorders Homepage. Carol has been a speech/language specialist for over forty years, and has compiled her knowledge on this web page as a resource for essays autobiography ben franklin other SLPs and parents of children with speech disorders. This site is operated by a Canadian SLP master’s degree student who video blogs about her life and her academic engagement with the subject of speech pathology. A professional speech pathologists offers links to tools like iPad apps and other activities that are used in speech therapy, as well as general info about websites what it is like to essays, work as a speech pathologist. Presentation? The official blog of the American Speech-Language Hearing Association.
This blog features stories about essays innovation in the field of speech pathology, as well as recommendations for apps and links to other online resources. Jill Kuzma’s SLP Social #038; Emotional Skill Sharing Site. Jill Kuzma uses her site to promote both analog and digital games and applications for speech therapists, as well as linking to other online resources and spotlighting recent research and development in the field of speech pathology. Analysis Of Article? Adelante! Bilingual Therapies Blog. This site is specifically built for bilingual speech therapists who work in ben franklin, communities with more than one primary language being spoken in schools and homes. Blogging duties at essay prompts, Pathologically Speaking are shared by two speech-language pathologists, one with a background in education and the other with medical training.
The pair writes about how to approach different speech-language challenges and offers links to other useful resources about essays ben franklin similar topics. This site bills itself as “Your Guide to the most Useful and essays on martin luther, Effective Speech Therapy Materials,” and it delivers neatly categorized lists of topical articles on essays ben franklin a wide range of speech therapy subjects. This site, written by a school-based speech-language pathologist, offers basic descriptions of speech and language disorders for the uninitiated, as well as links to resources and homemade educational games. The blog of a Brooklyn based children’s speech therapist, Speech Language Play is host to many giveaways of SLP apps and other goodies. The author also writes about websites her experiences with students and other SLPs. The Next Chapter in My Speech World. The chronicle of a speech-language therapist working towards opening her own private practice, and creating plenty of activities and useful materials to essays autobiography, share along the way. ”The edgy side of speech pathology; sharp, profane, but never dull.” These bloggers separate themselves from the pack with an uncensored look at the world of liberalism, professional speech pathology. As the official website of a speech and OT provider in Texas, this site specializes in connecting people who need speech-language therapy with teachers and pathologists in their area. icommunicate Speech #038; Communication Therapy. This site is split into sections with info about speech therapy for kids and adults, online therapy, and recommended resources including books and software for those undergoing speech training.
All Island Speech and Stuttering Therapy. The official website of essays autobiography ben franklin, a professional speech therapy practice, this site offers advice on how to get the best treatment for modern liberalism your particular speech issue. The official website of autobiography ben franklin, Speech Therapy Center Inc, the main purpose of this site is to on martin luther, help people get much needed speech therapy for themselves or their children. Though the practice is based in Miami, the site can be an informational resource for anyone seeking speech-language treatment. Stuttering neurology, therapy, and recovery are the main topics of this blog. The author highlights research and technical explorations of autobiography ben franklin, stuttering, and calls for further scientific inquiry into the biophysical causes of speech disorders. The sites listed below all focus on technology and applications that make speech-language pathology easier, more fun, or just plain better. Essay Seniors? This site offers “all things iPad for Speech and essays, Language Pathologists,” including app recommendations and links to other repositories of iPad based speech-language therapy tools. Activity Tailor is a blog that provides creative ideas and activities for speech therapists to use with their clients.
Posts on this blog recommend everything from minor changes in daily practice to full blown lifestyle changes in the service of speech therapy. Papers? Eric Sailers is a speech-language pathologist who also participates in developing iPhone and iPad apps that help children develop speech and language skills. This site provides exactly what it says it does: the lowdown on mobile apps and technologies that may be useful to speech pathologists. Autobiography? Most posts are reviews of iPad apps or other mobile tools for speech therapy. Many reviews are written by guest bloggers. An SLP blogger with a mind for technology blogs about gadgets, apps, and the future of speech pathology at The Speech Guy. Posts range from app recommendations to musings on thesis about the relationship between augmented reality and speech therapy. The bloggers at Speech Time Fun participate heavily in the speech pathology blogging community, and have been recognized by the American Speech-Language Hearing Association, as well as having their writing mentioned or featured on numerous other blogs. Future Speech Language Pathologists.
Future SLPs is dedicated to providing useful information for those considering a career in essays autobiography ben franklin, speech pathology. Current SLPs can certainly benefit from the activity recommendations and general writings on why art the career field, too. This site is partly the chronicle of a student’s journey through speech language pathology graduate studies, and partly a collection of recommended resources for other SLP students and practicing SLPs. Apps for Children With Special Needs. The name says it all for this website.
It is a catalog of educational apps for essays children with speech pathology delays. Thesis Web Services? Both free and paid apps are available, and they are categorized by type of activity, age group, and other handy tags. This site is divided into several sections that promote different types of language learning tools for children and adults. iPad apps are one of the most popular tools among SLPs, and this site has a comprehensive listing of which ones work. This blog is for both therapists and parents, with sections featuring apps, exercises, and tips for how to essays autobiography, use the iPad in speech therapy, which is quickly becoming one of the favored techniques in the SLP community. The bloggers at Our Clinic Creations both build tools for essays papers on martin luther speech-language pathologists and promote those that they find around the web. Speech Therapy Information and Resources.
This site is just what it sounds like, a treasure chest of resources and info about speech therapy and speech-language pathology as an academic and professional pursuit. Essays Autobiography Ben Franklin? Complete Speech offers consultancy services to private practices, parents, or anyone in the field of speech language pathology. The company’s blog features general tips and recommendations of both software and hardware that can be useful for SLPs. This site’s contents are divided into categories like Games, Themes #038; Sets, and Worksheets, and each heading contains a bevy of downloadable material or instructions for do-it-yourself speech-language projects. An elementary school speech-language pathologist sounds off about life in the classroom and showcases her own homemade, creative materials for teaching speech. Billed as “Reviews by mothers of little gadget lovers,” this site is all about apps. The iMums recommend all types of gear for speech therapists and parents of about web services, children with speech apraxia, but apps are their specialty. ”Looking at autobiography, technology through a language lens” is how this blog presents itself, and the author frequently recommends gadgets, apps, and other technologies that make speech-language therapy easier or more fun.
The Speech Ladies are a mother-daughter duo of “a seasoned SLP and an almost SLP.” They write about general SLP techniques and recommend lots of essays luther, analog activities like card games, coloring activities, and essays autobiography ben franklin, other fun tabletop toys for websites teaching speech. Many pediatric speech-language pathologists use blogs to share materials and ideas for improving their results. The following blogs focus specifically on autobiography speech-language pathology for about kids. This site offers not only essays autobiography ben franklin, apps and recommendations of technologies to use with kids, but sports great reviews from speech-language pathologists. This site covers behavioral and developmental therapy for children in a broader sense, rather than focusing only on speech-language pathology.
The bloggers use video clips, written articles, and iPad app reviews to provide a well-rounded site for parents and papers luther, professionals who need SLP information. This blog is essays autobiography ben franklin, aimed at professionals, parents, and even children, and features timely blog posts about speech pathology and training children to thesis about web services, develop “spontaneous speech,” as well as links to iPad apps and other popular tools for SLPs. This blog is very child-specific, and will be great for parents whose kids are in autobiography ben franklin, speech therapy, or anyone who wants to teach their kids something new. Friendly articles and a playful color palate make this blog just as fun as it is useful. Play On Words features reviews of books and teaching materials for children with special needs of all types. Their speech pathology related posts are geared towards parents and websites, professionals. Playing With Words 365 features activities that can be used by parents and professionals who work with children needing speech and language development assistance. The author is a working speech-language pathologist who creates activities and resources for autobiography others in the SLP community. Say What Y’all is the blog of a speech-language pathologist and presentation websites, educator who shares ideas, lesson plans, and other musings on SLP. The site’s tagline is “Ideas and Activities to Get Kids Talking,” and autobiography ben franklin, that’s exactly what you’ll find here. Essay? From iPad app recommendations to simple paper and pencil games, this site has great content for parents of children who need speech training.
This site offers tips on how to essays ben franklin, teach special education classes and make them more rewarding for the students. The site’s tagline is “Adventures in Speech and Special Education,” and the content is is important, relevant to both teachers and parents of children in special-ed classes. Speech Room News offers free classroom materials for teachers specializing in language and speech pathology for young students. Speech Lady Liz offers take-home sheets, therapy ideas, and resources for parents and essays, professionals in the realm of children’s speech therapy. Carrie’s Speech Corner is “a place to share speech and language therapy ideas and materials.” With iPad app recommendations, classroom games and one-on-one activity suggestions, this can be a great resource for parents and teachers. A Blog for Speech Language Pathologists, by essay prompts for high school a Speech Language Pathologist. This blog features musings on life as an SLP in schools and various settings, and offers recommendations of reading material and teaching supplies for SLPs working with kids. Self-identified as the “Ramblings of essays autobiography ben franklin, a Speech-Language Pathologist with a Love for Learning and Technology,” this site offers recommendations of books and products for SLPs and parents with young children. On this blog, a pediatric speech-language therapist writes about the toys and tools she uses to help kids grasp language more easily.
Rather than focusing specifically on speech therapy, this site covers a broad range of special education and homeschooling topics, with speech therapy being one component of the subject matter. Thesis About Web Services? Expressions Speech and Language Center. Autobiography Ben Franklin? This is the why art essay, official website of a speech-language pathology practice with a pediatric specialty. Autobiography? The pathologists blog about the services they provide, and offer explanations of speech disorders and treatment options, as well as general SLP topics. The blog of a school-based speech-language pathologist who finds and presentation, shares unique or interesting methods of autobiography ben franklin, teaching language and speech patterns to kids. Dispatches from thesis about web services, a licensed SLP who works with, and writes about, speech therapy for young children all the way through adolescents. Creative, modern, and do-it-yourself projects for teaching kids word association and other speech-language mainstays are the primary subjects on Chit Chat and Small Talk. This is the blog of Teresa Sadowski, MA/SLP-ccc. She offers advice to parents and teachers of kids needing speech-language therapy, and autobiography, promotes other useful resources throughout the web. The official website of a new SLP system, Literacy Speaks! has different sections for parents, kids, SLPs #038; Educators, and other folks who are interested in trying a new strategy to meet their speech-training needs. A speech-language pathologist working with pre-kindergarten kids shares stories from her career and info for other educators in the speech-language field.
This site offers ideas, activities, and advice for kids needing a wide range of therapies, from sensory integration to occupational therapy and speech-language training. This blog is written by a mother who is a speech pathologist with a daughter who has been diagnosed with childhood speech apraxia. On Martin Luther? The author combines her experiences as a professional speech pathologist with stories about living with speech apraxia in her own child. Enabled kids offers connections to professionals and online resources for nearly any kind of therapy a child could need, from autobiography, food and nutrition advice to techniques for improving a child’s sleep cycle, and of course links to essays papers, speech-language resources. A mother writes about early speech and essays autobiography ben franklin, language development and links to free resources for teaching children language. This is the main website of The Childhood Apraxia of Speech Association of North America.
It is a comprehensive resource for information about childhood apraxia and related disorders. Amy Speech and Language Therapy Inc. This is the presentation websites, official website of ben franklin, Amy Reinstein, an thesis about web services SLP offering pediatric and adult services in the metropolitan New York City area. Listen to autobiography ben franklin, my Words With Your Heart. This blogger is a mother of a child with apraxia of analysis essay, speech, and she writes about the joys and struggles of parenting a child who needs speech therapy.
A self-professed advocate for children’s rights, her writing is always warm and loving and clearly aimed at helping people when possible. Written by a teacher at a hospital school with 20 years of experience, this blog is essays autobiography ben franklin, all about helping kids with severe physical or speech-related disabilities. Teachers in special-education classrooms often design their own materials or activities to maximize the learning of their students, and fortunately for why art is important essay us, lots of essays ben franklin, those teachers have decided to blog about it! Let’s Talk Speech-Language Pathology. Let’s Talk Speech-Language Pathology offers teaching materials and frequent guest posts from professional SLPs and other bloggers on the topic of speech therapy. This is the professional site of Lisa M. Geary MS CCC-SLP. Thesis About Web Services? She provides pediatric speech-language therapy services, and maintains a blog on the subject as well.
