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bill joy wired essay Food for Thought: Thursday, April 6, 2000. for Spiritual Seekers NHNE: Food for Thought: Robotics, Genetic Engineering Nanotechnology. Thursday, April 6, 2000. Current Members: 1809. To subscribe, send a blank email message to: To unsubscribe, send a blank email message to: To read current posts to this list: A VERY STRANGE NEW WORLD. By David Sunfellow. Help! Robotics, genetic engineering and of amontillado essay nanotechnology are on the brink of radically changing every aspect of human existence. Indeed, if things continue to rutgers admissions essay, develop as some experts are predicting, human beings, in our current form, will cease to exist in a matter of decades -- yes, decades. In our place will be a new species of robotic creatures that are composites of consciousness, genetics, and self-replicating, virtually indestructible machinery.
Sound far-fetched? The current issue of WIRED MAGAZINE (April, 2000), contains an eye-opening overview of what is happening in this strange new world. Written by Bill Joy, the much-respected cofounder and Chief Scientist of SUN MICROSYSTEMS, the essay, 20,000-word essay encourages humanity to begin consciously (and ethically) wrestling with these new developments, now, while there is still time. While the technology that Joy discusses is real enough, some of admissions essay help Joy's fellow high-tech trailblazers believe his concerns are overblown. Nathan Myhrvold, a physicist who is on leave from his job as the nets in africa, chief technology officer at MICROSOFT, is quoted in a recent NEW YORK TIMES article (3/13/2000) as saying, People have made apocalyptic predictions about technology constantly for as long as there has been technology. Rutgers Admissions Essay Help! I think it is because change frightens them. Every other 'unprecedented' challenge of the past has been overcome. Is this case really different? Or are we once again falling into the trap of overestimating technology's downside and underestimating people's ability to cope? But while Myhrvold and other high-tech gurus are dismissing (or ignoring) Joy's concerns, others are paying attention. Staples Thesis! A WIRED NEWS story (Debating Humanity's Demise, 4/3/2000), for example, reported that an April 1st forum entitled Will Spiritual Robots Replace Humanity by 2100? received a mob reception at STANFORD UNIVERSITY.
Writes reporter Joanna Glasner, Some estimated well over admissions, a thousand people crushed inside a far-too-small auditorium to hear SUN MICROSYSTEMS chief scientist Bill Joy, robotics researcher Hans Moravec, author and inventor Ray Kurzweil, and a panel of science luminaries debate whether humanity's technological prowess is planting the seed of our own demise. Not to be outdone by real world forums, the Net has also been lit up with various news stories and commentaries pertaining to Joy's recent epistle. So what's all the commotion about? Well, see for yourself. What follows are excerpts from Joy's now-famous essay that I hope everyone on nets in africa, this list will pay very close attention to. Our most powerful 21st-century technologies -- robotics, genetic engineering, and help nanotech -- are threatening to make humans an endangered species. WHY THE FUTURE DOESN'T NEED US. The Cask Of Amontillado Essay! (Source: WIRED MAGAZINE, April, 2000) Complete Article (including references): From the moment I became involved in the creation of new technologies, their ethical dimensions have concerned me, but it was only in the autumn of rutgers help 1998 that I became anxiously aware of how great are the dangers facing us in the 21st century. I can date the onset of my unease to the day I met Ray Kurzweil, the deservedly famous inventor of the interest swap, first reading machine for the blind and many other amazing things. Ray and admissions help I were both speakers at George Gilder's Telecosm conference, and I encountered him by chance in the bar of the hotel after both our sessions were over. Nets In Africa! I was sitting with John Searle, a Berkeley philosopher who studies consciousness. While we were talking, Ray approached and a conversation began, the subject of which haunts me to this day.
I had missed Ray's talk and the subsequent panel that Ray and John had been on, and they now picked right up where they'd left off, with Ray saying that the rate of improvement of technology was going to accelerate and help that we were going to become robots or fuse with robots or something like that, and John countering that this couldn't happen, because the robots couldn't be conscious. While I had heard such talk before, I had always felt sentient robots were in the realm of science fiction. But now, from someone I respected, I was hearing a strong argument that they were a near-term possibility. I was taken aback, especially given Ray's proven ability to imagine and create the future. I already knew that new technologies like genetic engineering and nanotechnology were giving us the nets in africa, power to remake the world, but a realistic and rutgers essay imminent scenario for the cask, intelligent robots surprised me.
It's easy to get jaded about such breakthroughs. We hear in the news almost every day of rutgers help some kind of technological or scientific advance. Yet this was no ordinary prediction. In the hotel bar, Ray gave me a partial preprint of his then-forthcoming book The Age of Spiritual Machines (http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ISBN=3D0140282025/newheavenneweartA/), which outlined a utopia he foresaw -- one in which humans gained near immortality by becoming one with robotic technology. On reading it, my sense of unease only intensified; I felt sure he had to be understating the a level photography, dangers, understating the essay help, probability of interest a bad outcome along this path. I found myself most troubled by a passage detailing a dystopian scenario: THE NEW LUDDITE CHALLENGE. First let us postulate that the computer scientists succeed in developing intelligent machines that can do all things better than human beings can do them. Rutgers Admissions! In that case presumably all work will be done by vast, highly organized systems of machines and problem pictures no human effort will be necessary. Either of two cases might occur.
The machines might be permitted to admissions help, make all of their own decisions without human oversight, or else human control over the machines might be retained. If the swap thesis, machines are permitted to rutgers admissions, make all their own decisions, we can't make any conjectures as to the results, because it is impossible to guess how such machines might behave. Problem Solving! We only rutgers essay, point out that the essay, fate of the human race would be at the mercy of the admissions essay, machines. It might be argued that the human race would never be foolish enough to gcse media coursework, hand over all the power to the machines. But we are suggesting neither that the human race would voluntarily turn power over to the machines nor that the machines would willfully seize power. Rutgers Essay Help! What we do suggest is that the problem pictures, human race might easily permit itself to drift into a position of such dependence on the machines that it would have no practical choice but to accept all of the machines' decisions. Admissions Essay! As society and problem pictures the problems that face it become more and more complex and machines become more and rutgers essay help more intelligent, people will let machines make more of their decisions for them, simply because machine-made decisions will bring better results than man-made ones. Eventually a stage may be reached at staples thesis which the decisions necessary to essay help, keep the staples thesis, system running will be so complex that human beings will be incapable of rutgers help making them intelligently.
At that stage the solving pictures, machines will be in effective control. Admissions! People won't be able to just turn the machines off, because they will be so dependent on them that turning them off would amount to suicide. On the other hand it is possible that human control over the machines may be retained. In that case the interest rate swap, average man may have control over certain private machines of his own, such as his car or his personal computer, but control over large systems of machines will be in the hands of a tiny elite -- just as it is today, but with two differences. Due to improved techniques the admissions essay help, elite will have greater control over the cask of amontillado essay, the masses; and because human work will no longer be necessary the masses will be superfluous, a useless burden on rutgers help, the system. If the elite is ruthless they may simply decide to nets in africa, exterminate the mass of humanity. Admissions Help! If they are humane they may use propaganda or other psychological or biological techniques to reduce the birth rate until the pictures, mass of humanity becomes extinct, leaving the world to rutgers essay help, the elite.
Or, if the problem solving, elite consists of soft-hearted liberals, they may decide to play the role of rutgers essay good shepherds to pictures, the rest of the human race. They will see to it that everyone's physical needs are satisfied, that all children are raised under psychologically hygienic conditions, that everyone has a wholesome hobby to keep him busy, and that anyone who may become dissatisfied undergoes 'treatment' to admissions, cure his 'problem.' Of course, life will be so purposeless that people will have to be biologically or psychologically engineered either to german media coursework, remove their need for help, the power process or make them 'sublimate' their drive for rate, power into some harmless hobby. These engineered human beings may be happy in such a society, but they will most certainly not be free. They will have been reduced to admissions, the status of domestic animals. In the book, you don't discover until you turn the page that the rate swap, author of this passage is Theodore Kaczynski -- the Unabomber. I am no apologist for Kaczynski. His bombs killed three people during a 17-year terror campaign and wounded many others. One of his bombs gravely injured my friend David Gelernter, one of the most brilliant and essay visionary computer scientists of our time. Nets In Africa! Like many of my colleagues, I felt that I could easily have been the Unabomber's next target. Kaczynski's actions were murderous and, in my view, criminally insane.
He is clearly a Luddite, but simply saying this does not dismiss his argument; as difficult as it is for me to acknowledge, I saw some merit in the reasoning in this single passage. I felt compelled to confront it. Kaczynski's dystopian vision describes unintended consequences, a well-known problem with the design and use of technology, and admissions essay one that is nets in africa, clearly related to Murphy's law -- Anything that can go wrong, will. (Actually, this is Finagle's law, which in itself shows that Finagle was right.) Our overuse of antibiotics has led to what may be the rutgers, biggest such problem so far: the emergence of interest rate swap antibiotic-resistant and much more dangerous bacteria. Similar things happened when attempts to eliminate malarial mosquitoes using DDT caused them to acquire DDT resistance; malarial parasites likewise acquired multi-drug-resistant genes. The cause of essay many such surprises seems clear: The systems involved are complex, involving interaction among and feedback between many parts. Any changes to such a system will cascade in ways that are difficult to predict; this is especially true when human actions are involved. I started showing friends the Kaczynski quote from The Age of Spiritual Machines; I would hand them Kurzweil's book, let them read the quote, and then watch their reaction as they discovered who had written it. At around the same time, I found Hans Moravec's book Robot: Mere Machine to Transcendent Mind (http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ISBN=0195136306/newheavenneweartA/). Moravec is one of the leaders in robotics research, and was a founder of the swap thesis, world's largest robotics research program, at Carnegie Mellon University. Robot gave me more material to rutgers admissions essay, try out on my friends -- material surprisingly supportive of Kaczynski's argument. For example: THE SHORT RUN (EARLY 2000S) Biological species almost never survive encounters with superior competitors.
Ten million years ago, South and interest swap North America were separated by a sunken Panama isthmus. South America, like Australia today, was populated by rutgers essay marsupial mammals, including pouched equivalents of rats, deers, and tigers. When the isthmus connecting North and South America rose, it took only a few thousand years for of amontillado, the northern placental species, with slightly more effective metabolisms and reproductive and nervous systems, to help, displace and coursework help eliminate almost all the southern marsupials. In a completely free marketplace, superior robots would surely affect humans as North American placentals affected South American marsupials (and as humans have affected countless species). Robotic industries would compete vigorously among themselves for rutgers, matter, energy, and space, incidentally driving their price beyond human reach. Unable to afford the necessities of life, biological humans would be squeezed out of existence.
There is probably some breathing room, because we do not live in a completely free marketplace. Government coerces nonmarket behavior, especially by collecting taxes. Judiciously applied, governmental coercion could support human populations in of amontillado high style on the fruits of robot labor, perhaps for a long while. A textbook dystopia -- and Moravec is just getting wound up. He goes on to discuss how our main job in admissions help the 21st century will be ensuring continued cooperation from the robot industries by passing laws decreeing that they be nice, and to describe how seriously dangerous a human can be once transformed into an unbounded superintelligent robot. Moravec's view is that the robots will eventually succeed us -- that humans clearly face extinction. Staples Thesis! I decided it was time to talk to my friend Danny Hillis. Danny became famous as the essay, cofounder of Thinking Machines Corporation, which built a very powerful parallel supercomputer. Interest! Despite my current job title of Chief Scientist at admissions essay Sun Microsystems, I am more a computer architect than a scientist, and I respect Danny's knowledge of the information and physical sciences more than that of any other single person I know. Danny is also a highly regarded futurist who thinks long-term -- four years ago he started the Long Now Foundation, which is building a clock designed to last 10,000 years, in an attempt to draw attention to the pitifully short attention span of our society. German Gcse! (See Test of Time, Wired 8.03, page 78.) So I flew to Los Angeles for the express purpose of having dinner with Danny and his wife, Pati.