This blog is written by an aspiring speech-language pathologist who is still working through graduate school. Ben Franklin? A school based, ASHA certified speech-language pathologist shares her thoughts on SLP, as well as materials she uses and downloadable content for other SLPs to take advantage of. Written by a blogger who has volunteered at a camp for disabled children for years, this blog shares recommendations of web services, apps and other online resources for parents of kids with speech disabilities. An interactive forum for speech-language pathologists and teachers to improve communication skills in essays ben franklin, their schools. This site offers linguistic resources for educators in any language related subject. While it focuses heavily on linguistics, the education factor is the driving force behind this blog’s high-quality content. This blog is by and about speech-language pathologists working in the public school system. Three women are the main writers, and they often feature lesson plans or links to handy apps or materials from modern liberalism essay, other educators. This very casual blogger gives readers the skinny on life as a school speech-language pathologist, and recommends resources for SLPs.
Billed as a source of inexpensive activities for essays ben franklin speech-language pathologists and other special educators, this blog aggregates links to supplies and recommends books, activities, apps, and analysis of article essay, more for speech educators of all stripes. This blog is all about special education, and essays, has postings about all types of modern essay, learning delays, including speech apraxia and other speech-related disabilities. A traveling speech-language pathologist blogs about the essays autobiography ben franklin, resources she uses in her work, and the struggles of getting used to modern, new classrooms and students. She recommends products and activities, and blogs about her journey in general. Speech and language are inextricably tied together, and the fundamentals of linguistics, as covered by the blogs below, are crucial information for anyone in essays, the speech-language pathology field. As of this writing, the author of Language Hat is websites, charging through Russian novels and essays autobiography ben franklin, blogging about the linguistic intricacies they contain. This site is great for for high readers with linguistic curiosity. Many of the posts on this site are about learning and teaching English, but anyone working on a new language or teaching any language will find a useful classroom tip or study idea at Teaching Village.
The author of Every Day Language Learner uses activity plans, blogrolls and online resources to encourage readers to make language learning a part of their regular routine. ”Notes on Linguistics and Cognition” is how this site is presented, and it fills the bill nicely. A good blend of short posts recommending resources and longer form writing exploring linguistic topics makes this an easy site to get lost in. This site, written by an Italian lover of ben franklin, languages, combines thoughts on language studies with guest-written stories about people struggling to learn languages and finding new ways to make multiple languages part of presentation websites, their lives. This cerebral blog is written by a Serbian student who studies comparative linguistics, translation theory, and computational linguistics. The articles range from autobiography ben franklin, musings on why art blogging about language to recommendations of resources for other language lovers.
Follow our blogger, Tiffani Wallace, as she explores important issues in speech therapy and education. Essays Autobiography? Read more from presentation, Tiffani.
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Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin with his Essays and Will
oedipus fake essay by Ed Friedlander M.D. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by law. I have no sponsors and do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. This page was last modified December 3, 2010. If you are a student assigned to read or see King Lear , or an autobiography, adult approaching it for the first time, your experience will be special. These notes will help you get started. Geoffrey of Monmouth (History of the English Kings, around 1140), who provides our oldest written reference to of article essay, King Lear (spelled Leir), describes him as a pre-Christian warrior king in what is now southwest England. Autobiography Ben Franklin? (Click here to read it yourself.) This area now includes Cornwall (origin of cornish game hens.) Saint Albans (Albany, for which the thesis about web services capital of New York State is named, is farther away. Ben Franklin? In the old story remembered by Geoffrey, Lear asked his three daughters whether they loved him. Of Article Essay? Two claimed to autobiography ben franklin, do so extravagantly, while the third said she loved him only presentation as a daughter should.
Lear disinherited the essays honest daughter. The story appears elsewhere in world folklore; there is an Eastern European version in which the honest daughter says she loves her father as much as she loves salt. Essay? Lear went to autobiography, live with his first daughter, bringing a hundred followers. Analysis Of Article Essay? She demanded that he reduce his followers to fifty. Lear then went to live with the other daughter, who reduced the number to twenty-five.
Lear went back and forth between the daughters until he was alone. Then the third daughter raised an essays autobiography ben franklin, army, defeated the other two, and restored him to his kingdom. (The story appears in Holinshed, who adds that Cordelia succeeded her father as monarch and thesis was deposed by the sons of her sisters.) This tale about how actions speak louder than words had recently been played on the London stage in The True Chronicle of King Leir. We have seen the essential story once again in the Japanese Ran , and more recently in ben franklin A Thousand Acres , an intelligent feminist tale, with the two older daughters as incest survivors who have spent their lives cajoling a crazy, abusive father and protecting their youngest sister. A different family problem from the Lear's -- the Fool says the king made his daughters his mothers (disciplinarians) rather than his wives, the rod refers to a stick for spanking (spare the rod and spoil the essay school child), and in essays autobiography III ii, King Lear calls on the storm to punish the crimes of modern others that usually go unpunished -- close pent-up guilts -- including incest and perjury but also planning murders and performing elder abuse.) Grigori Kozintsev's 1969 Russian version is called Korol Lir, translated into essays autobiography ben franklin, Russian by Boris Pasternak, (a few copies are usually available at essay, amazon.com, and it is now re-released by the BBC). A bit of the fourth act made it into the Beatles' Magical Mystery Tour for some reason. Shakespeare has retold the old story as a vehicle for a strikingly modern message.
Many people consider King Lear to essays autobiography, be his finest work. Whether or not you agree with his vision of a godless universe in which our only hope is to be kind to thesis about, one another, you will recognize the real beliefs of many (if not most) of your neighbors. To find Shakespeare's intent, look first for: changes in the plot sources made by autobiography ben franklin the author; passages that do not advance the plot or have obvious appeal to the intended audience. Shakespeare took a story that had a happy ending, and gave it a sad ending. He transformed a fairy-tale about virtuous and wicked people into something morally ambiguous. He took a story of wrongs being righted, and modern turned it into the story of painful discovery.
He included passages that deal with ideas instead of advancing the plot. Lear is king of essays autobiography ben franklin Britain. Essay? He is an essays ben franklin, old, highly successful warrior king. (War is an institution that we despise, just as Shakespeare clearly despised it. About? But before birth control or real personal security, population pressures made war and even genocidal conflict a fact of life.) Like Hamlet and Othello, we are impressed with him because of what others say about his background. (You can find examples. At the autobiography ben franklin end of the play, we will learn that despite his advanced age, he can still kill a young, armed man with his bare hands.) King Lear has decided to retire and to divide his kingdom among his three daughters and their husbands. His stated intention is to prevent future conflict. This is really not very smart, since it actually invites war between the heirs. Shakespeare's audience (having just been spared a civil war following the death of thesis Elizabeth) would have realized this.
King Lear has staged a ceremony in essays which each daughter will affirm her love for him. Whether this has been rehearsed, or the thesis daughters forewarned, we can only guess. Goneril and Regan may have been embarrassed. Goneril says she loves her father more than she can say. King Lear thanks her and gives her Third Prize. Regan says that she loves her father so much that she doesn't like anything else. King Lear thanks her and gives her Second Prize.
Cordelia says that she loves her father exactly as a daughter should. King Lear goes ballistic and disinherits her, and banishes the Earl of Kent for speaking in her defense. First Prize is ben franklin, divided between the other two daughters. You can decide whether King Lear is showing early signs of mental illness (as his other daughters think), or whether he just wanted an prompts for high school seniors, excuse to give Cordelia the best share of the kingdom and she just spoiled it. Cordelia has been courted by the Duke of Burgundy and the King of France. Burgundy says he will not marry a woman with no property. France is more clever. He swears that he loves Cordelia, and marries her.
This is an obvious plan to make a claim on the British throne, and Shakespeare's audience would have realized this. Essays Autobiography Ben Franklin? We'll see the proof later. France may or may not be sincere in loving Cordelia. Thesis Web Services? We won't know. As the essays basis of his retirement agreement, King Lear has stipulated that he will live alternately with his daughters, who will support him and 100 followers. When he leaves, Goneril and websites Regan express their understandable concern about hosting a mentally-imbalanced father and his personal army. King Lear goes to live with Goneril.
The first daughter's steward Oswald yells at Lear's jester, and autobiography ben franklin Lear punches the steward. Essays Luther? Goneril decides to assert control. When the play is staged, a good director might have Lear's retinue disrespecting Goneril -- whistles, catcalls, lewd remarks, or whatever. Kent returns in disguise to serve Lear, and we meet the jester (Fool). For some reason, just like Kent, the jester is loyal to the king. A court jester might be a comedian-entertainer, or simply a retarded person kept as an object of amusement. Lear's jester is specially privileged to speak the essays ben franklin truth, which he does ironically. Both the thesis about web services king and the jester make reference to the jester being whipped at ben franklin, times -- Ian McKellen makes it clear that this is a joke, with the king tapping the face on the jester's mock scepter (bauble / marotte). Essays Papers? You'll need to decide whether the essays autobiography ben franklin king has always been kind to essay, the jester, or whether the jester (like Kent) for some reason remains loyal despite past mistreatment. Oswald is rude to Lear, and one of Lear's knights makes an essays, indignant speech about the websites king not being cared for autobiography ben franklin properly. (This knight, and all the others, will soon abandon their king.) Lear yells at Oswald, Kent trips Oswald, and a scene ensues in of article essay which Goneril demands that Lear reduce the autobiography ben franklin number of his followers -- evidently to 50. Goneril (rightly) points out essays on martin that her own people can care for him just as well. (There's a subtlety here.
In the original story, the daughters send the knights away, i.e., refuse to pay to autobiography ben franklin, support them. Analysis? However, if you read closely, the knights are already leaving King Lear, because they can tell what is going to autobiography ben franklin, happen. The king is showing lapses in why art judgement, and autobiography has no way of prompts school seniors forcing his daughters to honor their promise to support him. In a time of ben franklin warlords, soldiers will desert when the leader shows signs of being unable to lead and/or guarantee their salaries.) Lear curses Goneril and departs for Regan's. He sends Kent before him, and Goneril sends Oswald. Regan and her husband have gone to visit the Earl of Gloucester, and when Kent and Oswald meet at the Earl's castle, Kent picks a fight and Regan's husband puts him in the stocks. This is a serious breach of protocol, and when Lear arrives, he is furious. (Kent's difficult phrase Nothing almost sees miracles but misery, by essay prompts for high school its context, seems to mean that when things seem to be going really badly, it's common to receive unexpected, seemingly-miraculous help.) Goneril arrives and Lear curses her again. Regan says she will allow him only 25 followers. Since Lear no longer has a source of income, his followers are leaving en masse anyway, but Lear evidently does not realize this.
Lear says he will return to Goneril, but now she will not even allow 25, and the daughters re-enact the fairy-tale plot by alternately reducing the numbers, and asking Why do you need even one follower, when we can care for you ourselves? Of course, they are right, but Lear says that he measures his personal worth in terms of his possessions. Reason not the need! Our basest beggars are in the poorest things superfluous. Allow not nature more than nature needs, Man's life is cheap as beast's. Vanities give meaning to essays autobiography, life and this is what raises us above the level of papers on martin animals. King Lear, now alone except for Kent and the jester, starts to cry and runs off as a storm brews.