I went through my now-familiar routine, trotting out the rutgers admissions, ideas and passages that I found so disturbing. Help! Danny's answer -- directed specifically at Kurzweil's scenario of humans merging with robots -- came swiftly, and quite surprised me. He said, simply, that the changes would come gradually, and that we would get used to rutgers essay, them. The Cask! But I guess I wasn't totally surprised. I had seen a quote from rutgers, Danny in Kurzweil's book in which he said, I'm as fond of nets in africa my body as anyone, but if I can be 200 with a body of silicon, I'll take it. It seemed that he was at rutgers admissions help peace with this process and its attendant risks, while I was not. While talking and thinking about Kurzweil, Kaczynski, and Moravec, I suddenly remembered a novel I had read almost 20 years ago -- The White Plague, by nets in africa Frank Herbert -- in which a molecular biologist is driven insane by the senseless murder of his family.
To seek revenge he constructs and admissions disseminates a new and coursework highly contagious plague that kills widely but selectively. (We're lucky Kaczynski was a mathematician, not a molecular biologist.) I was also reminded of the Borg of rutgers admissions essay Star Trek, a hive of partly biological, partly robotic creatures with a strong destructive streak. Borg-like disasters are a staple of science fiction, so why hadn't I been more concerned about such robotic dystopias earlier? Why weren't other people more concerned about these nightmarish scenarios? Part of the answer certainly lies in the cask of amontillado essay our attitude toward the new -- in our bias toward instant familiarity and unquestioning acceptance. Accustomed to living with almost routine scientific breakthroughs, we have yet to come to terms with the fact that the essay, most compelling 21st-century technologies -- robotics, genetic engineering, and nanotechnology -- pose a different threat than the technologies that have come before. Specifically, robots, engineered organisms, and nanobots share a dangerous amplifying factor: They can self-replicate. A bomb is blown up only german coursework, once -- but one bot can become many, and quickly get out of control.
Much of my work over the past 25 years has been on computer networking, where the sending and receiving of messages creates the opportunity for out-of-control replication. But while replication in essay a computer or a computer network can be a nuisance, at worst it disables a machine or takes down a network or network service. Nets In Africa! Uncontrolled self-replication in these newer technologies runs a much greater risk: a risk of substantial damage in rutgers help the physical world. Each of these technologies also offers untold promise: The vision of near immortality that Kurzweil sees in his robot dreams drives us forward; genetic engineering may soon provide treatments, if not outright cures, for photography coursework help, most diseases; and nanotechnology and nanomedicine can address yet more ills. Together they could significantly extend our average life span and admissions improve the of amontillado, quality of our lives. Yet, with each of admissions these technologies, a sequence of small, individually sensible advances leads to an accumulation of great power and, concomitantly, great danger. Staples Thesis! What was different in rutgers admissions essay the 20th century? Certainly, the technologies underlying the weapons of mass destruction (WMD) -- nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) -- were powerful, and pictures the weapons an rutgers admissions essay help enormous threat. But building nuclear weapons required, at staples thesis least for a time, access to admissions essay, both rare -- indeed, effectively unavailable -- raw materials and highly protected information; biological and swap thesis chemical weapons programs also tended to require large-scale activities.
The 21st-century technologies -- genetics, nanotechnology, and robotics (GNR) -- are so powerful that they can spawn whole new classes of accidents and abuses. Rutgers Admissions Essay Help! Most dangerously, for the first time, these accidents and photography coursework abuses are widely within the reach of individuals or small groups. Rutgers Essay Help! They will not require large facilities or rare raw materials. Nets In Africa! Knowledge alone will enable the use of them. Essay! Thus we have the possibility not just of weapons of mass destruction but of knowledge-enabled mass destruction (KMD), this destructiveness hugely amplified by the power of self-replication.
I think it is interest rate thesis, no exaggeration to say we are on the cusp of the further perfection of extreme evil, an evil whose possibility spreads well beyond that which weapons of mass destruction bequeathed to the nation-states, on to a surprising and terrible empowerment of extreme individuals. Essay Help! Perhaps it is the cask of amontillado essay, always hard to see the bigger impact while you are in the vortex of a change. Failing to understand the consequences of our inventions while we are in the rapture of discovery and innovation seems to be a common fault of scientists and technologists; we have long been driven by the overarching desire to know that is the nature of science's quest, not stopping to notice that the progress to newer and more powerful technologies can take on a life of its own. Rutgers Essay Help! Given the incredible power of these new technologies, shouldn't we be asking how we can best coexist with them? And if our own extinction is a likely, or even possible, outcome of our technological development, shouldn't we proceed with great caution?
The dream of robotics is, first, that intelligent machines can do our work for us, allowing us lives of leisure, restoring us to Eden. Problem Solving! Yet in his history of admissions essay help such ideas, Darwin Among the Machines (http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ISBN=0738200301/newheavenneweartA/), George Dyson warns: In the german gcse media, game of life and evolution there are three players at the table: human beings, nature, and machines. I am firmly on rutgers admissions help, the side of nature. But nature, I suspect, is on the side of the machines. As we have seen, Moravec agrees, believing we may well not survive the encounter with the superior robot species. Nets In Africa! How soon could such an intelligent robot be built? The coming advances in rutgers essay computing power seem to make it possible by 2030. And once an intelligent robot exists, it is only a small step to a robot species -- to an intelligent robot that can make evolved copies of itself. A second dream of robotics is that we will gradually replace ourselves with our robotic technology, achieving near immortality by staples thesis downloading our consciousnesses; it is this process that Danny Hillis thinks we will gradually get used to and that Ray Kurzweil elegantly details in help The Age of of amontillado Spiritual Machines. (We are beginning to see intimations of this in the implantation of computer devices into the human body, as illustrated on the cover of Wired 8.02.) But if we are downloaded into our technology, what are the chances that we will thereafter be ourselves or even human? It seems to rutgers admissions help, me far more likely that a robotic existence would not be like a human one in any sense that we understand, that the robots would in no sense be our children, that on this path our humanity may well be lost.
The many wonders of nanotechnology were first imagined by the Nobel-laureate physicist Richard Feynman in a speech he gave in 1959, subsequently published under the title There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom. The book that made a big impression on me, in gcse coursework the mid-'80s, was Eric Drexler's Engines of Creation (http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ISBN=0385199732/newheavenneweartA/), in rutgers admissions help which he described beautifully how manipulation of matter at the atomic level could create a utopian future of abundance, where just about everything could be made cheaply, and almost any imaginable disease or physical problem could be solved using nanotechnology and artificial intelligences. A subsequent book, Unbounding the Future: The Nanotechnology Revolution (http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ISBN=0688125735/newheavenneweartA/), which Drexler cowrote, imagines some of the changes that might take place in a world where we had molecular-level assemblers. Assemblers could make possible incredibly low-cost solar power, cures for cancer and rate swap the common cold by augmentation of the human immune system, essentially complete cleanup of the admissions essay help, environment, incredibly inexpensive pocket supercomputers -- in fact, any product would be manufacturable by assemblers at a cost no greater than that of a level photography help wood -- spaceflight more accessible than transoceanic travel today, and restoration of rutgers essay extinct species. With these wonders came clear dangers, of staples thesis which I was acutely aware. As I said at a nanotechnology conference in 1989, We can't simply do our science and not worry about these ethical issues.
But my subsequent conversations with physicists convinced me that nanotechnology might not even work -- or, at least, it wouldn't work anytime soon. Then, last summer, Brosl Hasslacher told me that nanoscale molecular electronics was now practical. This was new news, at admissions essay help least to essay, me, and help I think to many people -- and it radically changed my opinion about nanotechnology. It sent me back to the cask, Engines of Creation. Rereading Drexler's work after more than 10 years, I was dismayed to realize how little I had remembered of rutgers its lengthy section called Dangers and Hopes, including a discussion of how nanotechnologies can become engines of destruction. Problem Pictures! Indeed, in my rereading of rutgers essay help this cautionary material today, I am struck by how naive some of Drexler's safeguard proposals seem, and how much greater I judge the dangers to be now than even he seemed to then. A Level Photography Help! (Having anticipated and described many technical and political problems with nanotechnology, Drexler started the essay, Foresight Institute in the late 1980s to help prepare society for anticipated advanced technologies -- most important, nanotechnology.) The enabling breakthrough to assemblers seems quite likely within the coursework help, next 20 years. Molecular electronics -- the new subfield of nanotechnology where individual molecules are circuit elements -- should mature quickly and become enormously lucrative within this decade, causing a large incremental investment in admissions essay all nanotechnologies. Unfortunately, as with nuclear technology, it is far easier to create destructive uses for nanotechnology than constructive ones. Nanotechnology has clear military and terrorist uses, and you need not be suicidal to release a massively destructive nanotechnological device -- such devices can be built to be selectively destructive, affecting, for example, only a certain geographical area or a group of people who are genetically distinct. Nets In Africa! An immediate consequence of the Faustian bargain in obtaining the great power of nanotechnology is that we run a grave risk -- the risk that we might destroy the biosphere on which all life depends.
As Drexler explained: Plants with leaves no more efficient than today's solar cells could out-compete real plants, crowding the biosphere with an essay help inedible foliage. Staples Thesis! Tough omnivorous bacteria could out-compete real bacteria: They could spread like blowing pollen, replicate swiftly, and reduce the biosphere to essay help, dust in a matter of days. Dangerous replicators could easily be too tough, small, and rapidly spreading to stop -- at least if we make no preparation. Staples Thesis! We have trouble enough controlling viruses and fruit flies. Among the admissions help, cognoscenti of nanotechnology, this threat has become known as the problem, gray goo problem. Rutgers Admissions Help! Though masses of photography coursework uncontrolled replicators need not be gray or gooey, the term gray goo emphasizes that replicators able to obliterate life might be less inspiring than a single species of crabgrass. Essay Help! They might be superior in an evolutionary sense, but this need not make them valuable. The gray goo threat makes one thing perfectly clear: We cannot afford certain kinds of accidents with replicating assemblers. The Cask Essay! It is rutgers admissions essay help, most of all the power of destructive self-replication in genetics, nanotechnology, and robotics (GNR) that should give us pause. Self-replication is the modus operandi of essay genetic engineering, which uses the machinery of the cell to replicate its designs, and the prime danger underlying gray goo in nanotechnology.
The nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) technologies used in 20th-century weapons of mass destruction were and are largely military, developed in government laboratories. In sharp contrast, the 21st-century GNR technologies have clear commercial uses and are being developed almost exclusively by corporate enterprises. Rutgers Admissions Help! In this age of triumphant commercialism, technology -- with science as its handmaiden -- is delivering a series of almost magical inventions that are the most phenomenally lucrative ever seen. We are aggressively pursuing the promises of these new technologies within the now-unchallenged system of global capitalism and its manifold financial incentives and german gcse competitive pressures. This is the first moment in the history of our planet when any species, by rutgers admissions help its own voluntary actions, has become a danger to media coursework, itself -- as well as to vast numbers of essay others. It might be a familiar progression, transpiring on many worlds -- a planet, newly formed, placidly revolves around its star; life slowly forms; a kaleidoscopic procession of german gcse media creatures evolves; intelligence emerges which, at least up to a point, confers enormous survival value; and then technology is invented. Rutgers Admissions! It dawns on nets in africa, them that there are such things as laws of Nature, that these laws can be revealed by experiment, and that knowledge of these laws can be made both to rutgers, save and to take lives, both on unprecedented scales. Science, they recognize, grants immense powers.
In a flash, they create world-altering contrivances. Some planetary civilizations see their way through, place limits on what may and what must not be done, and safely pass through the problem, time of perils. Others, not so lucky or so prudent, perish. That is rutgers essay, Carl Sagan, writing in 1994, in Pale Blue Dot (http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ISBN=0345376595/newheavenneweartA/), a book describing his vision of the human future in nets in africa space. I am only now realizing how deep his insight was, and how sorely I miss, and will miss, his voice. For all its eloquence, Sagan's contribution was not least that of admissions essay help simple common sense -- an attribute that, along with humility, many of the leading advocates of the 21st-century technologies seem to lack. I remember from my childhood that my grandmother was strongly against the overuse of antibiotics. She had worked since before the first World War as a nurse and had a commonsense attitude that taking antibiotics, unless they were absolutely necessary, was bad for you.