The daughters lock him out of the castle to teach him a lesson. Lecturers who enjoy talking about autobiography ben franklin, The Elizabethan World Picture, in which orders of nature reflect human law and its breakdown, will tell you that the ensuing storm mirrors the analysis of article chaos in Britain. The Elizabethans paid lip-service to the idea that kings were magic, and actually knew that a stable monarchy was better for everybody than civil war. (Lawful democracy would be devised later.) King Lear yells back at what proves to essays autobiography ben franklin, be a preternaturally severe storm. His whole retinue have abandoned him except the jester, who begs Lear to go apologize to his daughters and essay seek shelter, and Kent, who sends to autobiography, Dover, where the French army has landed in expectation of a British civil war. Even though the jester pretends to thesis, be foolish, he always knows exactly what is going on, and what's more, he is autobiography, loyal to the old king. You'll need to decide for yourself whether this is foolishness or profound wisdom.
In the first storm scene, which is difficult, Lear is going crazy. He: first calls on presentation websites, the power of the storm to ben franklin, sterilize the human race; then accuses the storm of taking sides with his daughters against presentation websites, his dignity and being their degraded slave; then, realizing that people have deceived him, says the storm must be the gods's way of finding and punishing secret evildoers, and ben franklin that he is a man more sinned against than sinning; then comments, my wit begins to presentation websites, turn, i.e., he realizes he is going crazy -- in essays ben franklin literature, becoming insane is often a metaphor for changing the thesis way you look at yourself and the world; notices the jester is cold, and comments that he is also cold; this is the first time Lear has been responsive to the needs and concerns of someone else; accepts Kent's suggestion to take shelter in a hut. Already inside the hut is one of the homeless mentally-ill. The play is essays ben franklin, probably better if, as it is sometimes staged, there are several lunatics all ranting together. (This one lunatic is actually a sane man in disguise, seeking refuge from analysis essay, private injustice. Ben Franklin? The extras who served as knights in the first and second act and who will be in the battle scenes at the end can be the extra lunatics.) When he sees the hut, and before seeing the lunatic(s), King Lear realizes that what is happening to him now is essays, what he has allowed to happen to the poor throughout his reign. Oh, I have taken too little care of this. He suddenly realizes that his luxuries have been maintained at the expense of his poorest subjects, and that justice is only now being served on autobiography, him. When he sees the lunatic(s), Lear cracks, and says he/they must have given everything to their daughters and of article essay been turned out also. But the onset of madness confers a deeper insight. Essays Autobiography Ben Franklin? Lear sees in the naked lunatic someone who has taken nothing wrongfully from anyone, and essays on martin is the essays ben franklin essential human being. Presentation? Saying that unaccommodated man is no more but such a poor, bare, forked animal as thou art, the king rips off his clothes.
In the essays autobiography ben franklin third storm scene, King Lear holds a trial of his two daughters, evidently mistaking a stool for Goneril, something else (I've seen a chicken used) for Regan, and so forth. In one Royal Shakespeare Company production, the essay prompts for high school seniors king mistook a pillow that the jester was holding for Regan, and stabbed the jester to death through the pillow. The good Earl of autobiography ben franklin Gloucester comes and urges Kent to take the king (who has passed out) to Dover, since his daughters' people are planning to kill him. At the end, Kent tells the jester to on martin, follow Lear. As often played, Kent discovers the jester to be dead. The jester has no more entrances or lines, and perhaps the same boy-actor played Cordelia and the jester in the original production. You can read more about Robert Armin, the ben franklin beloved comedian who played Shakespeare's jesters at essay, the time, elsewhere online. Kent and essays autobiography ben franklin Lear reach Dover and essay Cordelia, who loves him.
Cordelia accompanies an invading French army. She may not realize this, but sending her is probably a cynical, no-lose move by the King of France. If his forces win and kill the ben franklin other heirs, he is now also King of Britain. Essay Prompts? If his forces lose, the heirs will kill Cordelia and he will be rid of a wife who is no longer of any political value. It seems to me that this is why the King of France suddenly had to return to his own country because of essays some sudden business that was more important than conquering England. Essays? Uh huh. He has left his wife either to do it for autobiography ben franklin him, or be killed. (Shakespeare's English audience mostly did not like the French. Obviously Shakespeare couldn't show a conquering French king on his stage. But having the king land and papers on martin then leave suddenly lets Shakespeare make the foreign king look machiavellian. You'll have to decide about this for yourself.)
Kent tells a friend that King Lear, in his more lucid moments, is too ashamed to see Cordelia. The king reappears in autobiography ben franklin a field where the Earl of Gloucester lies, his eyes having been gouged out by is important Regan and her husband. Autobiography? King Lear is now crowned and decorated with weeds and thesis about web services wild flowers. He wavers between hallucinations and accurate perception. At the same time, he talks about his world, focusing on how fake ordinary human society is. When he coins money, only his royal title makes him other than a counterfeiter. People pretend to be modest and virtuous, but in private are as amoral and essays dirty-living as animals. The law is modern essay, concerned with protecting the rich and concealing their misbehavior, not with promoting justice and fairness. Regan and Goneril have played and humored him.
He learned the truth only in the storm. He says that when we are born, we cry that we are come to this great stage of fools. Essays? Cordelia's people come to essay, bring him back to essays, their camp, and they chase him down. We next see King Lear asleep under the care of Cordelia. He awakes, and thinks -- correctly -- that he recognizes her. But he thinks that they are both dead. Thou art a soul in bliss, but I am bound upon the wheel of essay fire, that mine own tears do scald like molten lead. Essays Autobiography? Cordelia kneels, Lear tries to thesis about, do the same (as in the older play), but Cordelia prevents him. Lear says he knows he is not in his perfect mind, and that he is ben franklin, bewildered, and that if Cordelia wants him dead he will drink her poison. When Cordelia says she has no cause to be angry, but merely wants to help him, Lear says Pray now, forget and forgive.
I am old and school seniors foolish. King Lear is autobiography ben franklin, not about wrongs being righted. If Shakespeare were a Hollywood writer, his king might have returned to rulership and (having learned to be sensitive, and that it is all right to analysis, cry) become a champion for the poor in his own country and set up a social agency to deal effectively with other dysfunctional families. In contrast to the happy ending in the source, Shakespeare has the French army defeated by the British, and Lear and Cordelia are captured. King Lear looks forward to happy time with his daughter in prison, merely laughing at the rest of the world. As the autobiography subplot concludes, all the villains are dead, but Cordelia has been hanged in why art prison. King Lear kills the hangman with his bare hands.
He comes onstage, carrying Cordelia's body and ben franklin howling. King Lear's surviving heir, Goneril's good husband who is now sole head of the victorious army, returns Lear's royal power, but Lear does not notice. Websites? Suddenly uncertain whether she is alive or dead, King Lear bends to examine Cordelia, believes she is alive, and falls dead himself. The good survivors see the passing of ben franklin a man who was larger than life. The secondary plot. King Lear's story is paralleled by modern liberalism essay the story of the Earl of Gloucester. We meet him at the beginning, introducing his illegitimate son Edmund with some smutty jokes. We do not need to autobiography ben franklin, see Edmund's face to imagine how often this must have happened, and how Edmund's feelings must have been hurt by it. Perhaps this is part of how he got his attitude toward the world. Alone, Edmund soliloquizes that he is as talented and as loved as his legitimate brother Edgar, and that the accident of his birth is unjust.
He professes allegiance to nature rather than law or love, and decides that he will try to gain control of the essays on martin earldom by removing his father and ben franklin brother. Edmund takes a minute to ridicule astrology. We can ask ourselves whether Edmund is for high seniors, simply making fun of superstition, whether he is talking about self-empowerment like a 1990's person, whether he is disavowing a role for heaven (God, the supernatural, transcendent values, the ideals of religion, whatever) in his life, or whether he is ben franklin, denying their reality altogether. Later, the good Kent will look to the same stars to explain the differences in attitude among King Lear's daughters. Edmund forges a letter, deceives his father into believing Edgar has first asked him to help murder Gloucester, then pretends to have been injured by the fleeing Edgar. Gloucester declares Edgar an outlaw and Edmund his heir. Edgar finds refuge among the homeless mentally ill and later meets King Lear there. When France invades, Gloucester talks to thesis about, Edmund about taking King Lear's side, and Edmund betrays him to Goneril and Regan.
Edmund shows Cornwall an incriminating letter to essays autobiography ben franklin, Regan's husband and thesis web services pretends to essays autobiography ben franklin, be uncertain about whether his father is a traitor. True or not, is Cornwall's cynical reply, it hath made thee Earl of essay school seniors Gloucester. Pretending both moral outrage and the desire to follow proper legal procedure (the form of justice), Regan's husband carves out essays autobiography ben franklin Gloucester's eyes. He stomps one eyeball flat on the ground for essay fun, but is stabbed to death by essays autobiography one of his own horrified servants, who is killed in turn by essays papers on martin Regan's backstab. The dying husband calls on Regan for help, but Regan likes Edmund instead. Essays? As the scene is often staged, she merely walks off and lets him die.
The director may even have her stab Cornwall again herself. Gloucester's servants tend his wounds and Edgar leads him, without revealing who he is, to Dover, where he meets Lear and why art is important laments his own foolishness. Then Oswald finds Gloucester and attacks him, but is killed by Edgar, who finds a letter incriminating Goneril for her adultery with Edmund. During the battle, Edgar finally reveals the truth to ben franklin, Gloucester and the old man dies happy. After the battle, Edgar defeats Edmund in a duel (Albany makes Edmund fight), jealous Goneril poisons Regan and then suicides, the brothers forgive each other, and Edmund's last act is an attempt to do good despite his own [evil] nature. Essays Luther? He calls -- too late -- for Lear's and essays autobiography ben franklin Cordelia's lives to be spared.
The subplot seems to have been inspired by an episode in Sidney's Arcadia about the King of Paphlagonia. Many details match, including the good son persuading the blinded father not to jump to essays on martin luther, his death off a cliff. Some commentators, including Edgar, have seen Gloucester's physical torture as punishment for his sexual sin. Be this as it may, King Lear contains the oldest torture scene that you'll see on essays ben franklin, the stage. Of Article? Sensitive Victorians cut it from production. Even by today's movie standards, it is a shocker. Since setting up this page, I've heard from essays autobiography, a few students that their instructors said Today we consider Edmund admirable but in Shakespeare's time his actions might have made the audience angry.
I am not making this up. Evidently Edmund is admirable because he has a grievance and talks about illegitimate sons being discriminated against, and websites is some kind of nature-worshipper. Ben Franklin? This overshadows the way he treats everybody around him. On Martin Luther? An authentic liberal would wish that Edmund had shown a little real kindness to the genuinely needy people on his father's estate -- as King Lear ultimately wishes he had done. Admiring someone primarily for his grievances is the politics of extremism. Feel free to speak up in class. Your decent-minded classmates will appreciate it.
Themes and Image Patterns. Who is it that can tell me who I am? -- King Lear. The Elizabethans believed, or pretended to believe, that the natural world reflected a hierarchy that mirrored good government and essays ben franklin stable monarchy. This is liberalism essay, a common enough idea in old books from various cultures. Even our scientific age talks both about essays autobiography, laws of nature and good government through good laws, although of course we know the essential difference. Shakespeare's era contrasted nature and presentation art (i.e., human-made decorations, human-made luxuries and essays autobiography technologies, human-made artistic productions), just as we talk about essential human nature contrasted to websites, culture.
Shakespeare's era also contrasted natural and unnatural behaviors; the latter would include mistreating family members, opposing the government, and autobiography ben franklin various sexual activities not intended for presentation websites procreation. King Lear deals with how children and essays ben franklin parents treat each other, whether human society is the product of nature or something we create so as to live better than animals do, and thesis about whether human nature is fundamentally selfish or generous. Not surprisingly, you can find various ideas about the relationship between human beings and the natural world. You already know that 57 different animals are mentioned in the play. Lear tells Cordelia that neither human nature nor royal dignity can tolerate the way she has insulted him. Lear tells the King of essays France that nature is ashamed to on martin luther, have produced a child like Cordelia, whose lack of love is so contrary to nature.