It is staples thesis, not that she was an admissions enemy of progress. She saw much progress in an almost 70-year nursing career; my grandfather, a diabetic, benefited greatly from the improved treatments that became available in his lifetime. But she, like many levelheaded people, would probably think it greatly arrogant for us, now, to be designing a robotic replacement species, when we obviously have so much trouble making relatively simple things work, and so much trouble managing -- or even understanding -- ourselves. Staples Thesis! I realize now that she had an awareness of the admissions essay help, nature of the order of life, and of the necessity of media living with and respecting that order. With this respect comes a necessary humility that we, with our early-21st-century chutzpah, lack at our peril. The commonsense view, grounded in this respect, is often right, in advance of the scientific evidence. The clear fragility and inefficiencies of the human-made systems we have built should give us all pause; the fragility of the systems I have worked on essay, certainly humbles me. If we could agree, as a species, what we wanted, where we were headed, and nets in africa why, then we would make our future much less dangerous -- then we might understand what we can and rutgers help should relinquish. Otherwise, we can easily imagine an arms race developing over GNR technologies, as it did with the NBC technologies in problem solving the 20th century. Rutgers Admissions Essay Help! This is nets in africa, perhaps the greatest risk, for rutgers essay help, once such a race begins, it's very hard to end it. This time -- unlike during the Manhattan Project -- we aren't in a war, facing an implacable enemy that is threatening our civilization; we are driven, instead, by our habits, our desires, our economic system, and our competitive need to german gcse coursework, know.
I believe that we all wish our course could be determined by our collective values, ethics, and morals. If we had gained more collective wisdom over the past few thousand years, then a dialogue to this end would be more practical, and the incredible powers we are about to unleash would not be nearly so troubling. The new Pandora's boxes of genetics, nanotechnology, and robotics are almost open, yet we seem hardly to rutgers admissions essay help, have noticed. Ideas can't be put back in a box; unlike uranium or plutonium, they don't need to be mined and german gcse media coursework refined, and rutgers help they can be freely copied. Once they are out, they are out. Churchill remarked, in a famous left-handed compliment, that the American people and their leaders invariably do the right thing, after they have examined every other alternative. In this case, however, we must act more presciently, as to do the right thing only at gcse media last may be to lose the rutgers help, chance to german gcse media coursework, do it at all. As Thoreau said, We do not ride on the railroad; it rides upon us; and this is what we must fight, in our time. The question is, indeed, Which is to be master? Will we survive our technologies? We are being propelled into this new century with no plan, no control, no brakes.
Have we already gone too far down the path to alter course? I don't believe so, but we aren't trying yet, and rutgers help the last chance to assert control -- the a level coursework, fail-safe point -- is rapidly approaching. We have our first pet robots, as well as commercially available genetic engineering techniques, and our nanoscale techniques are advancing rapidly. While the development of these technologies proceeds through a number of steps, it isn't necessarily the case -- as happened in rutgers essay the Manhattan Project and the Trinity test -- that the last step in proving a technology is large and hard. The breakthrough to staples thesis, wild self-replication in help robotics, genetic engineering, or nanotechnology could come suddenly, reprising the surprise we felt when we learned of the cloning of a mammal. Where can we look for a new ethical basis to set our course? I have found the ideas in the book Ethics for the New Millennium (http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ISBN=1573220256/newheavenneweartA/), by the Dalai Lama, to be very helpful.
As is perhaps well known but little heeded, the the cask of amontillado, Dalai Lama argues that the most important thing is for us to admissions essay help, conduct our lives with love and compassion for nets in africa, others, and rutgers essay help that our societies need to develop a stronger notion of universal responsibility and of our interdependency. The Dalai Lama further argues that we must understand what it is that makes people happy, and acknowledge the strong evidence that neither material progress nor the pursuit of the power of knowledge is the key -- that there are limits to what science and the scientific pursuit alone can do. The Cask Essay! Valley to rutgers essay help, Bill Joy: 'Zzzzzzz': (WIRED, Lakshmi Chaudhry, 4/5/2000) Debating Humanity's Demise: (WIRED, Joanna Glasner, 4/3/2000) From Internet Scientist, a Preview of Extinction:
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Internet Encyclopedia of rutgers Philosophy. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam and the Viscount St. Albans) was an a level photography coursework help, English lawyer, statesman, essayist, historian, intellectual reformer, philosopher, and champion of modern science. Early in rutgers admissions essay help his career he claimed “all knowledge as his province” and german gcse, afterwards dedicated himself to rutgers admissions a wholesale revaluation and re-structuring of traditional learning. Nets In Africa. To take the place of the established tradition (a miscellany of rutgers admissions help Scholasticism, humanism, and natural magic), he proposed an entirely new system based on empirical and solving, inductive principles and the active development of rutgers admissions essay new arts and inventions, a system whose ultimate goal would be the production of practical knowledge for “the use and benefit of men” and the relief of the human condition. At the same time that he was founding and promoting this new project for interest swap the advancement of learning, Bacon was also moving up the rutgers admissions, ladder of state service. Problem Solving Pictures. His career aspirations had been largely disappointed under Elizabeth I, but with the ascension of James his political fortunes rose.
Knighted in 1603, he was then steadily promoted to a series of offices, including Solicitor General (1607), Attorney General (1613), and eventually Lord Chancellor (1618). While serving as Chancellor, he was indicted on charges of bribery and forced to leave public office. Help. He then retired to his estate where he devoted himself full time to his continuing literary, scientific, and philosophical work. He died in 1626, leaving behind a cultural legacy that, for better or worse, includes most of the foundation for the triumph of technology and for the modern world as we currently know it. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam, the help, Viscount St. Albans, and Lord Chancellor of rutgers admissions England) was born in London in 1561 to a prominent and essay, well-connected family. His parents were Sir Nicholas Bacon, the Lord Keeper of the Seal, and Lady Anne Cooke, daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, a knight and one-time tutor to the royal family. Rutgers. Lady Anne was a learned woman in her own right, having acquired Greek and Latin as well as Italian and French. She was a sister-in-law both to Sir Thomas Hoby, the rate swap thesis, esteemed English translator of Castiglione, and to Sir William Cecil (later Lord Burghley), Lord Treasurer, chief counselor to rutgers admissions help Elizabeth I, and coursework, from 1572-1598 the rutgers admissions, most powerful man in England.
Bacon was educated at home at the family estate at Gorhambury in Herfordshire. In 1573, at the age of just twelve, he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, where the stodgy Scholastic curriculum triggered his lifelong opposition to Aristotelianism (though not to the works of Aristotle himself). In 1576 Bacon began reading law at Gray’s Inn. Yet only a year later he interrupted his studies in order to take a position in the diplomatic service in France as an assistant to the ambassador. In 1579, while he was still in France, his father died, leaving him (as the german gcse, second son of a second marriage and the youngest of six heirs) virtually without support. With no position, no land, no income, and no immediate prospects, he returned to England and resumed the study of law.
Bacon completed his law degree in 1582, and in 1588 he was named lecturer in legal studies at Gray’s Inn. In the meantime, he was elected to Parliament in 1584 as a member for rutgers Melcombe in Dorsetshire. He would remain in Parliament as a representative for nets in africa various constituencies for the next 36 years. In 1593 his blunt criticism of a new tax levy resulted in rutgers an unfortunate setback to his career expectations, the german gcse media, Queen taking personal offense at his opposition. Any hopes he had of becoming Attorney General or Solicitor General during her reign were dashed, though Elizabeth eventually relented to the extent of essay appointing Bacon her Extraordinary Counsel in 1596. It was around this time that Bacon entered the service of Robert Devereux, the Earl of Essex, a dashing courtier, soldier, plotter of intrigue, and sometime favorite of the Queen. No doubt Bacon viewed Essex as a rising star and problem pictures, a figure who could provide a much-needed boost to his own sagging career. Admissions Essay. Unfortunately, it was not long before Essex’s own fortunes plummeted following a series of military and the cask of amontillado essay, political blunders culminating in a disastrous coup attempt. Admissions Help. When the coup plot failed, Devereux was arrested, tried, and eventually executed, with Bacon, in his capacity as Queen’s Counsel, playing a vital role in the prosecution of the case. In 1603, James I succeeded Elizabeth, and Bacon’s prospects for nets in africa advancement dramatically improved.
After being knighted by the king, he swiftly ascended the ladder of state and from 1604-1618 filled a succession of high-profile advisory positions: 1604 – Appointed King’s Counsel. 1607 – Named Solicitor General. 1608 – Appointed Clerk of the help, Star Chamber. 1613 – Appointed Attorney General.
1616 – Made a member of the Privy Council. Interest Rate Swap. 1617 – Appointed Lord Keeper of the Royal Seal (his father’s former office). 1618 – Made Lord Chancellor. As Lord Chancellor, Bacon wielded a degree of power and influence that he could only have imagined as a young lawyer seeking preferment. Admissions Help. Yet it was at this point, while he stood at the very pinnacle of coursework help success, that he suffered his great Fall. Help. In 1621 he was arrested and charged with bribery. After pleading guilty, he was heavily fined and sentenced to the cask essay a prison term in the Tower of London.
Although the fine was later waived and Bacon spent only four days in the Tower, he was never allowed to sit in Parliament or hold political office again. The entire episode was a terrible disgrace for Bacon personally and a stigma that would cling to and injure his reputation for years to come. As various chroniclers of the case have pointed out, the accepting of gifts from suppliants in a law suit was a common practice in Bacon’s day, and it is also true that Bacon ended up judging against the two petitioners who had offered the fateful bribes. Yet the essay help, damage was done, and Bacon to his credit accepted the judgment against him without excuse. According to his own Essayes, or Counsels , he should have known and done better. (In this respect it is worth noting that during his forced retirement, Bacon revised and republished the Essayes , injecting an german gcse media coursework, even greater degree of shrewdness into a collection already notable for its worldliness and keen political sense.) Macaulay in a lengthy essay declared Bacon a great intellect but (borrowing a phrase from Bacon’s own letters) a “most dishonest man,” and more than one writer has characterized him as cold, calculating, and arrogant. Rutgers Admissions Essay Help. Yet whatever his flaws, even his enemies conceded that during his trial he accepted his punishment nobly, and moved on.
Bacon spent his remaining years working with renewed determination on his lifelong project: the staples thesis, reform of learning and the establishment of an intellectual community dedicated to the discovery of scientific knowledge for the “use and benefit of men.” The former Lord Chancellor died on 9 April, 1626, supposedly of admissions essay a cold or pneumonia contracted while testing his theory of the swap, preservative and insulating properties of snow. In a way Bacon’s descent from political power was a fortunate fall, for it represented a liberation from the bondage of public life resulting in a remarkable final burst of literary and rutgers admissions help, scientific activity. As Renaissance scholar and Bacon expert Brian Vickers has reminded us, Bacon’s earlier works, impressive as they are, were essentially products of his “spare time.” It was only swap thesis during his last five years that he was able to concentrate exclusively on writing and produce, in addition to a handful of minor pieces: Two substantial volumes of history and biography, The History of the Reign of King Henry the Seventh and rutgers help, The History of the Reign of King Henry the rate thesis, Eighth. Admissions. De Augmentis Scientiarum (an expanded Latin version of his earlier Advancement of Learning).
The final 1625 edition of his Essayes, or Counsels. The remarkable Sylva Sylvarum, or A Natural History in Ten Centuries (a curious hodge-podge of scientific experiments, personal observations, speculations, ancient teachings, and analytical discussions on topics ranging from the problem pictures, causes of hiccups to explanations for rutgers admissions essay the shortage of pictures rain in admissions Egypt). A Level Help. Artificially divided into ten “centuries” (that is, ten chapters, each consisting of one hundred items), the work was apparently intended to be included in Part Three of the Magna Instauratio. His utopian science-fiction novel The New Atlantis, which was published in unfinished form a year after his death. Various parts of his unfinished magnum opus Magna Instauratio (or Great Instauration), including a “Natural History of Winds” and a “Natural History of Life and Death.” These late productions represented the capstone of a writing career that spanned more than four decades and encompassed virtually an entire curriculum of literary, scientific, and philosophical studies.
Despite the fanatical claims (and very un-Baconian credulity) of a few admirers, it is a virtual certainty that Bacon did not write the works traditionally attributed to William Shakespeare. Even so, the Lord Chancellor’s high place in the history of English literature as well as his influential role in the development of English prose style remain well-established and secure. Indeed even if Bacon had produced nothing else but his masterful Essayes (first published in 1597 and then revised and expanded in 1612 and 1625), he would still rate among the top echelon of rutgers admissions essay 17th-century English authors. And so when we take into account his other writings, e.g., his histories, letters, and especially his major philosophical and scientific works, we must surely place him in the first rank of English literature’s great men of letters and among its finest masters (alongside names like Johnson, Mill, Carlyle, and Ruskin) of gcse media coursework non-fiction prose. Bacon’s style, though elegant, is by no means as simple as it seems or as it is often described. In fact it is actually a fairly complex affair that achieves its air of ease and admissions essay, clarity more through its balanced cadences, natural metaphors, and nets in africa, carefully arranged symmetries than through the use of plain words, commonplace ideas, and straightforward syntax. Rutgers. (In this connection it is noteworthy that in a level photography the revised versions of the essays Bacon seems to have deliberately disrupted many of his earlier balanced effects to produce a style that is actually more jagged and, in effect, more challenging to the casual reader.) Furthermore, just as Bacon’s personal style and living habits were prone to extravagance and never particularly austere, so in his writing he was never quite able to resist the occasional grand word, magniloquent phrase, or orotund effect. (As Dr. Johnson observed, “A dictionary of the English language might be compiled from Bacon’s works alone.”) Bishop Sprat in his 1667 History of the Royal Society honored Bacon and rutgers essay, praised the staples thesis, society membership for supposedly eschewing fine words and fancy metaphors and adhering instead to a natural lucidity and “mathematical plainness.” To write in admissions help such a way, Sprat suggested, was to follow true, scientific, Baconian principles. And while Bacon himself often expressed similar sentiments (praising blunt expression while condemning the gcse, seductions of figurative language), a reader would be hard pressed to find many examples of such spare technique in Bacon’s own writings. Rutgers Admissions. Of Bacon’s contemporary readers, at least one took exception to the view that his writing represented a perfect model of plain language and transparent meaning. After perusing the New Organon , King James (to whom Bacon had proudly dedicated the volume) reportedly pronounced the work “like the peace of God, which passeth all understanding.”
As a work of narrative fiction, Bacon’s novel New Atlantis may be classified as a literary rather than a scientific (or philosophical) work, though it effectively belongs to both categories. According to Bacon’s amanuensis and first biographer William Rawley, the novel represents the first part (showing the design of a level photography a great college or institute devoted to admissions help the interpretation of interest nature) of what was to have been a longer and more detailed project (depicting the entire legal structure and political organization of an ideal commonwealth). The work thus stands in the great tradition of the rutgers admissions essay, utopian-philosophical novel that stretches from Plato and pictures, More to Huxley and Skinner. The thin plot or fable is little more than a fictional shell to contain the real meat of Bacon’s story: the elaborate description of rutgers admissions help Salomon’s House (also known as the College of the Six Days Works), a centrally organized research facility where specially trained teams of investigators collect data, conduct experiments, and (most importantly from Bacon’s point of view) apply the knowledge they gain to produce “things of use and practice for man’s life.” These new arts and inventions they eventually share with the outside world. In terms of its sci-fi adventure elements, the New Atlantis is about as exciting as a government or university re-organization plan. But in terms of its historical impact, the novel has proven to be nothing less than revolutionary, having served not only as an effective inspiration and model for the British Royal Society, but also as an early blueprint and prophecy of the modern research center and international scientific community. c. Scientific and Philosophical Works.
It is never easy to of amontillado summarize the thought of a prolific and wide-ranging philosopher. Yet Bacon somewhat simplifies the admissions help, task by his own helpful habits of of amontillado essay systematic classification and catchy mnemonic labeling. Rutgers Help. (Thus, for example, there are three “distempers” – or diseases – of learning,” eleven errors or “peccant humours,” four “Idols,” three primary mental faculties and categories of knowledge, etc.) In effect, by following Bacon’s own methods it is the cask essay possible to produce a convenient outline or overview of rutgers essay help his main scientific and philosophical ideas. As early as 1592, in a famous letter to his uncle, Lord Burghley, Bacon declared “all knowledge” to nets in africa be his province and vowed his personal commitment to a plan for the full-scale rehabilitation and rutgers admissions help, reorganization of learning. In effect, he dedicated himself to a long-term project of intellectual reform, and the balance of his career can be viewed as a continuing effort to make good on coursework, that pledge. In 1620, while he was still at admissions essay, the peak of his political success, he published the nets in africa, preliminary description and plan for an enormous work that would fully answer to his earlier declared ambitions. Essay. The work, dedicated to James, was to be called Magna Instauratio (that is, the “grand edifice” or Great Instauration ), and it would represent a kind of summa or culmination of all Bacon’s thought on subjects ranging from logic and epistemology to practical science (or what in Bacon’s day was called “natural philosophy,” the word science being then but a general synonym for “wisdom” or “learning”). Like several of a level coursework help Bacon’s projects, the Instauratio in its contemplated form was never finished. Of the intended six parts, only the first two were completed, while the other portions were only partly finished or barely begun. Consequently, the work as we have it is less like the vast but well-sculpted monument that Bacon envisioned than a kind of philosophical miscellany or grab-bag.
Part I of the project, De Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum (“Nine Books of the Dignity and Advancement of Learning”), was published in 1623. It is basically an enlarged version of the earlier Proficience and Advancement of Learning , which Bacon had presented to rutgers essay James in of amontillado essay 1605. Part II, the Novum Organum (or “New Organon”) provides the author’s detailed explanation and admissions essay help, demonstration of the correct procedure for interpreting nature. It first appeared in 1620. Together these two works present the essential elements of Bacon’s philosophy, including most of the major ideas and principles that we have come to associate with the terms “Baconian” and “Baconianism.” Relatively early in his career Bacon judged that, owing mainly to an undue reverence for the past (as well as to an excessive absorption in cultural vanities and frivolities), the a level photography coursework, intellectual life of Europe had reached a kind of impasse or standstill. Yet he believed there was a way beyond this stagnation if persons of rutgers admissions help learning, armed with new methods and nets in africa, insights, would simply open their eyes and minds to the world around them. This at any rate was the basic argument of his seminal 1605 treatise The Proficience and Advancement of Learning , arguably the first important philosophical work to be published in English. It is in this work that Bacon sketched out the main themes and help, ideas that he continued to staples thesis refine and develop throughout his career, beginning with the help, notion that there are clear obstacles to or diseases of a level coursework learning that must be avoided or purged before further progress is help possible. “There be therefore chiefly three vanities in studies, whereby learning hath been most traduced.” Thus Bacon, in the first book of the Advancement . He goes on the cask essay, to refer to these vanities as the rutgers essay help, three “distempers” of learning and identifies them (in his characteristically memorable fashion) as “fantastical learning,” “contentious learning,” and solving pictures, “delicate learning” (alternatively identified as “vain imaginations,” “vain altercations,” and “vain affectations”).
By fantastical learning (“vain imaginations”) Bacon had in mind what we would today call pseudo-science: i.e., a collection of ideas that lack any real or substantial foundation, that are professed mainly by occultists and charlatans, that are carefully shielded from outside criticism, and admissions help, that are offered largely to an audience of credulous true believers. In Bacon’s day such “imaginative science” was familiar in the form of astrology, natural magic, and alchemy. By contentious learning (“vain altercations”) Bacon was referring mainly to Aristotelian philosophy and theology and especially to the Scholastic tradition of logical hair-splitting and metaphysical quibbling. Gcse Media Coursework. But the phrase applies to rutgers admissions any intellectual endeavor in which the principal aim is not new knowledge or deeper understanding but endless debate cherished for its own sake. Delicate learning (“vain affectations”) was Bacon’s label for the new humanism insofar as (in his view) it seemed concerned not with the actual recovery of ancient texts or the retrieval of rate thesis past knowledge but merely with the revival of Ciceronian rhetorical embellishments and the reproduction of classical prose style. Such preoccupation with “words more than matter,” with “choiceness of phrase” and the “sweet falling of rutgers help clauses” – in short, with style over substance – seemed to Bacon (a careful stylist in his own right) the nets in africa, most seductive and decadent literary vice of rutgers essay help his age. Here we may note that from staples thesis Bacon’s point of view the “distempers” of learning share two main faults:
Prodigal ingenuity – i.e., each distemper represents a lavish and regrettable waste of talent, as inventive minds that might be employed in more productive pursuits exhaust their energy on trivial or puerile enterprises instead. Sterile results – i.e., instead of help contributing to the discovery of new knowledge (and thus to a practical “advancement of learning” and eventually to essay a better life for all), the distempers of learning are essentially exercises in personal vainglory that aim at admissions help, little more than idle theorizing or the rate, preservation of older forms of knowledge. In short, in Bacon’s view the essay, distempers impede genuine intellectual progress by beguiling talented thinkers into fruitless, illusory, or purely self-serving ventures. What is needed – and this is a level help a theme reiterated in all his later writings on learning and human progress – is a program to re-channel that same creative energy into socially useful new discoveries. Though it is hard to pinpoint the birth of an idea, for all intents and purposes the modern idea of technological “progress” (in the sense of a steady, cumulative, historical advance in applied scientific knowledge) began with Bacon’s The Advancement of Learning and admissions essay help, became fully articulated in photography his later works.
Knowledge is power, and when embodied in the form of new technical inventions and mechanical discoveries it is the force that drives history – this was Bacon’s key insight. In many respects this idea was his single greatest invention, and it is all the more remarkable for its having been conceived and promoted at essay, a time when most English and german media, European intellectuals were either reverencing the literary and philosophical achievements of the past or deploring the numerous signs of modern degradation and decline. Indeed, while Bacon was preaching progress and declaring a brave new dawn of scientific advance, many of his colleagues were persuaded that the world was at best creaking along towards a state of senile immobility and eventual darkness. “Our age is iron, and rusty too,” wrote John Donne, contemplating the signs of universal decay in rutgers help a poem published six years after Bacon’s Advancement . That history might in gcse media fact be progressive , i.e., an onward and upward ascent – and rutgers essay help, not, as Aristotle had taught, merely cyclical or, as cultural pessimists from Hesiod to Spengler have supposed, a descending or retrograde movement, became for Bacon an article of secular faith which he propounded with evangelical force and nets in africa, a sense of mission. In the help, Advancement , the idea is offered tentatively, as a kind of photography help hopeful hypothesis. But in later works such as the New Organon , it becomes almost a promised destiny: Enlightenment and a better world, Bacon insists, lie within our power; they require only the rutgers admissions, cooperation of learned citizens and the active development of the arts and sciences. h. The Reclassification of Knowledge. In Book II of De Dignitate (his expanded version of the Advancement ) Bacon outlines his scheme for a new division of the cask of amontillado human knowledge into three primary categories: History, Poesy, and Philosophy (which he associates respectively with the three fundamental “faculties” of mind – memory, imagination, and reason). Rutgers. Although the exact motive behind this reclassification remains unclear, one of its main consequences seems unmistakable: it effectively promotes philosophy – and especially Baconian science – above the problem solving, other two branches of knowledge, in essence defining history as the mere accumulation of brute facts, while reducing art and imaginative literature to the even more marginal status of “feigned history.” Evidently Bacon believed that in order for a genuine advancement of learning to occur, the prestige of philosophy (and particularly natural philosophy) had to be elevated, while that of rutgers admissions essay history and literature (in a word, humanism) needed to be reduced. Bacon’s scheme effectively accomplishes this by making history (the domain of fact, i.e., of everything that has happened ) a virtual sub-species of philosophy (the domain of realistic possibility, i.e., of interest rate swap thesis everything that can theoretically or actually occur ). Meanwhile, poesy (the domain of everything that is imaginable or conceivable ) is set off to the side as a mere illustrative vehicle.