King Lear expects people to ben franklin, be naturally virtuous, in other words, to tell him the lies he wants to hear. The King of France suggests that Cordelia has a tardiness in nature, i.e., that sometime's it's natural to is important essay, be inarticulate. Essays? France sees nature as the source of human frailties, rather than vice. Edmund begins, Thou, Nature, art my goddess. Is Important Essay? Human law and custom have treated Edmund unfairly because his parents were not married. Edmund intends to essays ben franklin, look out for himself, like an animal. Edmund sees nature as the opposite of human virtue. Stupid Gloucester, deceived by Edmund, considers Edgar's supposed plot to murder him to be contrary to nature (unnatural, brutish). Gloucester believes in astrology.
Gloucester thinks that the presentation websites eclipses, which result from essays, natural causes, still have unnatural effects, causing the breakdown of presentation websites human society. Edmund doesn't believe in astrology. He says he was born rough and self-centered, and essays that the stars had nothing to do with it. Papers On Martin Luther? Later, Kent believes the stars must account for the inexplicable differences in people's attitudes. Some Elizabethans believed that the stars affected nature as supernatural agents. Others believed that they were powerful natural forces.
Edmund remarks that Edgar's nature is gentle and naive, and (at the end) that he will do one last good deed in spite of mine own nature. (Do you think that Edmund realized -- for autobiography the first time, after the deaths of his two girlfriends -- that he COULD be loved, and this made him do something good? Edmund's remark about acting against his nature reminds us of the ongoing scientific and why art political controversies over how much of an individual's behavior is genetically programmed, how much is learned and essays conditioned, and how much one is responsible. (Nature vs. nurture; innate vs. cultural, and so forth.) King Lear, thinking of thesis about Cordelia's most small fault, laments the way it scrambled his mind (wrenched my frame of nature from its fixed place). King Lear also calls on essays autobiography ben franklin, nature as a goddess, to punish Goneril with infertility, or else give her a baby that grows up to hate her (a thwart disnatured torment). Lear says as he leaves Goneril's home, I will forget my nature, perhaps meaning he will begin crying again. Gloucester jokes that Edmund is loyal and essay seniors natural. The latter means both illegitimate, and essays autobiography ben franklin that he cares for his own flesh-and-blood as a son should. Regan's husband speaks of Edmund's nature of such deep trust, i.e., his trustworthy character is modern liberalism essay, inborn. Kent tells the steward that nature disclaims thee; a tailor made thee, ridiculing his unmanliness and his obsequiousness. When Regan pretends to be sick, King Lear remarks that you're not yourself when natural sickness affects you.
We are not ourselves when nature, being oppressed, commands the autobiography mind to modern liberalism essay, suffer with the body. There's a foreshadowing here. Regan tells King Lear that nature in you stands on the very verge of essays her confine. In other words, you're getting too old to analysis essay, make your own decisions, and Regan's behavior is only that of a good, natural daughter. We've already seen (allow not nature more than nature needs. ) King Lear says that it is superfluous luxuries that raise us above the natural level of animals. He will soon change his mind. Kent and the other basically good characters see the essays autobiography ben franklin treatment of Lear and Gloucester as unnatural. Albany says to Goneril, That nature which condemns itself in origin cannot bordered certain in itself -- i.e., if you mistreat your own parent, what kind of presentation person must you be? Writers who talk about the Elizabethans believing in cosmic hierarchy and so forth will see a moral warning against deviating from nature: If you have violated nature by being less than generous to your parent, your self-centeredness will grow and you will become morally worse than an animal.
King Lear calls on the storm to crack nature's moulds and end the human race. Kent urges King Lear to seek shelter, since man's nature cannot carry the affliction nor the essays ben franklin force and the tyranny of the open night's too rough for essay nature to endure. King Lear, crazy, asks whether Regan's hard-heartedness is the result of natural disease or chemistry or something perhaps cultural or perhaps supernatural. Is there any cause in nature that makes this hardness? When Lear falls asleep in the last storm scene, Kent sees his madness as oppressed nature sleeping.
Cordelia is said to redeem nature from the essays autobiography general curse brought by the other two daughters. With people like Cordelia in the world, one could not say the liberalism human race is generally bad by nature. The physician calls sleep our foster-nurse of nature. Readers may remember Macbeth, who after committing the unnatural crime of killing a king, becomes an insomniac. King Lear, with the insight of madness, decorates himself with wild flowers. You can use these various ideas about what's natural and what's not to develop a good paper. Thomas Hobbes observed that the lives of essays autobiography ben franklin wild animals and about primitive people are mostly nasty, brutish, and short.
Despite romantic depictions, it would be hard nowadays to find anyone who would disagree. Nowadays, most people believe that culture is something that we invent so that we can fall in love, create works of art and music, remember the autobiography ben franklin past, and enjoy a reasonable prospect of good health, personal security, and about web services choosing our own paths through life. If most of us no longer believe that a king's sovereignty mirrors the harmony of a well-run natural world, we can still find fundamental human issues treated in King Lear . King Lear tells Regan that you're not human unless you have more than you need. (Allow not nature more than nature needs. ) Then in the storm, King Lear cries out essays that only the poorest person, who owes nothing to anyone (not even the animals), is truly human (. the thesis about thing itself.) Which do you think is right? In I.iv., King Lear himself introduces the question, Who am I? in the passage that begins Doth any here know me. and ends with Who is it that can tell me who I am? And if you want to keep it very simple, just notice this. King Lear and the mostly-good characters talk about nature as making us care about one another, especially our own families. Edmund talks about nature as making us care only about ourselves. Who is ben franklin, right? I can't tell you. You have a lifetime to decide for school seniors yourself. Many people approaching King Lear decided Edmund is their favorite character.
Shakespeare presents characters rather than caricatures, and our sympathies are always divided. Edmund is charming, clever, clear-headed (when others are not). Ben Franklin? And we see at the very beginning how hurtfully and thoughtlessly his father has treated him. In keeping with the theme of the play, Edmund decides at the beginning that human nature is fundamentally selfish. Essays Papers On Martin Luther? And Edmund decides to act accordingly. Essays? In our world, such people always present themselves as having style, and in fact those who pray certain liturgies specifically renounce the glamour of evil. Edmund treats others horribly. Yet at the end, Edmund finds the decency he thought he didn't have, and tries to do good in spite of [his] own nature.
I've seen this sort of thing in presentation real life, and perhaps you have too. There's a good paper right here. Other image clusters in King Lear include clothing / nakedness (are you more yourself with your culture's clothes and autobiography ben franklin the dignity they confer, or naked, owing nothing to anyone?), fortune (is what happens to us dumb luck, predestined, or whatever?), justice (many different ideas), and modern liberalism eyeslght / blindness / hallucination (a blinded character and essays a hallucinating character both perceive things more clearly; the play asks Does human nature make us care only for ourselves, or for essay others?, our natural eyes may not give us the best answer.) And there's the autobiography ben franklin recurrent theme of nothing . Cordelia can add nothing to her sisters' speeches. Thesis About Web Services? Lear says that nothing is the reward to Cordelia and Burgundy after Cordelia says nothing. Edmund was reading nothing, so Gloucester says the quality of nothing has no need to hide itself, and if it's nothing, he won't need his reading glasses. Lear says the jester's jingle is nothing, and the jester adds that Lear paid nothing for it. Asked if he can make use of nothing, Lear says again, nothing can come from nothing. The jester calls Lear a zero without a preceding figure, or nothing. Deprived of his identity, Edgard is nothing.
The storm makes nothing (should this be knotting?) of Lear's hair. But in the storm, Lear first decides to say nothing, then admires the poor man who owes nothing to any other creature as the true human being. You can find several other examples, including insults of the form You're nothing but. . But King Lear's speech on owing nothing ends the essays autobiography image cluster. Perhaps Shakespeare is telling us that there is much of which we need to divest ourselves before we can find our real selves. What Shakespeare Could Not Say Openly?
Meantime, we shall express our darker purposes. -- Lear. You'll need to decide for yourself about what follows. The last lines of the play are puzzling, especially Speak what we feel, not what we ought to say. In Shakespeare's era, custom required that the first and last lines of a scene be given to the highest-ranking character on stage. The Quarto gives these to Albany (who is a duke, outranking an earl). This looks like an editor's attempt to thesis about, correct what he thought was an essays ben franklin, error. The Folio gives them to Edgar, who has just been asked to assume the kingship by Albany. Giving Edgar a final word along with Kent and Albany seems right. Thanks to of article essay, my correspondent Menay D'Ann Wilde of Mrs. Dodson's class at Hirshi High for asking the perfect question: Since Edgar is not coronated, did Shakespeare make a mistake? What do YOU think?
Was Shakespeare ignoring a hidebound, classist custom for the ending of his great tragedy? Albany's a duke and Edgar is king-designate, so who outranks who? Was giving the essays autobiography good king-to-be, Edgar, the last word the best way to end a sad play on an upbeat note? Anyway. I think I understand what Edgar is saying. At the time of luther someone's death, Shakespeare's contemporaries (and most of ours) will tell you that the survivors ought to say some conventional piety. Autobiography Ben Franklin? Edgar says, Let's just tell the truth. This happened. Modern? This is sad. Shakespeare's England did not afford its citizens the same freedom of, or from, religion that we possess.
A few years before King Lear , the essays autobiography ben franklin playwright Thomas Kyd had literally been tortured for expressing skepticism about presentation websites, orthodox Christianity. Christopher Marlowe, who Kyd implicated as a fellow-freethinker, escaped a similar fate only by autobiography getting murdered in a tavern brawl. Characters in King Lear often talk about the gods (the setting is pagan Britain); God is mentioned only why art is important once by King Lear, who fantasizes (unrealistically) that he and essays Cordelia will be allowed to live and look at thesis about, ordinary people without being involved as if we were God's spies. Hypocritical Edmund pretends that he's warned Edgar of the essays autobiography ben franklin gods' wrath, King Lear swears by Apollo and Jupiter (and Kent, as a bitter joke, swears by Jupiter's wife Juno), and of course Gloucester says that the gods play with us as boys play with flies, killing us for fun. Edgar says (to Edmund, but for presentation websites the benefit of the essays ben franklin simple, good Albany) that the essay for high gods are just, and that Gloucester was punished for an episode of nonmarital sex by having his eyes gouged out. This is ben franklin, obviously NOT justice. In the most puzzling scene in the play, Edgar pretends to escort the presentation blind Gloucester to the white cliffs of autobiography ben franklin Dover, where Gloucester intends to jump to his death.
Edgar tells him he is at the summit, Gloucester jumps, and faints. Edgar then changes his accent, waits for his father to revive, and tells him that God has saved his life miraculously. Of course this is a lie, but it helps Gloucester find emotional peace. Shakespeare changed his source material -- in the original, the essay son merely talks the father out of suicide. Edmund didn't believe in astrology, but considered himself a product of nature. Edgar's skeptical expression is kinder but seems even deeper. It seems to me that Shakespeare is saying, as clearly as he can, what many people in his own day must have believed secretly. There is no God. The comforts of religion are make-believe. Nor are we good by nature, or through our laws and customs.
The only hope for human beings is autobiography, that we can be try to presentation, be decent and essays ben franklin generous with one another. Whether or not you agree (and I do not), this deepest message explains for me why the for high school cosmic tragedy of King Lear still speaks to us so powerfully. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (2003) Enjoying King Lear by William Shakespeare Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/kinglear.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is essays, Ed Friedlander MD. Nahum Tate adapted King Lear so it would have a happy ending.
Restoration themes (Love Conquors All, Virtue is Rewarded, etc.) From the same milieu that produced the corny William Dyce painting of Lear and his jester enjoying the web services countryside. You can find it online here. Kent Richmond of ben franklin Cal State (Long Beach) has prepared a version that replaces the archaic words with modern ones. Websites? Looks good; does not dumb the play down. King Lear -- Online Literature; text and some notes. No Fear -- text along with 21st-century English translation.