In essence, it becomes simply a means of rutgers essay recreating actual scenes or events from the past (as in history plays or heroic poetry) or of allegorizing or dramatizing new ideas or future possibilities (as in Bacon’s own interesting example of “parabolic poesy,” the New Atlantis .) To the second part of his Great Instauration Bacon gave the title New Organon (or “True Directions concerning the Interpretation of Nature”). The Greek word organon means “instrument” or “tool,” and Bacon clearly felt he was supplying a new instrument for guiding and correcting the mind in its quest for a true understanding of nature. The title also glances at Aristotle’s Organon (a collection that includes his Categories and his Prior and staples thesis, Posterior Analytics ) and admissions essay help, thus suggests a “new instrument” destined to transcend or replace the rate swap thesis, older, no longer serviceable one. (This notion of surpassing ancient authority is aptly illustrated on the frontispiece of the 1620 volume containing the New Organon by a ship boldly sailing beyond the mythical pillars of Hercules, which supposedly marked the essay, end of the nets in africa, known world.) The New Organon is presented not in rutgers admissions essay help the form of a treatise or methodical demonstration but as a series of aphorisms, a technique that Bacon came to favor as less legislative and dogmatic and more in the true spirit of scientific experiment and critical inquiry.
Combined with his gift for illustrative metaphor and symbol, the aphoristic style makes the New Organon in rate swap many places the most readable and literary of all Bacon’s scientific and philosophical works. In Book I of the New Organon (Aphorisms 39-68), Bacon introduces his famous doctrine of the “idols.” These are characteristic errors, natural tendencies, or defects that beset the rutgers, mind and german gcse media, prevent it from achieving a full and rutgers help, accurate understanding of nature. Staples Thesis. Bacon points out that recognizing and counteracting the idols is rutgers admissions as important to the study of nature as the recognition and refutation of nets in africa bad arguments is to logic. Rutgers Admissions Help. Incidentally, he uses the word “idol” – from the Greek eidolon (“image” or “phantom”) – not in the sense of a false god or heathen deity but rather in the sense employed in Epicurean physics. Thus a Baconian idol is nets in africa a potential deception or source of misunderstanding, especially one that clouds or confuses our knowledge of external reality. Bacon identifies four different classes of idol. Each arises from a different source, and each presents its own special hazards and difficulties. 1. The Idols of the essay, Tribe. These are the natural weaknesses and tendencies common to human nature. Because they are innate, they cannot be completely eliminated, but only recognized and compensated for. Some of Bacon’s examples are:
Our senses – which are inherently dull and easily deceivable. (Which is nets in africa why Bacon prescribes instruments and strict investigative methods to correct them.) Our tendency to admissions help discern (or even impose) more order in phenomena than is actually there. A Level Help. As Bacon points out, we are apt to find similitude where there is actually singularity, regularity where there is actually randomness, etc. Our tendency towards “wishful thinking.” According to Bacon, we have a natural inclination to accept, believe, and rutgers help, even prove what we would prefer to staples thesis be true. Our tendency to rush to conclusions and make premature judgments (instead of gradually and painstakingly accumulating evidence). 2. The Idols of the Cave. Unlike the rutgers help, idols of the nets in africa, tribe, which are common to all human beings, those of the cave vary from rutgers admissions essay help individual to individual. They arise, that is to gcse say, not from nature but from culture and thus reflect the peculiar distortions, prejudices, and admissions, beliefs that we are all subject to owing to staples thesis our different family backgrounds, childhood experiences, education, training, gender, religion, social class, etc. Examples include:
Special allegiance to a particular discipline or theory. High esteem for admissions essay help a few select authorities. A “cookie-cutter” mentality – that is, a tendency to reduce or confine phenomena within the terms of solving our own narrow training or discipline. 3. The Idols of the Market Place. These are hindrances to clear thinking that arise, Bacon says, from the “intercourse and association of admissions essay men with each other.” The main culprit here is language, though not just common speech, but also (and perhaps particularly) the interest swap, special discourses, vocabularies, and jargons of various academic communities and disciplines. Rutgers Essay Help. He points out that “the idols imposed by words on the understanding are of two kinds”: “they are either names of things that do not exist” (e.g., the crystalline spheres of Aristotelian cosmology) or faulty, vague, or misleading names for things that do exist (according to Bacon, abstract qualities and value terms – e.g., “moist,” “useful,” etc. – can be a particular source of confusion). 4. The Idols of the Theatre. Like the idols of the cave, those of the theatre are culturally acquired rather than innate. And although the metaphor of a theatre suggests an artificial imitation of truth, as in drama or fiction, Bacon makes it clear that these idols derive mainly from grand schemes or systems of philosophy – and staples thesis, especially from three particular types of admissions philosophy: Sophistical Philosophy – that is, philosophical systems based only on a few casually observed instances (or on no experimental evidence at all) and thus constructed mainly out of of amontillado essay abstract argument and rutgers help, speculation.
Bacon cites Scholasticism as a conspicuous example. Empirical Philosophy – that is, a philosophical system ultimately based on a single key insight (or on staples thesis, a very narrow base of rutgers help research), which is then erected into a model or paradigm to explain phenomena of all kinds. Bacon cites the example of rate swap thesis William Gilbert, whose experiments with the lodestone persuaded him that magnetism operated as the hidden force behind virtually all earthly phenomena. Superstitious Philosophy – this is Bacon’s phrase for any system of rutgers essay help thought that mixes theology and philosophy. He cites Pythagoras and Plato as guilty of gcse coursework this practice, but also points his finger at pious contemporary efforts, similar to those of Creationists today, to found systems of natural philosophy on Genesis or the book of rutgers admissions Job. At the beginning of the Magna Instauratio and in Book II of the help, New Organon , Bacon introduces his system of “true and perfect Induction,” which he proposes as the essential foundation of scientific method and a necessary tool for the proper interpretation of nature. (This system was to have been more fully explained and help, demonstrated in Part IV of the Instauratio in a section titled “The Ladder of the Intellect,” but unfortunately the work never got beyond an introduction.) According to Bacon, his system differs not only german media coursework from the deductive logic and admissions essay help, mania for syllogisms of the Schoolmen, but also from the classic induction of Aristotle and other logicians.
As Bacon explains it, classic induction proceeds “at once from interest swap . . . sense and particulars up to the most general propositions” and then works backward (via deduction) to arrive at intermediate propositions. Thus, for essay example, from a few observations one might conclude (via induction) that “all new cars are shiny.” One would then be entitled to proceed backward from this general axiom to staples thesis deduce such middle-level axioms as “all new Lexuses are shiny,” “all new Jeeps are shiny,” etc. – axioms that presumably would not need to be verified empirically since their truth would be logically guaranteed as long as the original generalization (“all new cars are shiny”) is true. As Bacon rightly points out, one problem with this procedure is that if the rutgers admissions essay help, general axioms prove false, all the intermediate axioms may be false as well. All it takes is one contradictory instance (in this case one new car with a dull finish) and “the whole edifice tumbles.” For this reason Bacon prescribes a different path. His method is to proceed “regularly and gradually from one axiom to another, so that the most general are not reached till the last.” In other words, each axiom – i.e., each step up “the ladder of intellect” – is thoroughly tested by observation and experimentation before the next step is taken. In effect, each confirmed axiom becomes a foothold to a higher truth, with the most general axioms representing the last stage of the process. Thus, in the example described, the Baconian investigator would be obliged to german gcse examine a full inventory of new Chevrolets, Lexuses, Jeeps, etc., before reaching any conclusions about new cars in rutgers admissions essay general. And while Bacon admits that such a method can be laborious, he argues that it eventually produces a stable edifice of knowledge instead of a rickety structure that collapses with the appearance of a single disconfirming instance. (Indeed, according to Bacon, when one follows his inductive procedure, a negative instance actually becomes something to be welcomed rather than feared. For instead of threatening an entire assembly, the discovery of a false generalization actually saves the investigator the staples thesis, trouble of help having to proceed further in a particular direction or line of inquiry. Meanwhile the structure of truth that he has already built remains intact.) Is Bacon’s system, then, a sound and reliable procedure, a strong ladder leading from carefully observed particulars to true and “inevitable” conclusions?
Although he himself firmly believed in the utility and overall superiority of gcse his method, many of his commentators and critics have had doubts. For one thing, it is not clear that the Baconian procedure, taken by itself, leads conclusively to any general propositions, much less to rutgers essay help scientific principles or theoretical statements that we can accept as universally true. Rate. For at what point is the Baconian investigator willing to rutgers help make the nets in africa, leap from observed particulars to abstract generalizations? After a dozen instances? A thousand? The fact is, Bacon’s method provides nothing to guide the rutgers, investigator in german gcse this determination other than sheer instinct or professional judgment, and thus the tendency is for the investigation of rutgers particulars – the steady observation and solving, collection of data – to go on continuously, and in effect endlessly. One can thus easily imagine a scenario in which the piling up of instances becomes not just the initial stage in a process, but the very essence of the process itself; in effect, a zealous foraging after facts (in the New Organon Bacon famously compares the ideal Baconian researcher to admissions essay a busy bee) becomes not only a means to knowledge, but an activity vigorously pursued for its own sake. Every scientist and academic person knows how tempting it is to put off the hard work of imaginative thinking in order to continue doing some form of rote research. Every investigator knows how easy it is to become wrapped up in staples thesis data – with the unhappy result that one’s intended ascent up the Baconian ladder gets stuck in mundane matters of fact and rutgers admissions essay, never quite gets off the german media, ground.
It was no doubt considerations like these that prompted the English physician (and neo-Aristotelian) William Harvey, of circulation-of-the-blood fame, to quip that Bacon wrote of natural philosophy “like a Lord Chancellor” – indeed like a politician or legislator rather than a practitioner. The assessment is just to rutgers admissions essay help the extent that Bacon in the New Organon does indeed prescribe a new and extremely rigid procedure for the investigation of of amontillado nature rather than describe the more or less instinctive and improvisational – and by no means exclusively empirical – method that Kepler, Galileo, Harvey himself, and other working scientists were actually employing. In fact, other than Tycho Brahe, the Danish astronomer who, overseeing a team of assistants, faithfully observed and then painstakingly recorded entire volumes of astronomical data in tidy, systematically arranged tables, it is doubtful that there is another major figure in the history of science who can be legitimately termed an authentic, true-blooded Baconian. (Darwin, it is true, claimed that The Origin of Species was based on “Baconian principles.” However, it is admissions help one thing to collect instances in order to compare species and show a relationship among them; it is quite another to theorize a mechanism, namely evolution by mutation and solving, natural selection, that elegantly and powerfully explains their entire history and variety.) Science, that is to say, does not, and has probably never advanced according to the strict, gradual, ever-plodding method of Baconian observation and induction. It proceeds instead by unpredictable – and often intuitive and rutgers essay, even (though Bacon would cringe at nets in africa, the word) imaginative – leaps and rutgers essay help, bounds. Staples Thesis. Kepler used Tycho’s scrupulously gathered data to support his own heart-felt and even occult belief that the movements of celestial bodies are regular and help, symmetrical, composing a true harmony of the spheres. Galileo tossed unequal weights from the Leaning Tower as a mere public demonstration of the fact (contrary to problem Aristotle) that they would fall at the same rate. He had long before satisfied himself that this would happen via the very un-Bacon-like method of admissions help mathematical reasoning and deductive thought-experiment.
Harvey, by a similar process of quantitative analysis and of amontillado, deductive logic, knew that the blood must circulate, and it was only to provide proof of this fact that he set himself the secondary task of rutgers essay help amassing empirical evidence and establishing the actual method by which it did so. One could enumerate – in true Baconian fashion – a host of essay further instances. But the point is rutgers admissions already made: advances in scientific knowledge have not been achieved for the most part via Baconian induction (which amounts to a kind of systematic and exhaustive survey of media nature supposedly leading to ultimate insights) but rather by shrewd hints and guesses – in a word by hypotheses – that are then either corroborated or (in Karl Popper’s important term) falsified by essay, subsequent research. In summary, then, it can be said that Bacon underestimated the problem pictures, role of imagination and hypothesis (and overestimated the value of minute observation and bee-like data collection) in the production of new scientific knowledge. And in this respect it is rutgers admissions essay help true that he wrote of science like a Lord Chancellor, regally proclaiming the benefits of his own new and supposedly foolproof technique instead of recognizing and adapting procedures that had already been tested and approved. German Gcse Media Coursework. On the other hand, it must be added that Bacon did not present himself (or his method) as the final authority on the investigation of admissions essay nature or, for that matter, on any other topic or issue relating to the advance of knowledge. Essay. By his own admission, he was but the Buccinator , or “trumpeter,” of such a revolutionary advance – not the rutgers admissions, founder or builder of a vast new system, but only the herald or announcing messenger of a new world to come. If anyone deserves the title “universal genius” or “Renaissance man” (accolades traditionally reserved for those who make significant, original contributions to more than one professional discipline or area of learning), Bacon clearly merits the designation.
Like Leonardo and Goethe, he produced important work in both the arts and sciences. Like Cicero, Marcus Aurelius, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson, he combined wide and ample intellectual and literary interests (from practical rhetoric and the study of nature to moral philosophy and educational reform) with a substantial political career. Like his near contemporary Machiavelli, he excelled in of amontillado essay a variety of literary genres – from learned treatises to light entertainments – though, also like the admissions essay help, great Florentine writer, he thought of nets in africa himself mainly as a political statesman and practical visionary: a man whose primary goal was less to obtain literary laurels for himself than to mold the agendas and guide the policy decisions of powerful nobles and heads of state. In our own era Bacon would be acclaimed as a “public intellectual,” though his personal record of essay help service and authorship would certainly dwarf the achievements of most academic and political leaders today. Like nearly all public figures, he was controversial. His chaplain and first biographer William Rawley declared him “the glory of his age and nation” and portrayed him as an angel of enlightenment and social vision. His admirers in the cask the Royal Society (an organization that traced its own inspiration and lineage to the Lord Chancellor’s writings) viewed him as nothing less than the daring originator of a new intellectual era. The poet Abraham Cowley called him a “Moses” and portrayed him as an exalted leader who virtually all by himself had set learning on a bold, firm, and entirely new path: Bacon at last, a mighty Man, arose.
Whom a wise King and Nature chose. Lord Chancellour of rutgers admissions essay help both their Lawes. . . . The barren Wilderness he past, Did on the very Border stand. Of the great promis’d Land, And from the Mountains Top of his Exalted Wit, Saw it himself and shew’d us it. . A Level Photography Coursework Help. . . Similarly adulatory if more prosaic assessments were offered by rutgers admissions, learned contemporaries or near contemporaries from Descartes and Gassendi to Robert Hooke and Robert Boyle.
Leibniz was particularly generous and observed that, compared to Bacon’s philosophical range and lofty vision, even a great genius like Descartes “creeps on the ground.” On the staples thesis, other hand, Spinoza, another close contemporary, dismissed Bacon’s work (especially his inductive theories) completely and in effect denied that the supposedly grand philosophical revolution decreed by Bacon, and welcomed by his partisans, had ever occurred. The response of the admissions essay, later Enlightenment was similarly divided, with a majority of essay thinkers lavishly praising Bacon while a dissenting minority castigated or even ridiculed him. The French encyclopedists Jean d’Alembert and Denis Diderot sounded the keynote of this 18th-century re-assessment, essentially hailing Bacon as a founding father of the rutgers admissions, modern era and emblazoning his name on the front page of the Encyclopedia . In a similar gesture, Kant dedicated his Critique of Pure Reason to Bacon and likewise saluted him as an early architect of modernity. Hegel, on the other hand, took a dimmer view. In his “Lectures on the History of Philosophy” he congratulated Bacon on his worldly sophistication and shrewdness of mind, but ultimately judged him to be a person of interest swap thesis depraved character and a mere “coiner of admissions help mottoes.” In his view, the Lord Chancellor was a decidedly low-minded (read typically English and utilitarian) philosopher whose instruction was fit mainly for “civil servants and shopkeepers.”
Probably the fullest and most perceptive Enlightenment account of rate swap thesis Bacon’s achievement and place in history was Voltaire’s laudatory essay in his Letters on the English . After referring to rutgers admissions Bacon as the father of experimental philosophy, he went on to assess his literary merits, judging him to be an elegant, instructive, and witty writer, though too much given to “fustian.” Bacon’s reputation and legacy remain controversial even today. While no historian of science or philosophy doubts his immense importance both as a proselytizer on behalf of the staples thesis, empirical method and admissions essay, as an advocate of sweeping intellectual reform, opinion varies widely as to the actual social value and moral significance of the ideas that he represented and effectively bequeathed to us. The issue basically comes down to one’s estimate of or sympathy for the entire Enlightenment/Utilitarian project. Those who for coursework the most part share Bacon’s view that nature exists mainly for human use and rutgers admissions help, benefit, and who furthermore endorse his opinion that scientific inquiry should aim first and foremost at the amelioration of the human condition and the “relief of man’s estate,” generally applaud him as a great social visionary. On the other hand, those who view nature as an entity in staples thesis its own right, a higher-order estate of which the admissions essay help, human community is only a part, tend to perceive him as a kind of arch-villain – the evil originator of the idea of german gcse coursework science as the instrument of global imperialism and technological conquest. On the one side, then, we have figures like the anthropologist and science writer Loren Eiseley, who portrays Bacon (whom he calls “the man who saw through time”) as a kind of Promethean culture hero. He praises Bacon as the great inventor of the idea of science as both a communal enterprise and a practical discipline in the service of humanity.
On the admissions essay, other side, we have writers, from Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, and Lewis Mumford to, more recently, Jeremy Rifkin and solving pictures, eco-feminist Carolyn Merchant, who have represented him as one of the main culprits behind what they perceive as western science’s continuing legacy of alienation, exploitation, and ecological oppression. Clearly somewhere in between this ardent Baconolotry on the one hand and rutgers admissions essay, strident demonization of Bacon on the other lies the real Lord Chancellor: a Colossus with feet of clay. He was by no means a great system-builder (indeed his Magna Instauratio turned out to be less of a “grand edifice” than a magnificent heap) but rather, as he more modestly portrayed himself, a great spokesman for the reform of learning and of amontillado essay, a champion of modern science. Admissions Essay. In the end we can say that he was one of the giant figures of intellectual history – and as brilliant, and flawed, a philosopher as he was a statesman. Note: The standard edition of solving pictures Bacon’s Works and rutgers help, Letters and Life is of amontillado still that of James Spedding, et. al., (14 volumes, London, 1857- 1874), also available in a facsimile reprint (Stuttgart, 1989).
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Essay Written By Jose Rizal Essays and Research Papers. AN ESSAY ABOUT JOSE RIZAL Who is rutgers admissions Jose Rizal to common people? What is the staples thesis impact . of his life, woks and rutgers admissions writings? When we ask most average persons today these questions, they might answer something like, he is our national hero, he died in Bagumbayan, and he wrote two great novels. Beyond that nothing more is explicitly said about Jose Rizal . As I read through the solving chapters of the book I have come discover many more things that is admirable about this man. In his childhood, he wrote a poem to. El filibusterismo , Jose Rizal , Manila 1132 Words | 3 Pages.
PapersContactTop CampsHelp Reaction Paper About Rizal Movie Starring Cesar Montano Essays and Term Papers Search Results for . 'reaction paper about rizal movie starring cesar montano' Displaying 1 - 30 of 1,500 Reaction Paper For Rizal Movie By Cesar Montano becauseofthefriars. I particularly love the last scene of the film when Rizal , excellently played by Cesar Montano by the way, fell in admissions essay help, the ground facing the sky. Reaction Paper On Rizal The Movie Diaz, Mickey Ferriols, Chin-chin Gutierrez. AIDS , Cesar Montano , Jose Rizal 1216 Words | 5 Pages. Jose Rizal is a 1998 Filipino biographical film of the nets in africa Philippine national hero Jose Rizal directed . by Marilou Diaz-Abaya and starring Cesar Montano as Jose Rizal . At the time of its release, it was the most expensive film in rutgers essay, the history of Philippine cinema with a budget of over PhP.80 million. The film was an interest swap official entry to the 1998 Metro Manila Film Festival. Upon release, the film met a universal critical acclaim. Plot Imprisoned in Fort Santiago under the essay abusive Spanish colonization. Cesar Montano , Jose Rizal , Katipunan 959 Words | 3 Pages.
were taken. Nets In Africa. * Life in Paris * Despite the lively and admissions help festive life in Paris, Rizal proceeds to solving pictures spend his time frugally and . fruitfully. Help. * He spend his time in working on a level photography help, the annotated Morga’s book, writing letters to his family and friends, working out rutgers help local gymnasium, and problem solving visiting his friends in admissions essay help, Paris. Thesis. * Rizal and Paris Exposition of 1889 * Like any other Filipinos in a foreign land, Rizal was fascinated the Universal Exposition of Paris. * The Eiffel Tower is the greatest. Eiffel Tower , Filipino people , Jose Rizal 836 Words | 3 Pages. se Rizal , Liberator of the Philippines In the early morning of December 30, 1896, 35 year old Jose ' Rizal , an indio . Admissions. with strong oriental features but the bearing of a western intellectual, wearing a black suit and hat, stood erect and calm in an open field by Manila Bay. German Gcse Media. Ministering to rutgers help him were Premium2705 Words11 Pages Dr. Jose Rizal Would Have Become a Cebuano Rizal Would Have Become A Cebuano Written by Lope Lindio MABUHAY Wednesday, 18 June 2008 10:07 The probability was very high that if. Andres Bonifacio , Calamba City , Jose Rizal 1227 Words | 5 Pages. Personal Background of Jose Rizal. ?LEARNING MODULE RATIONALE This module is about the biography of Jose Rizal . The discussion focuses on the family background of . Jose Rizal and his life and coursework experiences as a young boy and as a student.
The personal background of Jose Rizal reflects the social, educational and cultural milieu of his time. In order to humanize him, it is significant to have a glimpse of his life and experiences at home and at school which had shaped his development as person as well as his ideals and principles in. Ateneo de Manila University , Calamba City , Jose Rizal 2424 Words | 7 Pages. REACTION PAPER Dr. Help. Jose Protacio Mercado Rizal Alonzo Y Realonda is our national heroes of the Philippines and greatest hero of . Staples Thesis. nation. Jose Rizal was born on the moonlinight of Wednesday, June 19, 1861 in the lake house town of Calamba, Laguna Province, Phil’s.
He was the admissions essay help baptized in the catholic chruch of his town on of amontillado, June 22, aged of three years old, by the priest Father Rufino Collantes. His godfather was Father Pedro Casanas, close friend of the help rizal family. His name “ jose ” was chosen by his. Andres Bonifacio , Jose Rizal , Katipunan 1570 Words | 4 Pages. Film Evaluation Report On the the cask of amontillado essay movie“ Jose Rizal ” In partial fulfillment of the Requirements in the subject JPRizal . Submitted to: Mrs. Bing Amahan Submitted by: Alvin P. Admissions Essay. Gonzaga February 2013 REACTION PAPER IN THE MOVIE JOSE RIZAL The movie tells the life story of interest rate swap Jose Rizal , the national hero of the Philippines. Athree-hour epic on the life and struggles of his poet and patriotisms. It covers his life from admissions help, his childhood to his execution at the hands of the Spanish forces occupying thePhilippines.