Teri Bannerman -- literature site under construction. Cordelia -- did she stay behind in autobiography ben franklin disguise as King Lear's jester? Ed says. Yes! Cordelia and the jester never appear onstage at the same time, and the jester disappears without explanation after act III; Other Shakespearean heroines disguise themselves as men, though only in the non-tragedies;
King Lear seems to of article essay, identify the jester and Cordelia in the last scene (My poor fool is hanged!); Cordelia seems to remember the extreme severity of the essays autobiography ben franklin storm, and would have saved her enemy's dog that night even if it had bit her (IV.vii) It's quite playable. Having Cordelia reveal herself at essay, the end of III.vi. Autobiography Ben Franklin? is an audience-pleaser. No! It is websites, hard to explain Cordelia's choice of jokes, which run from the bitter to the off-color to very harsh criticism of the King, and it is hard to explain why Cordelia would want to rub her beloved father's face in his own stupidity; Since my young lady's going into France, sir, the fool has much pined away. No more of that, I have noted it. -- I.iv. The same boy-actor probably played both characters, accounting for essays ben franklin their not appearing onstage together.
Encyclopedia Brittanica. It has been difficult for champions of Shakespeare's moral and religious orthodoxy to web services, combat the play's great pessimism. Larry A. Brown -- Evangelical and professor of theater, has his thoughts and essays the full texts of the essays on martin luther quarto and folio versions. Watch King Lear on autobiography ben franklin, video clips: Ian Holm -- Cordelia with Lear as he re-awakes. Kozintsev's Lear -- Lear after the storm among the homeless mentally-ill. Lawrence Olivier -- after the storm, with Gloucester. Puppet show -- very funny, abbreviated, modern language, produced by why art four clever young women.
Antaeus Company -- the old loon hasn't looked so good in some time Belle Yang -- painting; Love and Be Silent Shotgun Players -- King Lear with a warning that the plot has been changed. Essays Autobiography Ben Franklin? The commentary suggests that this is to promote the idea, popular for the last few decades in some intellectual circles, that people who seem to be good to others, or trying to be good to others, are all phonies, and that only about obviously selfish and cruel people are genuine. I am glad I don't believe this. Before the Devil Knows You are Dead features a school performance of King Lear in which the anti-hero's daughter forgets the essays autobiography ben franklin last line (The oldest hath borne most. We who are young will never see so much, nor live so long.) This proves prophetic, and thesis about the movie asks some the same question as the play: Is it simply and obviously true, as one character says, that the world is an evil place? Megan Fox has a line from essays autobiography ben franklin, King Lear tattooed on her back. Korol Lir at websites, Rotten Tomatoes. King Lear shows that great force of character is autobiography ben franklin, not necessarily wise, rude speech is not necessarily unkind, and madness is in some cases a perfectly reasonable response to intolerable conditions..
Christopher Plummer's King Lear is reviewed in the New York Times (you must join): The overall vision of the 'Lear' may be of a godless world. Christopher Plummer's King Lear. The King is thesis, Alive the Namibian desert. Edward Bond's Lear (1971) has little to do with Shakespeare's work and is probably the most violent play ever staged. Bond, a left-winger, claimed he wanted to change society for the better by portraying everyone and everything as sensely cruel. Audiences still left disgusted.
The Madness of King George -- mental illness strikes another king of England. Shakespeare's Sonnets. A remarkable sequence even by today's standards. The site author is, like me, committed to making Shakespeare available to everybody, at no cost. Enjoy.
King Lear Parody by Richard Nathan. Brilliant. This essay is actually being offered for sale by at autobiography, least three different online sites for thesis students who for whatever reason don't want to write their own papers. There has been no response to my protests. Teachers: Click here to begin your search for essays ben franklin online essays intended for liberalism essay would-be plagiarists. Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid!
Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. To the autobiography best of my knowledge, all the analysis links on my literature pages are to free sites. Autobiography Ben Franklin? In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for thesis about web services a price in the low four figures. I refused, and autobiography the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and spare everybody from a lot of prompts for high school seniors wasted time. It's a shame. This site will always remain free, to autobiography, help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. If any of the sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know. Oedipus the King -- including something about the tragic hero business.
If you are asked to write about Shakespeare's tragic heroes or their tragic flaw or whatever, help yourself to my skeptical notes on papers on martin luther, Aristotle. You may find it more rewarding to essays autobiography, focus on something at once more obvious and more profound. Shakespeare (unlike Sophocles) is writing about real-life, flesh-and-blood people (tragic flaws -- nobody always acts smart) who live in an imperfect world (tragic choices). In Shakespeare, our sympathies are usually divided among the characters. For this reason, Aristotle's thoughts on tragedy (i.e., people are imperfect) really seem more useful in discussing Shakespeare than in discussing Sophocles. In my pathology course and here, my advice is the same -- focus on the human beings, the real-life, individual situations. (1) Look at the short story that provided the plot (click here. and notice how Shakespeare has portrayed racism as it really is in our world. Ordinary decent folks (i.e., the Venetian government) care only who a person is and presentation what that person can do.
They consider Brabantio a jerk for accepting a person of another race as a friend but not as a son-in-law. Iago, who for essays autobiography ben franklin whatever reason has a chip on essay prompts for high seniors, his shoulder, spews racial venom for his own dark reasons. Desdemona is originally frightened by someone who looks different, but quickly learns to love that person so that race become indifferent. (2) It is very common for special-forces operatives who return to civilian life and/or who try to sustain a marriage to have terrible difficulties. Ben Franklin? Those who are successful deserve our special admiration. Too many become terribly confused and end up in analysis of article self-destructive behaviors, both loving and hating. Essays Autobiography? It's one of our world's strangest ironies that romantic love is presentation websites, more treacherous and incomprehensible than war. I'm Ed. Essays Autobiography Ben Franklin? I'm an MD, a pathologist in Kansas City, a mainstream Christian. a modernist, a skydiver, an adventure gamer, the world's busiest free internet physician, and a man who still enjoys books and ideas.
I hope you like King Lear , and that I've been of some help. Belief in God -- I do not share King Lear's dark vision, but I understand why others do. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks and on martin luther parentheses. This became standard to protect fragile bits of movable type. My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document. reset Jan. 30, 2005: Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, and get out of essays autobiography abusive relationships by any means.
If the grown-ups who support you are difficult, act like you love them even if you're not sure that you do. It'll help you and liberalism them. Essays Ben Franklin? The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to work too hard and liberalism isn't taking it easy like other young people. Health and friendship. Visitors send me this question from time to time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on drugs profiteering. then the answer is essays, probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, Is human nature fundamentally kind or selfish? Do our luxuries make us more or less human? If there is no God, do we still have a reason to about web services, love one another? -- then the answer is maybe that Shakespeare deals with basic human issues. A Thousand Acres.
Click here to autobiography, see the author's friend, Dr. Ken Savage, do it right. Afterward: A year after setting up this page, I've had over 100,000 visitors and analysis essay a few hundred thank you's. To be thanked, madam, is to be overpaid. -- Kent. A few correspondents are belligerent, telling me that I'm dogmatic, pretentious, and/or pathetic, but never attempting to explain why.
As I've written elsewhere, If you have no case, shout 'hubris!' I'm very glad to be able to help so many other people enjoy Shakespeare. Health and friendship.
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4 Steps to Writing a Job-Winning Resume. Writing your resume, or even updating your resume, can be a scary, daunting task. But with the right approach and know-how, you can create your own standout document in essays autobiography, no time. Essay Prompts School Seniors! And the autobiography, good news is we’re here to essays luther help. We’ve broken down the resume-writing process into 4 simple steps to essays autobiography make it easier for you to essay prompts school get started! Our Resume Writing Guide gives you an overview of autobiography, each section of your resume, followed by presentation websites, some quick tips and actual resume examples that you can use as model for autobiography, your own resume. Every great resume begins with a strong summary statement. This is a short description of who you are professionally that includes a brief list of thesis web services, your top skills.
Your summary statement is the first thing that recruiters will see. So think of it as your big chance to catch someone’s attention. You also want to show hiring leaders that you’re a great fit for the job. You can do this by using the skills and keywords that are in the job description in essays ben franklin, your summary statement – just make sure you only use those that reflect your experience (no exaggerating or lying on your resume!). Your statement can be written in liberalism, either sentence form or bullet-point form and should be short, but effective – no more than 3 sentences or bullet points; it should also contain the following information: Your professional title Top 2-3 skills Specific expertise, professional traits, accomplishments. Need help writing your own professional summary statement? Our Resume Builder has hundreds of expertly written summary statements and career-specific phrases that you can easily and quickly add to your resume. Essays! Registered nurse with 9 years of essay prompts, experience in medical centers and essays ben franklin operating rooms ICU and ER experience in 40+ bed units Strong organizational and interpersonal skills.
Dedicated assembly line worker with 5 years of experience. Well-versed in is important essay, machinery assembly and production line efficiency . Fast learner who picks up new processes and technologies easily. Senior Sales Associate with excellent customer relations skills in essays ben franklin, business-to-business sales Increased global sales by 20% over the last two years, exceeding goals each quarter for thesis web services, the past year Seeking new sales challenge with management opportunities. Experienced veterinary technician with 3 years of experience in delivering comprehensive care to animals at animal rescue facilities and shelters. Seeking to use shelter experience and formal training at a respected veterinary office. Responsible cashier experienced at managing front-of-store needs in busy environments. Friendly and energetic with strong communication and organizational abilities.
Seeking role of increased responsibility where strengths in service and sales will be valuable. Autobiography! Motivated sales professional with 8 years of fashion retail sales experience who truly enjoys helping customers find their best fit and style. Highly results-oriented and about web services energetic, with unsurpassed customer relations skills. The skills section – often called the #8220;Qualifications#8221; or #8220;Areas of ben franklin, Expertise#8221; section of your resume is a list of your top skills. This section of your resume is your chance to essay for high seniors showcase your abilities to employers in a quick and easy-to-read way. Although this section is typically short and concise (think two columns of essays autobiography, 3 to 4 bullet points), it contains very important information about your ability to thesis about perform a particular type of job.
Hiring managers should be able to autobiography scan your resume and find this list of skills easily. Essays Luther! Here are a few helpful tips for writing a skills section that will get you noticed. Target your skills to the job : This is one of the best ways to customize your resume for the job you are applying to. Read the job description and list all of the autobiography, required and desired skills for the position. Then, see if you have any skills that match up with those on your list; these are the abilities you should include in your skills section. This way, when hiring managers skim your resume, they will see that you have the why art is important essay, skills they’re looking for in a candidate.
Include transferable skills : Transferable skills are skills that cross from one career field to another. These skills can be applied to a variety of positions. Some examples include communication skills, presentation or public speaking skills, any foreign language skills you have, social media skills, organizational and planning skills, and management and leaderships skills. Use keywords : If you are applying to a job online and are asked to upload your resume or fill in an application online, chances are you are entering your information into an application tracking system. This is essays autobiography ben franklin, a machine that companies use to scan a resume for keywords specific to analysis the job. Be sure to essays ben franklin pick out keywords from the job description and your industry and use them in your resume and application to make sure it gets past this machine. Modern Liberalism! Using keywords directly from the employer will increase your chances of getting noticed by essays ben franklin, the hiring manager. Need help writing a skills section that gets you noticed?
Our Resume Builder has hundreds of essays on martin, career-specific phrases that you can easily and quickly add to your own resume. While all parts of your resume are equally important, your work history section is where you will be discussing your direct experience and your accomplishments, and autobiography it’s critical to get this one right.Let’s start with the basics. Your work history section should include the essay school, following: Positions and/or titles you held Names of organizations where you were employed City and essays autobiography state of each organization Employment periods for about web services, each job, written as Month/Date – Month/Date Brief descriptions of your experience in bullet format. This section will be a combination of your job responsibilities and duties along with your work achievements. Hiring managers will be looking for your achievements and successes, not just your responsibilities, so it’s important to include both. When listing your responsibilities and essays autobiography ben franklin duties, be sure to essay seniors use action verbs to increase the strength of your writing and make potential employers take notice. Some action verbs to use include: Communicated Negotiated Joined Reported Customized Initiated Planned Budgeted Developed Prepared Contributed Ensured Provided Led. It takes practice and essays time to come up with your accomplishments and successes and to add numbers to thesis about them numbers such as how much money you saved the company, how you increased efficiency, or how many sales you achieved in a certain period of autobiography, time. However, using two or three bullets under each job to describe your successes, along with metrics, will land you an interview. Need help writing a work experience section that shows your value?
Our Resume Builder has hundreds of career-specific phrases that you can easily and modern essay quickly add to your own resume. Bayle Industries, Hutchins Creek, MD. July 2010 – present. Prioritized and managed multiple administrative projects while managing day-to- day tasks such as receiving and distributing mail, maintaining conference rooms, managing calendars, and maintaining office supplies. Autobiography Ben Franklin! Increased conference room scheduling efficiency by 25% by implementing new company-wide online booking system. Provided travel arrangement support for 25+ employees per why art is important, month for offsite meetings and national conferences. Managed operations and logistics for annual onsite company conference for 150 employees and 200+ guest attendees.
Parkview Elementary School, Summerfields, PA. Essays! September 2014 – May 2016. Assisted in a classroom of thesis about web services, 25 elementary school children, ages 5-6, for two consecutive school years. Engaged children with diverse and essays autobiography enjoyable activities involving theatrical play, musical instruments and hands-on learning. Websites! Offered detailed weekly reports that outlined each child’s activities and implemented new email letter system to offer reports online, saving the faculty 4 hours per week.
Ft. Hood, Killeen, TX. January 2008 – August 2015. Autobiography Ben Franklin! Developed and led 5 new training programs over 12 months in preparation for combat. Performed reconnaissance operations in compromised regions to develop combat training programs. Performed as a fire team member during situational training exercises and all infantry dismounted battle drills. Communicated urgent orders and essay for high directions effectively to team of essays autobiography, 200+ military personnel. Your educational background can be an important part of your resume and analysis of article should communicate your background quickly and simply to potential employers.
Even if you don’t have previous experience in essays ben franklin, a particular job, you may increase your chances of being considered for the position if you can show that you have taken courses that are relevant to the position at hand. Here are some tips to help make your education section work for you: List the highest level of education first. Is Important Essay! This will help catch the essays autobiography, hiring manager’s eye and ensure that he or she is is important, able to determine your education level quickly. If you are recent graduate without a ton of work experience, then you can place your education section at the top of autobiography, your resume for emphasis. Include your educational information in this order: Degree or diploma name is listed first. Major(s) follow the degree. If you have minors, these are optional to thesis web services list but it’s recommended to essays autobiography list them if they are relevant to the job you are applying for. List the date you received the degree or diploma by year (for example, 2003).
If you are soon-to-be grad, you can list your expected graduation date. Employment periods for each job, written as Month/Date – Month/Date Do not include your GPA on your resume unless you are a recent graduate. If you don’t have a degree, never fear! If you have an associate’s degree, you can list it in the same way as above. It is also perfectly acceptable to is important essay list any college experience you do have, even if you didn’t graduate. Essays Autobiography Ben Franklin! In the absence of a college degree, it’s extremely important to list any professional training or certificates you have received especially if they are relevant to the job you are applying for. Then, make sure to luther emphasize your work experience section as much as possible to show employers that you are qualified for the position, whether or not you have a degree. Need help writing an education section that shows your value? Our Resume Builder can help you quickly and effectively outline your classroom achievements. More Articles about How to Write Your First Resume.
3 Critical Mistakes to essays autobiography ben franklin Avoid on is important Your First Ever Resume. Tips On Creating A Resume For A New Career. Autobiography! How to Write a Resume When You Have No Work Experience. Get Hired In 30 Seconds: Resume Summary Tips. Get Your Resume In Front of the about, Right People: Four Tips. Create a Resume That Stops Traffic. Essays! How to Write a Resume that Lands More Job Offers. Resume Tips for Job Search Newbies. Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter.
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Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin with his Essays and Will
Essay on essays autobiography, Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on religion, it’s meaning, nature, role and other details! Religion is an almost universal institution in human society. It is found in all societies, past and analysis of article essay, present. All the preliterate societies known to us have religion. Religion goes back to ben franklin the beginning of the culture itself. Modern Essay. It is a very ancient institution. There is no primitive society without religion. Image Courtesy : upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9d/Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg/1280px-Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg. Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of man in response to certain felt needs of men.
While most people consider religion as universal and therefore, a significant institution of societies. It is the foundation on which the normative structure of society stands. It is the social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. It has influenced other institutions. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon autobiography ben franklin, political and economic aspects of life. It is said that man from the presentation, earliest times has been incurably religious.
Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the great religions of the world. Religion is concerned with the shared beliefs and practices of autobiography human beings. It is the human response to essays those elements in the life and environment of ben franklin mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and is found in nearly all societies. Majumdar and Madan explain that the word religion has its origin in the Latin word Rel (I) igio. Liberalism. This is derived from two root words. The first root is Leg, meaning “together, count or observe”. The second root is Lig, meaning ‘to bind’. The first root refers to belief in and practice of “signs of Divine Communication”. Autobiography Ben Franklin. The second root refers to the carrying out those activities which link human beings with the supernatural powers. Thus, we find that the word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the main characteristics of all religions.
Central to all religions is the concept of faith. Religion in this sense is the organisation of faith which binds human beings to their temporal and essays, transcendental foundation. By faith man is distinguished from other beings. It is essentially a subjective and private matter. Faith is something which binds us together and is therefore, more important than reason. Pfleiderer defined religion as “that reference men’s life to a word governing power which seeks to grow into a living union with it.” According to James G. Frazer considered religion as a belief in “Powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and of human life”.
As Christopher Dauson writes, “Whenever and wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than man’s own, there is religion, and the feelings of awe and self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of such powers is essentially a religious emotion, the root of worship and prayer.” Arnold W. Green defines religion as “a system of beliefs and symbolic practices and objects, governed by faith rather than by knowledge, which relates man to an unseen supernatural realm beyond the autobiography ben franklin, known and beyond the controllable.” According to about Maclver and Page, “Religion, as we understand the term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power.” As Gillin and Gillin says, “The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in autobiography ben franklin a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs.” Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to their own conceptions. As a matter of fact the forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is of article, difficult to agree upon a definition. Some maintain that religion includes a belief in supernatural or mysterious powers and that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to essays autobiography ben franklin deal with those powers. Others regard religion as something very earthly and materialistic, designed to essays papers achieve practical ends.
Sumner and Keller asserted that, “Religion in history, from the earliest to very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at all but of rites, rituals, observance and essays, ceremony”. Religion, in fact, is essay prompts school seniors, not a mere process of mediations about man’s life; it is autobiography, also a means of preserving the values of life. While it is possible to define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism. In sociology, the word religion is used in a wider sense than that used in about religious books. A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of emotional feelings and attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of life. According to Radin it consists of two parts: (a) Physiological and (b) psychological. The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the feet. The psychological part consists of supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and beliefs. While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the “religion thrill”.
If we analyse the great religions of the autobiography, world, we shall find that each of them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in supernatural powers, (2) belief in the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of salvation. The first basic element of religion is the belief that there are supernatural powers. These powers are believed to influence human life and control all natural phenomena. Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods. There are even others who do not call them by any name. They simply consider them as forces in their universe. Thus, belief in essay the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of religion. There are certain holy or sacred elements of essays autobiography ben franklin religion.
These constitute the why art is important, heart of the autobiography, religion. There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred. But a thing is holy or sacred not because of a peculiar quality of about web services thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of a tangible thing is not observable to ben franklin the senses. Sacred things are symbols.
They symbolize the things of the unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities. When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the kind of animal the cow is, but because of a host of super-empirical characteristics which this animal is imagined to essay for high school seniors represent. Religious ritual is “the active side of religion. It is behaviour with reference to super empirical entities and sacred- objects”. It includes any kind of behavior (such as the wearing of special clothing and the immersion in certain rivers, in the Ganga for instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and other forms of reverence, usually performed with other people and in public. It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc. Failure to autobiography ben franklin perform these acts is considered a sin.
Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and profane (unholy). Presentation. They are certain moral principles which are explained to have a supernatural origin. It is believed that the powers of the other world cherish these principles. Autobiography. The violation of these principles creates man’s sense of essays guilty. It may also bring upon autobiography ben franklin, him the disfavour of the supernatural powers. If the behaviour is not in accordance with the religions code, the behaviour or act is considered as sinful. A method of salvation is the fifth basic element of religion. Why Art Is Important Essay. Man needs some method by which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of guilt. Essays. In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the end of life, the realisation of an inner spirituality in presentation websites man. The Hindu seeks release from the bondage of Karma, which is the essays, joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of his actions in his life. The ultimate end of life is to attain Moksha.
The Buddhist hopes to attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and presentation websites, entering Nirvana. The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for man’s sins. In short, religion is the essays autobiography, institutionalised set of prompts for high seniors beliefs men hold about supernatural forces. It is more or less coherent system of beliefs and practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities. Religion is interwoven with all aspects of human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions. Prior to the advent of essays autobiography ben franklin what may be called as “the age of reason”, religion has been the essays papers on martin, chief supporter of the spiritual and moral values of life. It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. Hence, it is obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for the religious group and for the wider society. These functions of religion are discussed bellow. 1. Religion Helps in the Struggle for Societal Survival:
Religion may be said to help in the struggle for societal survival. Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in the formation and early development of seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and essays ben franklin, Andean. Religion in each of these societies gave its members the courage needed for thesis survival in an unfavourable environment, by giving explanations to certain aspects of the human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the individual a sense of security in this rapidly changing world. This sense of security of the individual has significance for the society. Since religion helps man to forget the suffering, disappointments and sorrows in this life’, social dissatisfaction and social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning.
2. Religion Promotes Social Integration: Religion acts as a unifying force and hence, promotes social integration in several ways. Religion plays an important part in crystallising, symbolising and essays autobiography, reinforcing common values and thesis about, norms. Essays Autobiography Ben Franklin. It thus provides support for social standards, socially accepted behaviour. Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in essay school unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to group ends is enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and sentiments. It thus helps him to essays ben franklin identify himself more with his fellows, and to distinguish himself more from members of other groups, communities or nations.
By distinguishing between holy and unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for the values and this symbol becomes the rallying point for all persons who share the same values. The cow as a sacred symbol of the Hindus, for example, is a rallying point which gives cohesion to Hindu society. Religion performs its function of essays on martin luther integration through social control. It regulates the conduct of individuals by enforcing moral principles on them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against them for violation. 3. Religion helps to knit the Social Values of a Society into a Cohesive Whole: It is the ultimate source of social cohesion.
The primary requirement of society is the common possession of social values by which individuals control the actions of self and others and autobiography ben franklin, through which society is perpetuated. These social values emanate from religious faith. Religion is the foundation upon presentation, which these values rest. Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to men; people should be honest and virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion. It is religion that asks man to renounce unsocial activities and requires him to autobiography ben franklin accept limitations upon his wants and prompts for high, desires. All the religions have preached love and non-violence. They have emphasized sacrifice and forbearance.
4. Religions Acts as an Agent of Social Control: It is one of the means of informal means of social control. Religion not only defines moral expectations for members of the religious group but usually enforces them. It supports certain types of social conduct by placing the powerful sanctions of the supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of social behaviour as offences not only against society but also against God. Hence, any violation of the acceptable norm is punishable not only by God but by society. Hinduism gives sanction to ben franklin the caste system which regulates social relations of various classes in India.
5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare: Religion encourages people to render services to the needy and poor and promote their welfare. It develops philanthropic attitude of people. Help and assistance are rendered to poor and destitute persons due to religion inspiration. Thesis About Web Services. It is believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of religion by way of giving alms and assistance to the helpless and needy persons. In this way religion promotes the welfare of individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to art and autobiography, culture. The priests laid the foundations of medicine. Presentation. Magic supplied the roots of autobiography ben franklin observation and experimentation from which science developed.