Andres Bonifacio , Cesar Montano , Jose Rizal 2127 Words | 7 Pages. Nissa Mariali A. Submitted to: Ma’am Mary Ann Bernudez Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso . Photography Help. Realonda (June 19, 1861 – December 30, 1896), was a Filipino nationalist, novelist, poet, ophthalmologist, journalist, and revolutionary. Admissions Essay Help. He is widely considered the greatest national hero of the Philippines. He was the nets in africa author of Noli Me Tangere, El Filibusterismo, and admissions a number of poems and problem pictures essays . Rutgers Help. He was executed on December 30, 1896 by a squad of Filipino soldiers of the Spanish. Andres Bonifacio , Emilio Aguinaldo , Jose Rizal 1500 Words | 4 Pages. JOSE P . Coursework Help. RIZAL IN SUNNY SPAIN (1882-1885) IN SUNNY SPAIN (1882-1885) After finishing the rutgers help 4th year of the medical course in . the University of Santo Tomas (being disgusted) decided to a level help complete his studies in Spain.
At that time the government of Spain was a constitutional monarchy under a written constitution which granted human rights to the people, particularly freedom of help speech, freedom of the press, and freedom of staples thesis assembly. Another reason, which was more important than merely completing his. Ferdinand de Lesseps , Freemasonry , Harriet Beecher Stowe 795 Words | 3 Pages. Jose Rizal , an ilustrado in the 19th Century Spanish Monarchy Restoration By Carlos Alberdi | Updated October 25, 2011 - . 12:00am 2 9 googleplus0 0 MANILA, Philippines - The hero of essay help Philippine independence was a genuine Spanish free-thinker during his time. Pictures. Last June 19 was the rutgers admissions 150th birth anniversary of nets in africa Jose Rizal , the icon of Philippine independence. His memory clouded by the geographical and mental distance that now separates us from the Pacific Ocean, which was once called the rutgers admissions help “Spanish. Filipino mestizo , Filipino people , Jose Rizal 947 Words | 3 Pages. About Jose Rizal as the National Hero of the essay Philippines STUDENTS’ VIEWS ON FILIPINO HISTORIANS’ ARTICLES ABOUT . Help. JOSE RIZAL AS THE NATIONAL HERO OF THE PHILIPPINES A Paper Submitted to: Dr.
Minerva V. Apita In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in: Philippine History with Politics and Governance Laylo, Anelle Nica M. September 7, 2011 Premium6774 Words28 Pages my home by jose rizal se Rizal , Liberator of the Philippines In the staples thesis early morning of December 30, 1896, 35 year old Jose ' Rizal , an. Andres Bonifacio , Calamba City , Jose Rizal 645 Words | 3 Pages. Early Life: Name: Jose Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda Age: 151 Birth Date : June 19, 186 Place of rutgers admissions essay Birth : Calamba, . Nets In Africa. Laguna Schools enrolled in : Justiniano Aquino Cruz in Binan, Laguna, Colegio de San Juan de Letran, Ateneo Municipal de Manila , University of Santo Tomas, niversity of rutgers Santo Tomas Faculty of staples thesis Medicine and rutgers admissions essay help Surgery.Universidad Central de Madrid , University of staples thesis Paris, University of admissions essay help Heidelberg , Rizal Goes to Madrid: In May of 1882, Jose Rizal got on a ship to pictures Spain. Andres Bonifacio , Catholic Church , El filibusterismo 2132 Words | 6 Pages. 1. Brief Summary of Chapter 1. ADVENT OF A NATIONAL HERO Jose Rizal born on June 19, 1861. It was Franciso Mercado . Rizal was born on May 11, 1818 in Binan Laguna. He was a graduate of the College of San Jose Manila, studying Latin and Philosophy. Francisco moved to Calamba to become a tenant-farmer of a hacienda owned by the Dominicans. He dided at the age of 80 on January 5, 1898 in rutgers admissions essay help, Manila.
About his father, Jose Rizal says that he is a “model of fathers”. Teodora Alonso Realonda was born. Calamba City , Family , Jose Rizal 821 Words | 3 Pages. why? Rizal wrote the a level coursework poem entitled “Sa aking mga Kababata” or in essay help, english “To my Fellow Youth” when he was eight years old. This poem had a . strong sense of nationalism expressing Rizal’s love for our own language.
He emphasized the significance and the usage of our mother tongue. Mother tongue was the language we learned since birth (which was Filipino). It gave us a sense of identity. Language could not only media be our way to communicate but it also served as the reflection of our culture. Essay Help. Rizal also. Calamba City , Death poem , Jose Rizal 1179 Words | 4 Pages. Biography of Dr. German Gcse. Jose Rizal Jose Rizal’s full name is admissions essay Dr.
Jose Protacio . Rizal Merchado Y Alonzo. He is the 7th out of 11 children he is problem born in June 19 1861 His birth place was calamba, laguna his nationality is Filipino he has 10 or more languages known his contributions are El Filibustirismo , Noli Metangere and the last that he wrote is Mi Ultimo Adios he is the founder of Laliga Filipina and the their news paper la solidaridad he did because of faithfully defending for our nation. Calamba City , El filibusterismo , Jose Rizal 848 Words | 4 Pages. the life, works and writings of Jose Rizal for rutgers admissions help, all school, colleges and universities. Students and teachers, in the past years, . have relied on nets in africa, books and rutgers essay periodicals from the library to do their studies on Rizal . The advent of Information Technology, however, facilitated the acquisition and sharing of ideas among peoples of varied persuasions throughout the globe. Survey results show that more and nets in africa more students are using the Internet to do research work. Admissions. This Jose Rizal website is, therefore, designed.
El filibusterismo , Filipino language , Jose Rizal 638 Words | 3 Pages. Thirty-five year old Jose Rizal was the greatest enemy of Spain in the cask of amontillado, the Philippines. Rutgers Essay. With his exceptional linguistic ability . (speaking twenty-two languages) and interest in problem solving pictures, the sciences and the arts, Rizal was most effective in his campaign for freedom as a writer. Admissions Essay. He wrote two novels: Noli Me Tanger and help El Filibusterismo. These were scathing indictments of Spanish tyranny and help of the church which came to acquire immense political power. 1891. Ghent, Belgium.
Jose Rizal writes that he is writing. Andres Bonifacio , Emilio Aguinaldo , Jose Burgos 1745 Words | 5 Pages. ? JOSE RIZAL AND ANDRES BONIFACI: THE FILIPINO HEROES A CRITICAL ANALYSIS ON THEIR NATIONALISTIC MOVEMENT I. Introduction . II. A Level Photography Coursework. Jose Rizal and his Nationalistic Principles III. Andres Bonifacio and his Nationalistic Principles IV. Anaylsis A. Rutgers Admissions Essay. Similarities B. Differences V. reflection VI. references I. Introduction Jose rizal and andress bonifacio, ever heard of nets in africa those name? what about their contribution and sacrifices for essay, you as a Filipino? have you heard/know. Andres Bonifacio , Emilio Aguinaldo , Filipino people 870 Words | 3 Pages. travel and adventures of german jose rizal. ?Travel and Adventures of rutgers admissions essay help Dr. Jose Rizal Jose Rizal is the most traveled Filipino hero in nets in africa, history. . Rutgers Admissions Essay Help. The travel and adventure of Jose Rizal are an important facet of his education and sophistication through which he learned the culture and politics of interest swap thesis other countries. Rizal’s first trip abroad was on 1882 bound for Spain.
The travel story of Jose Rizal constitutes part of rutgers admissions essay his struggle to interest bring changes in rutgers essay, his native land. Singapore The first stop over of Rizal on nets in africa, his way to rutgers admissions essay Spain is Singapore. El filibusterismo , French language , Jose Rizal 909 Words | 3 Pages. American revolutions. The most famous of the problem pictures Ilustrado’s was Jose Rizal . During the time of Rizal and after his . death the Philippines underwent its revolution from Spain. The revolution was triggered by a number of events and people most notably Jose Rizal and Andres Bonifacio. Admissions Help. Rizal with his education and wisdom from all around the world sought reform and equality among Spain, and Bonifacio wanted revolution. The extraordinary life of Jose Rizal changed the Philippines forever through his vision of. Andres Bonifacio , Emilio Aguinaldo , Jose Rizal 1461 Words | 5 Pages. hero…Dr.
Jose Rizal , who recently just turned 150 years old. Rate Thesis. Have you forgotten his heroic achievements? Do you know his . contributions in our country? Clearly, most of us know that his literary works particularly the 2 famous novels Noli Me Tangere and El fili awakened the national and political minds of our people. He wrote these in the hope of rutgers essay help securing political and social reforms for his country and at the same time educate his countrymen. Besides that, let us know more about jose rizal . Did. Andres Bonifacio , Calamba City , El filibusterismo 872 Words | 3 Pages. ? Rizal as a Hero What is the image that people represent Rizal in terms of ideology and his deeds . that he has depicted from photography coursework help, different novels and sophisticated poems? Did he pass his blood to the Filipinos which ignited them into a compassionate leader? He who is called Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda – the rutgers admissions essay help polymath that was reigned as the greatest hero of our nation. Staples Thesis. Jose Rizal was one of the rutgers essay aspiring novelists and painters of the past century.
But, today. Cesar Montano , El filibusterismo , Jose Rizal 1658 Words | 5 Pages. Jose Rizal Controversies Josephine Bracken Did Jose Rizal really marry Josephine Bracken? . Scholars say that there were no written accounts of the marriage between Rizal and Josephine, but Josephine claims that Rizal actually married him a day before his execution. Some even says Josephine was a spy of the Spanish government. One thing is for staples thesis, sure, Jose Rizal loved Josephine. Admissions. He wrote some poems about her and his love for her. A Level Coursework. I think these controversies about Josephine Bracken are unreasonable.
Jose Rizal , Josephine Bracken , Manila 934 Words | 4 Pages. Works and Writings 1. Brief . 3. Rutgers Admissions. Rizal Life Works Writings Summary 1 - Scribd . www.scribd.com/doc/68182467/ Rizal -Life-Works-Writings-Summary-1? * Oct 10, 2011 - Rizal Life Works Writings Summary 1 - Download as Text file (.txt), PDF File (.pdf), Word Doc (.doc) or read online. 4. Summary of Rizal's Life, Works and of amontillado Writings 188.8.131.52:8080/course/info.php?id=195? * This course presents a historical-thematic account of the life of Rizal , the society he lived and the works he. Andres Bonifacio , Jose Rizal , Katipunan 543 Words | 3 Pages. movie review Linggo, Agosto 05 2012 Jose Rizal Jose Rizal The Movie This movie is rutgers essay a 1998 . Filipino biographical film of the staples thesis Philippine national hero Jose Rizal directed by rutgers admissions, Marilou Diaz-Abaya and starring Cesar Montano as Jose Rizal . Dr.Jose Rizal , our National Hero was a noble person.
The movie was saying what was the real meaning of gcse media coursework Patriotism that was being instilled in every Filipino's mind. The movie focuses on the condition of the society and also to the government at the time. Actor , Cesar Montano , El filibusterismo 793 Words | 3 Pages. Philippines UNIVERSITY OF RIZAL SYSTEM Antipolo Campus NAME: Aileen J. Villacruz DATE: April 28, 2015 COURSE YEAR: BEEd III . PROFESSOR: Mr. Essay Help. Hernan E. Coursework. Garado “IN MEMORIAM” A Critique Paper for Jose Rizal (1998) Film As some says, Filipinos can easily forget.
If this is true, it’s certainly hard to admissions essay help remember those who have died over a century ago. This is the challenge faced by the Filipinos in celebration of the pictures 153rd anniversary of the birth of Jose Rizal . Since it’s been hundred. El filibusterismo , Filipino people , Jose Rizal 828 Words | 2 Pages. Facts About Dr. Jose Rizal Jose P. Rizal , a man of exceptional talent and admissions intelligence, is . the National Hero of the problem solving Philippines.
That’s a fact (and might be the only fact) that every Filipino knows about Jose Rizal . One might ask, “How about rutgers essay, his name?” Well, that might be uneasy because his full name is Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda. Let’s be honest that if we will be asked by some people about some things related to Rizal without the help of any references, we can only. Ambeth Ocampo , Ateneo de Manila University , Jose Rizal 1271 Words | 5 Pages. Philippine Revolution and Premium Rizal. An Essay On Rizal's Juventud flying. The writer exhorts the reader to smash these chains and see the light. Additionaly, Rizal . sees mother Spain as one who tries to make the youth see the light. Premium Essay On Rizal's Reforms if even those who made it do not know what they are implementing?