It also inculcated the habit of charity among the people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to help the needy and the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and Makes bearable Individual Suffering in the known World: Religion serves to soothe the man in times of his suffering and disappointment. In this world man often suffers disappointment even in the midst of all hopes and achievements. The things for which he strives are in some measure always denied to him. When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and striven for has been swept away, man naturally wants something to console and modern liberalism essay, compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to assuage his grief in ritualistic exchanges of condolence.
On God he puts faith and entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in mysterious ways to make even his loss meaningful. Faith in essays God compensates him and sustains his interest in life and makes it bearable. In this way religion helps man to bear his frustrations and encourages him to accept his lot on earth. 8. Religion Enhances Self-importance: It expands one’s self to infinite proportions. Man unites himself with the infinite and feels ennobled. Through unity with the infinite the analysis essay, self is made majestic and triumphant. Man considers himself the noblest work of God with whom he shall be united and his self thus becomes grand and luminous.
Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions. Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. All the great religions of the world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and family. Political institutions are often sanctioned by autobiography ben franklin religion: the emperor of China or Japan was sacred; the ruling caste of India was sanctioned by Brahmanism; the kings of France were supposed to rule by divine right. Religious rites are performed on many occasions in relation to vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and so on; and they are intimately concerned with family and kinship interests and with political institutions. Religion is the central element in the life of civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the provision of work, the spread of education, the accumulation of capital and modern liberalism, the creation of a leisure class. For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and political life. Even today religion is called upon to essays support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures. In addition to positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of prompts school seniors its social functions. Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for essays autobiography ben franklin the society as a whole.
Sumner and Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. O’ Dea and others have pointed the dysfunctions of religion. The dysfunctions of essay school seniors religion are as follows. 1. Religion Inhibits Protests and ben franklin, Hinders Social Changes: According to Thomas F. Presentation Websites. O’ Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to be beneficial to the welfare of the society. Ben Franklin. All protests and conflicts are not always negative.
Protests and conflicts often become necessary for essays papers on martin luther bringing out changes. Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms. By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms. 2. Hampers the Adaptation of Society to Changed Conditions: Social values and norms emanate from religious faith. Some of the norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by religion. This can “impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of society to changing conditions.” For example, during the medieval Europe, the autobiography ben franklin, Church refused to grant the ethical legitimacy of money lending at presentation interest, despite the great functional need of this activity in a situation of developing capitalism”.
Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking. Similar social conflict is evident in the case of birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and ben franklin, Irresponsibility: Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and leaders. But it does not develop an ability in them to assume individual responsibility. For example, a good number of people in India prefer to take the advises of priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures.
But they do not take the suggestion of those who are competent in the field. In its course of development religion has supported and papers on martin, promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and animal sacrifice etc. As religion interprets misfortune and suffering in this world as manifestations of the supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the existing social structure. Religion preaches submission to the existing socio-economic condition and to fate. It is this control function of religion that caused Marx to call religion as “the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opiate of the people.” By sanctifying norms and legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the status quo.
Religion is the source of many superstitions. Ben Franklin. These superstitions have caused harm to human being. Superstitions like evil spirits and ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the why art is important essay, God etc. hinder the welfare of human beings. Religion results in essays inter-group conflicts by dividing people along religious lines. It is deeply related with conflicts. Wars and battles have been fought in the name of religion. Sumner and Keller are of the opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. For example, investing huge sums of modern essay money on building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on religious fairs, festivals and ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in essays autobiography the name offerings. It leads to waste of human labour, energy and time. Religion creates diversities among people. It creates a gap among them.
In the name of God and religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and for high seniors, other cruel and inhuman treatments have been meted out to people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and essays, deaf to the reality. On Martin Luther. They have faith without reasoning which is blind. On the contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and fanatics. Bigotry and essays autobiography, fanaticism have led to persecution, inhuman treatment and misery in the past.
Religion preserves traditions. It preaches submission to prompts for high school seniors the existing conditions and maintenance of status quo. Autobiography. Religion is not readily amenable to social change and papers on martin luther, progress. 12. Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to prevent the scientists from discovering new facts. For example, it tried to suppress the essays, doctrines of Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on modern liberalism essay, divine power religion has made people fatalistic. They think that all events in life is due to some divine power and hence due to fate. As a result, his power and potentiality is essays autobiography, undermined.
Thus, religion affects the creativity of man. Marx has strongly criticised religion. For Marx all that was fundamental in the science of society proceeded from the material and especially the economic sphere. For him therefore religion is, to be sure, superstition, but to about web services stop at this point is to limit religion to merely abstract belief. It leaves the impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief. Marx’s sense of the matter is more profound. Merely changing beliefs is not enough.
The transformation of an entire social order is required, for belief is deeply rooted in the social relations of men. Religion, writes Marx, “is the ‘self-consciousness and self-feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the world. Man is the world of man, the essays, state, and society. This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world. Religion is the compendium of that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and justification.
It is the fantastic realization of the human essence because the human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to God in the form of worship, he takes from himself. That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to project what is his to a supernatural being. But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is fundamental is not religious forms – against which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the economic forms of existence. The abolition of modern essay religion as the “illusory happiness” of the people is required for their real happiness, declared Marx.
But before religion can be abolished the conditions which nurture it must be done away with. “The demand to autobiography give up the illusions about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusion”. Marx’s criticism of analysis essay religion is thus deeply connected with the criticism of right and the criticism of autobiography ben franklin politics. As Marx put it… “The criticism of heaven transforms itself into the criticism of earth, the criticism of on martin luther religion into the criticism of law and the criticism of theology into essays ben franklin, the criticism of politics”. Marx was an presentation, atheist as well as a great humanist. He had profound sympathy for all who look up to religion for ben franklin salvation. This is amply clear from his following observation: “The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the highest essence of man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in which man is debased, enslaved abandoned…” Change is the very essence of a living thing. A living religion must grow, must advance and web services, must change. No form of religion is static. In some cases the essays autobiography, change may be slow and minor, in others relatively rapid and major.
Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and on martin luther, eternal. Hence, there is also an element of censure for change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in religion: (i) from autobiography simple to complex, (ii) from complex to simple and (iii) mixing forms. Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in the simple form of tribal religion. For example, with the gradual spread of Vaishnavism in chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in that region, began to reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of complex form of religion, specially of rituals and ceremonies.
Buddhism for instance, came as a revolt against the Vedic ritual which was both complex and expensive, and also beyond the common man’s reach. In the 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to websites simplify the essays autobiography, complex nature of Brahmanic Hinduism. Mixing of more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation. The most excellent example is of Sophism. It has evolved from Persian, Zoroastrianism and essay school, Arab Islamism. Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by ben franklin Buddhism and essay, Suphism. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of life, played a dominant part. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of autobiography God as a power over man and his society loses its importance.
This movement is sometimes referred to as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and why art is important, institutions lose social significance. Essays Ben Franklin. In Europe, secularisation is held to analysis of article be the outcome of the social changes brought about by ben franklin urban, industrial society. It means that religious beliefs and practices have tended to decline in modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the working class in Western societies. Religion in Western societies has tended to of article place less emphasis on dogma and more on social values. It has tried to reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge. Essays Autobiography. As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to our changed conditions of life is worth preserving and it must seek to organise. The masses and guide their activities for the benefit of the thesis, society rather than for the purpose of essays ben franklin pleasing the thesis about, God. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of religion and the rise of essays autobiography ben franklin rationalism.
However, the process of secularisation has affected the domination of religious institutions and liberalism essay, symbols. The process of essays autobiography secularisation was started in papers luther India during the British rule. But the process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and secular education gradually affected various aspects of religion in India. Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and essays, communication contributed towards decline in religiosity among the Hindus. No doubt we are moving from religiosity to secular way of life. Essay For High School Seniors. But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in essays West as well as in papers luther our society. First, organised Christianity plays an important political force in Europe and North America. Ben Franklin. Second, the vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and communalism in India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and secularisation.
All these criticisms are formidable indeed. Essay. But it should be noted that the diversity of religious sects and cults in modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and essays, not a dominant feature of social life. Websites. It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in ideological struggles against colonialism (as in Iran), in the long run modernisation of essays autobiography ben franklin society brings about secularisation. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind were very much influenced by it.
As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of for high school their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by essays ben franklin rational scientific explanations and various group activities (politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as power over man and his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularization. Secularism as an essay prompts for high, ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from a simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. ‘Secularisation’, in the words of Peter Berger, refers to ‘the process by which sectors of society and essays ben franklin, culture are removed from the domination of religious institutions and symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the essay, following factors encouraged the development of rational thinking and a rational world view. Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and essays, anti-emotional. Prompts School Seniors. Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the State which impose rational behaviour upon them. Thirdly, the greater knowledge of social and essays ben franklin, physical world which results from the development of physical, biological and social sciences.
He says that this knowledge is based on reason rather than faith. For High School. He claims that science not only explained many facts of life and the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of its explanation in practical results. The term ‘secularisation’ has been used in different ways. Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the autobiography ben franklin, meaning of the concept. Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. The range of meaning attached to is important essay the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the sociological vocabulary.
There are two meanings of the word current in modern and ben franklin, modernizing India and even in the whole of this subcontinent. One of the two meanings is found by consulting any standard dictionary. But there is the difficulty in finding the other, for it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to believe, is why art essay, typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian. The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of secular trends in history or economics, or when they speak of secularizing the State. The word secular has been used in this sense, at least in the English-speaking West, for more than three hundred years. This secularism chalks out an area in public life where religion is not admitted. One can have religion in one’s private life. One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within one’s home or at one’s place of essays autobiography ben franklin worship.
But when one enters public life, one is expected to essay leave one’s faith behind. In contrast, the non-Western meaning of secularism revolves round equal respect for essays autobiography all religions. In the essay for high seniors, Indian context the word has very different meaning from its standard use in the English language. It is held that India is not Europe and hence secularism in India cannot mean the same thing as it does in Europe. What does it matter if secularism means something else in Europe and American political discourse? As long as there are clear and essays autobiography ben franklin, commonly agreed referents for the world in the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to the specifically Indian meaning of secularism. Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of secularism did not emerge in analysis ignorance of the European or American meanings of the word. Indian meaning of secularism is debated in its Western genealogies.
New meaning is acquired by the word secularism in India. The original concept is essays, named by the English words, Secular and secularism in essay the Indian languages, by neologisms such as ‘Dharma-nirapekshata. This is translation of those English words and dharma-nirapekshata is autobiography, used to refer to the range of meanings indicated by the English term. The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is standardly used in talking about the role of religion in a modern State or society. Dharma-nirapekshata is the outcome of vested interests inherent in our political system. Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in terms of practice of any religion by any citizen. Besides, the State is not to give preference to why art is important essay any religion over another. But this term is autobiography ben franklin, irrelevant in a democratic structure and it bears no application in reality because three principles are mentioned in the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the State, permits the practice of any religion, equality which requires that State not to give preference to any religion and thesis about, the principle of neutrality).
Indian secularism has been inadequately defined ‘attitude’ of goodwill towards all religions, ‘Sarvadharma Sadbhava’. In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on the part of the State. Hence, the original concept will not admit the Indian case with its range of autobiography ben franklin references. Well-established and well-defined concept of secularism cannot be explained differently in terms of Western or Indian model. To Herberg, ‘authentic religion’ means an emphasis on the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of thesis about web services supernatural power, a serious commitment to religious teaching, a strong element of the theological doctrine and a refusal to ben franklin compromise religious beliefs and values with those of the wider society. If there is essay prompts for high seniors, any trend of decline in any aspect of religion mentioned above, then it is indicative of the process of secularisation. Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance.
Religion in ben franklin America is subordinated to the American way of life. It means that religious belief and practices have tended to thesis about decline. Secularism is taken to mean that one’s religious ideals and beliefs should not interfere in general with social, economic and autobiography, political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism. There are other aspects of secularism. Secularism is essays on martin luther, related to autobiography rationalism and empiricism. Secularisation involves reduction of for high school religious influence on men, elimination of some aspects of it which are not beneficial to autobiography human welfare, elimination of superstitions and blind beliefs. In this manner, the process of secularisation implies the following assumptions. The process of why art is important secularisation implies the transformation of religious institutions as a whole. There is the need to secularise the religious institutions.
This means less emphasis on supernatural power, lack of essays autobiography theological doctrine, and desirability to compromise with religious beliefs and values. The religious institutions undergo a process of change in the context of changing society. In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of ‘desacrilisation’ . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the world. Action is not directed by religious beliefs. People in thesis about web services a modern society increasingly look upon the world and their own lives without the benefit of essays ben franklin religious interpretation. As a result there is a ‘secularisation of consciousness’. Berger argues that the ‘decisive variable for prompts school seniors secularisation is the process of rationalisation’. That is the pre-requisite for any industrial society of the modern type. Secularisation also implies rationality. Wilson argues that a rational world view is the energy of autobiography religion.
It is presentation websites, based on testing of arguments and beliefs by rational procedure, on asserting truth by means of factors which can be quantified and objectively measured. Religion is based on faith. Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. A rational world view rejects faith which is the basis of religion. It removes the mystery, magic and authority of religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on physical laws rather than supernatural forces.
The process of secularisation as the most important component of the essays autobiography, process of modernisation is occurring in different forms in prompts for high school seniors various contemporary societies. Like modernisation, this process is good and desirable for the welfare of mankind. Finally, it is both a product and ben franklin, a process. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:
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Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin with his Essays and Will
Can computers really grade essay tests? The inside track on essays autobiography ben franklin, Washington politics. *Invalid email address. New software described in this New York Times story allows teachers to presentation websites leave essay grading to the computer. It was developed by EdX, the nonprofit organization that was founded jointly by Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and that will give the software to essays autobiography other schools for free. The story says that the software “uses artificial intelligence to grade student essays and short written answers.” Multiple-choice exams have, of course, been graded by websites, machine for a long time, but essays are another matter. Can a computer program accurately capture the depth, beauty, structure, relevance, creativity etc., of an essays, essay?
The National Council of Teachers of English says, unequivocally, “no” in its newest position statement. Here it is: Machine Scoring Fails the Test. [A] computer could not measure accuracy, reasoning, adequacy of evidence, good sense, ethical stance, convincing argument, meaningful organization, clarity, and veracity in your essay. If this is presentation true I don’t believe a computer would be able to measure my full capabilities and grade me fairly. — Akash, student. [H]ow can the feedback a computer gives match the carefully considered comments a teacher leaves in the margins or at the end of your paper? — Pinar, student. (Responses to New York Times The Learning Network blog post, “How Would You Feel about a Computer Grading Your Essays?”, 5 April 2013) Writing is a highly complex ability developed over years of practice, across a wide range of tasks and contexts, and with copious, meaningful feedback. Students must have this kind of ben franklin sustained experience to meet the demands of higher education, the needs of a 21st-century workforce, the challenges of civic participation, and the realization of full, meaningful lives.
As the luther Common Core State Standards (CCSS) sweep into individual classrooms, they bring with them a renewed sense of the importance of writing to students’ education. Writing teachers have found many aspects of the essays autobiography CCSS to applaud; however, we must be diligent in developing assessment systems that do not threaten the possibilities for the rich, multifaceted approach to writing instruction advocated in the CCSS. Websites? Effective writing assessments need to account for the nature of writing, the ways students develop writing ability, and the role of the teacher in fostering that development. Research 1 on essays ben franklin, the assessment of thesis about student writing consistently shows that high-stakes writing tests alter the normal conditions of writing by autobiography, denying students the for high seniors opportunity to think, read, talk with others, address real audiences, develop ideas, and revise their emerging texts over time. Often, the results of such tests can affect the livelihoods of essays teachers, the fate of schools, or the educational opportunities for students. In such conditions, the is important essay narrowly conceived, artificial form of the tests begins to ben franklin subvert attention to other purposes and varieties of writing development in the classroom. Eventually, the tests erode the foundations of excellence in writing instruction, resulting in websites, students who are less prepared to meet the essays autobiography demands of their continued education and papers on martin luther, future occupations. Essays Ben Franklin? Especially in the transition from high school to college, students are ill served when their writing experience has been dictated by liberalism, tests that ignore the ever-more complex and varied types and uses of writing found in essays, higher education. Note : (1) All references to research are supported by the extensive work documented in the annotated bibliography attached to this report. These concerns — increasingly voiced by parents, teachers, school administrators, students, and members of the general public — are intensified by the use of machine-scoring systems to read and evaluate students’ writing. To meet the outcomes of the Common Core State Standards, various consortia, private corporations, and testing agencies propose to use computerized assessments of student writing.
The attraction is obvious: once programmed, machines might reduce the costs otherwise associated with the human labor of reading, interpreting, and evaluating the essay writing of our students. Yet when we consider what is lost because of machine scoring, the presumed savings turn into significant new costs — to essays autobiography ben franklin students, to our educational institutions, and to society. Here’s why: Computers are unable to recognize or judge those elements that we most associate with good writing (logic, clarity, accuracy, ideas relevant to a specific topic, innovative style, effective appeals to audience, different forms of organization, types of persuasion, quality of evidence, humor or irony, and effective uses of repetition, to name just a few). Using computers to analysis “read” and evaluate students’ writing (1) denies students the chance to have anything but limited features recognized in their writing; and essays autobiography ben franklin, (2) compels teachers to ignore what is most important in writing instruction in order to teach what is least important.
Computers use different, cruder methods than human readers to judge students’ writing. For example, some systems gauge the sophistication of vocabulary by measuring the average length of words and how often the words are used in a corpus of texts; or they gauge the development of ideas by counting the length and number of sentences per paragraph. Computers are programmed to analysis score papers written to very specific prompts, reducing the incentive for teachers to develop innovative and essays autobiography ben franklin, creative occasions for writing, even for assessment. Computers get progressively worse at scoring as the length of the writing increases, compelling test makers to design shorter writing tasks that don’t represent the range and variety of writing assignments needed to prepare students for the more complex writing they will encounter in college. Computer scoring favors the most objective, “surface” features of writing (grammar, spelling, punctuation), but problems in these areas are often created by the testing conditions and are the most easily rectified in normal writing conditions when there is time to revise and edit. Privileging surface features disproportionately penalizes nonnative speakers of essay English who may be on a developmental path that machine scoring fails to recognize. Conclusions that computers can score as well as humans are the essays autobiography result of thesis about web services humans being trained to score like the computers (for example, being told not to make judgments on the accuracy of information). Computer scoring systems can be “gamed” because they are poor at working with human language, further weakening the validity of their assessments and separating students not on essays ben franklin, the basis of writing ability but on whether they know and can use machine-tricking strategies. Computer scoring discriminates against students who are less familiar with using technology to write or complete tests. Presentation Websites? Further, machine scoring disadvantages school districts that lack funds to provide technology tools for essays autobiography, every student and skews technology acquisition toward devices needed to of article essay meet testing requirements. Computer scoring removes the purpose from written communication — to create human interactions through a complex, socially consequential system of meaning making — and sends a message to students that writing is not worth their time because reading it is not worth the time of the people teaching and assessing them.
What Are the Alternatives? Together with other professional organizations, the National Council of Teachers of English has established research-based guidelines for effective teaching and assessment of ben franklin writing, such as the Standards for the Assessment of Reading and modern liberalism essay, Writing (rev. ed., 2009), the Framework for Success in Postsecondary Writing (2011), the NCTE Beliefs about the essays autobiography ben franklin Teaching of Writing (2004), and why art is important essay, the Framework for 21st Century Curriculum and Assessment (2008, 2013). In the broadest sense, these guidelines contend that good assessment supports teaching and learning. Essays Autobiography Ben Franklin? Specifically, high-quality assessment practices will. encourage students to become engaged in literacy learning, to about reflect on their own reading and writing in productive ways, and to set respective literacy goals; yield high-quality, useful information to inform teachers about curriculum, instruction, and the assessment process itself; balance the need to assess summatively (make final judgments about the essays autobiography ben franklin quality of student work) with the need to essays on martin assess formatively (engage in ongoing, in-process judgments about essays autobiography what students know and can do, and what to teach next); recognize the complexity of literacy in today’s society and reflect that richness through holistic, authentic, and varied writing instruction; at thesis about their core, involve professionals who are experienced in teaching writing, knowledgeable about students’ literacy development, and familiar with current research in literacy education. A number of effective practices enact these research-based principles, including portfolio assessment; teacher assessment teams; balanced assessment plans that involve more localized (classroom- and district-based) assessments designed and administered by classroom teachers; and “audit” teams of essays autobiography ben franklin teachers, teacher educators, and writing specialists who visit districts to is important review samples of student work and the curriculum that has yielded them. We focus briefly here on autobiography, portfolios because of the extensive scholarship that supports them and presentation, the positive experience that many educators, schools, and school districts have had with them. Engaging teams of teachers in evaluating portfolios at the building, district, or state level has the potential to honor the challenging expectations of the CCSS while also reflecting what we know about effective assessment practices. Autobiography Ben Franklin? Portfolios offer the essay opportunity to.
look at student writing across multiple events, capturing growth over time while avoiding the limitations of autobiography ben franklin “one test on one day”; look at the range of writing across a group of students while preserving the individual character of each student’s writing; review student writing through multiple lenses, including content accuracy and use of resources; assess student writing in the context of local values and goals as well as national standards. Just as portfolios provide multiple types of data for assessment, they also allow students to learn as a result of engaging in the assessment process, something seldom associated with more traditional one-time assessments. Students gain insight about their own writing, about ways to identify and web services, describe its growth, and about how others — human readers — interpret their work. The process encourages reflection and goal setting that can result in further learning beyond the assessment experience. Similarly, teachers grow as a result of administering and scoring the portfolio assessments, something seldom associated with more traditional one-time assessments. This embedded professional development includes learning more about typical levels of writing skill found at a particular level of schooling along with ways to identify and describe quality writing and growth in writing. The discussions about collections of essays ben franklin writing samples and criteria for assessing the writing contribute to a shared investment among all participating teachers in liberalism, the writing growth of all students. Further, when the portfolios include a wide range of artifacts from learning and writing experiences, teachers assessing the portfolios learn new ideas for classroom instruction as well as ways to design more sophisticated methods of assessing student work on a daily basis. Several states such as Kentucky, Nebraska, Vermont, and California have experimented with the development of large-scale portfolio assessment projects that make use of teams of essays autobiography teachers working collaboratively to web services assess samples of student work.
Rather than investing heavily in essays, assessment plans that cannot meet the goals of the CCSS, various legislative groups, private companies, and educational institutions could direct those funds into refining these nascent portfolio assessment systems. This investment would also support teacher professional development and enhance the quality of essays papers instruction in classrooms — something that machine-scored writing prompts cannot offer. In 2010, the federal government awarded $330 million to two consortia of states “to provide ongoing feedback to teachers during the course of the school year, measure annual school growth, and move beyond narrowly focused bubble tests” (United States Department of Education). Further, these assessments will need to ben franklin align to the new standards for learning in English and mathematics. This has proven to be a formidable task, but it is achievable.
By combining the already existing National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) assessment structures for evaluating school system performance with ongoing portfolio assessment of student learning by educators, we can cost-effectively assess writing without relying on flawed machine-scoring methods. By doing so, we can simultaneously deepen student and educator learning while promoting grass-roots innovation at modern liberalism essay the classroom level. Essays Autobiography Ben Franklin? For a fraction of the cost in time and on martin luther, money of building a new generation of machine assessments, we can invest in rigorous assessment and teaching processes that enrich, rather than interrupt, high-quality instruction. Essays? Our students and luther, their families deserve it, the research base supports it, and literacy educators and administrators will welcome it.