If they are to thesis put into action Rizals reforms regarding human rights, they should be appropriate. Premium Essay Of Rizal could read and write at the age of five. 10. Help. At the age of eight, Jose Rizal. Calamba City , Essay , Jose Rizal 647 Words | 3 Pages. The Modern Rizal is in Your Heart Frias, Jessica M. IV – St.
Paul “There can be no tyrants where there are no slaves.” a quotation of . Interest Thesis. Dr.Jose Rizal and also known as Pepe, a genius, well-traveled intellectual, the rutgers noble doctor, the problem solving pictures artist, the sophisticate, a writer and resistance leader in the Philippines during Spanish colonization. He said it to admissions break the consciousness of abuses that Filipino suffered in interest thesis, Spaniards and fellow Filipino. If Rizal is alive today, would he inspire us again. Dynasty , Early modern period , French Revolution 1309 Words | 3 Pages. Montejo, Philip John M. 07/21/12 2LM1 – RC Curriculum Vit? of rutgers essay Dr. Jose Rizal Personal Information * Name: . Essay. Jose Protasio Mercado Rizal Alonzo y Realonda * Address: Calle Real, Calamba, Laguna Philippines * Date of Birth: June 19, 1861 – December 30, 1896 * Place of Birth: Calamaba, Laguna * Citizenship: Filipino * Religion: Roman Catholic Protestant Masonry * Gender: Male Optional Personal Information * Marital Status: Married * Spouse's Name: Josephine. 1962 , 1967 , Ateneo de Manila University 831 Words | 5 Pages. March 2009 Did Rizal retract? Dr.
Jose Rizal has been a national iconic hero for over a hundred years. He has . Admissions Essay. been the german gcse coursework symbol of rutgers admissions essay help our country’s freedom, the epitome of nationalistic patriotism. Staples Thesis. He emanates martyrdom with every fiber of his being and everything else that he left the country to strive upon. His story has been narrated in countless books and articles. Essay. He became an extension of education where he was the main course in a classroom, an honorable feature of the cask essay Rizal . His totality as a person. Ateneo de Manila University , Catholic Church , Jose Rizal 1072 Words | 3 Pages. SUNNY SPAIN CHARACTERS: - PACIANO- Rizal’s brother who approved his secret departure - JOSE MERCADO- Rizal’s cousin from admissions essay help, Binan, Laguna; . the name which he use to go abroad to nets in africa avoid detection - DONATO LECHA- the ship captain he befriended from admissions essay, Asturias, Spain - BASILIO TEODORO MORAN- publisher of Diariong Tagalog - MARCELO H. DEL PILAR- translated his Spanish articles in Tagalog for publication - JOSE M. CECILIO (CHENGOY)- his friend who informed him of Leonor Rivera - DON PABLO ORTIGA Y.
Cortes Generales , Francisco Franco , Jose Rizal 731 Words | 3 Pages. in Dr. Rizal . His intelligence, talents and attitude did encourage as to imitate him to achieve our goals as a youth. Staples Thesis. We know that we cannot be . Rutgers Help. like Dr. Rizal . We cannot master 22 languages or even 10, excellent in lots of field of photography coursework profession, become marksmen and die with our hearts calm and our pulse beating normally.But there is one quality in rutgers essay, Dr Rizal that is common to media coursework all of us that can be acquired and developed by the most ordinary among us. That quality is dedication. Rutgers Admissions Help. Because Dr.
Rizal dedicated. 1008 Words | 3 Pages. Rizal Notes By fatz18angel | Feb. 2012 Zoom In Zoom Out Page 1 of 5 LECTURE NOTES I. Introduction and rate swap thesis significance of R.A. . 1425 ( Rizal Law) II. The world during Rizal’s times local conditions during Rizal’s times LECTURE NOTES I. Introduction and significance of R.A. 1425 ( Rizal Law) II. The world during Rizal’s times local conditions during Rizal’s times Chapter 1 Advent of a National Hero Chapter 2 Childhood Years in Calamba Chapter 3 Early Education in Calamba and. Ateneo de Manila University , Bankruptcy in rutgers admissions essay, the United States , Calamba City 437 Words | 4 Pages. RIZAL : Filipino patriots who were brutally tortured to implicate Rizal : * Deodato Arellano * Dr.
Pio Valenzuela * . Moises Salvador * Jose Dizon * Domingo Franco * Timoteo Paez December 29, 1896 – Rizal was formally notified of the court’s verdict: death. “Imitation of Christ” by Thomas a Kempis - always had with him ( Rizal ). Documentary and Testimonial evidence presented against Rizal : * A letter of Antonio Luna to Mariano Ponce * A letter of Rizal to his family . Filipino people , Katipunan , Manila 1159 Words | 5 Pages. epithet of Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Realonda, extricated our predecessors from being slaves by deploying a taciturn yet . strapping apparatus. It was for rate, his exertion that we are anon lodging on the snug threshold of freedom. By dint of his literary works ? essays , novels and articles. He brawled for our territory’s liberty hostile to the Spanish settlers who subjugated us for three hundred thirty three years. Rutgers Help. I staunchly cannot portray where we will be today if it was not for solving, Jose Rizal’s intrepid. El filibusterismo , Jose Rizal , Manila 1230 Words | 4 Pages. Sa Aking Mga Kababata : The first stanza speaks that Rizal wants us to love our own language and rutgers it is a gift from above that was given onto . us to be grateful of. It is a blessing that like any other nationalities we were gifted of. We are aware that Rizal was motivated to write this poem during the time of Spanish supremacy because we were under their colony.
He addresses us to love our language for it is our step towards liberty. Staples Thesis. As Rizal correlated it to a bird that can freely fly up in the sky. Bulacan , Filipino language , Filipino people 2241 Words | 9 Pages. 20th century, Rizal in the Philippines in the late 19th century. In an undated essay on education, La Instruccion, whose . manuscript is rutgers admissions essay help preserved in staples thesis, the Philippine National Library, Jose Rizal presented a critique on primary instruction in the Philippines during the rutgers admissions late 19th century and staples thesis provided suggestions for rutgers essay, its improvement.
Before taking further studies in Manila and Europe, Rizal was taught by his mother, private tutors and a small private school in Binan, thus his essay was based on. Andres Bonifacio , Christianity , Filipino language 856 Words | 3 Pages. DR. Nets In Africa. JOSE RIZAL Calle Real, Calamba, Laguna Philippines DR. JOSE RIZAL Calle Real, Calamba, . Rutgers Admissions Essay Help. Laguna Philippines Curriculum Vitae PERSONAL IDENTITY Full Name : Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda Sex : Male Place/Date of Birth : Calamba, Laguna/ June 19,1861 Religion : Roman Catholic Marital Status : Single Address : Calle Real, Calamba, Laguna Philippines Mother’s Name : Teodora Alonzo y Quintos Father’s Name : Francisco Mercado Rizal LANGUAGES. 1953 , 1956 , 1962 1175 Words | 5 Pages. on an a level coursework help article that appeared in the other newspaper recently: “If Rizal were alive, he’d visit his old Jesuit mentors here”.
It was a . categorical statement and rutgers did not reflect the controversy on his alleged retraction and how a former Jesuit teacher played an nets in africa important part in persuading him to do so. It is said that this former Jesuit teacher had come carrying a statue of the admissions essay Sacred Heart that was supposedly carved by Jose Rizal while a student at a level help, the Ateneo. The Jesuit, at least through some. Antonio de Morga , Ateneo de Manila University , Colonialism 1145 Words | 4 Pages. family?” A . Jose M. Cecilio B . Jose Rizal C. Silvestre Ubaldo D. Doctor Uliman 2. Who wrote the German poem . Rutgers. that Rizal translate into gcse coursework Tagalog? A. Fray Rodriguez B. Lt. Jose Taviel de Andrade C. Admissions Help. Father Rector Gregorio Echavarria D. Von Wildenath 3. Pictures. He is a liberal-minded Spaniard, who knows that Rizal life was in Jeopardy because the friars were powerful. Admissions Help. A. Fr. Francisco de Paula Sanchez B. Von Wildenath C. Governor General Terrero D. Nets In Africa. Lt.
Jose Taviel De Andrade 4. Rizal wrote down. Andrade , CALABARZON , Calamba City 803 Words | 3 Pages. rizal life works and essay writings chapter 2. Rizal life works and writings chapter 20 summary Free Essays on Summary Of Rizal S Life Works And Writings Chapter . The Cask Of Amontillado Essay. 1 for students. RAFAEL CHRISTIAN P. NONATO CHAPTER 20 Ophthalmic Surgeon. Chapter 20 opthalmic surgeon in essay, hong kong Jan Michael de Asis 15,790 views Writings in London Other than annotating Morgas work, Rizal wrote a lot.
Jose Rizal Life Work And Writing Chapter 3 Free Essays 1 - 20 Rizal Life Works Writings Summary 1 - Scribd a Genius Writer, Scientist and National Hero. Rizal life. 1951 , 1973 , 1976 1184 Words | 4 Pages. ?LETTERS TO THE YOUNG WOMEN OF MALOLOS On February 22, 1889, Rizal wrote the famous letter now known as “To the Young Women of Malolos” . Media Coursework. as per rutgers help the request of Marcelo H. del Pilar. This famous letter was written by Rizal in Tagalog while he was residing in nets in africa, London. The story behind this letter is as follows: On December 12, 1888, a group of 20 young women from Malolos petitioned Governor-General Weyler for permission to open a “night school” so that they could study Spanish under Teodoro Sandiko.
Emilio Aguinaldo , Filipino language , Filipino mestizo 1596 Words | 4 Pages. summary The El Filibusterismo is the sequel of the rutgers admissions essay Noli Me Tangere. Both nationalistic novels were written by Dr. Jose . Coursework. Rizal . In Noli Me Tangere, Rizal described the rutgers essay full extent of slavery and thesis abuse suffered by the native Indios at the hands of Spanish authorities. Hence in this second book, Rizal pictured a society at the brink of revolution. The Indios have started to adapt liberal ideas and guerrilla factions have started to revolt against the government. The advent of the novel starts. Andres Bonifacio , El filibusterismo , Jose Rizal 1061 Words | 4 Pages. Decision to admissions essay help return home After the publication of Noli Me Tangere and gcse coursework the popularity of it in the Philippines, Rizal was warned by Paciano, . Silvertre Ubaldo, Chengoy, and some of his friends not ti return home because he was hunted by the friars. Rutgers Admissions Essay. But he didn’t listen, he has obligations and priorities.
One of these obligations was the operation of his mother’s eye and to serve his people against interest swap thesis the Spanish tyrants. His priorities in how the Filipinos touch by his writing and rutgers how his beloved Leonor. CALABARZON , Calamba City , Jose Rizal 723 Words | 3 Pages. Birth and Family Life Jose Rizal was born on June 19, 1861. It was a Wednesday evening in Calamba, Laguna, and his mother . nearly died in the process. He was baptized three days later, on June 22, by the parish priest of the Catholic church in german, his town, Fr. Rufino Collantes from Batangas. His godfather, Fr. Pedro Casanas, was a close family friend. Rizal's mother named him after St.
Joseph, to whom she was ardently devoted. He was born in Calamba, Laguna (a few kilometers south of Manila) on. Calamba City , Jose Rizal , Laguna 1125 Words | 4 Pages. The Death of Jose Rizal (Ambeth Ocampo) The Death of Jose Rizal : Ambeth Ocampo’s version Editor’s note: The following is the article written by . Rutgers Admissions. today’s most famous Filipino historian Ambeth R. Ocampo on media, Jose Rizal’s death. Rutgers Admissions Essay Help. Simply entitled, “The Death of photography coursework help Jose Rizal ,” this historical piece by the current head of the National Historical Institute (of the Philippines) could be deemed refreshing and controversial, as it offers several unpopular and unorthodox accounts of rutgers admissions essay what (presumably) transpired on nets in africa, the day of Rizal’s execution. For. Ambeth Ocampo , Ateneo de Manila University , Jose Rizal 1203 Words | 4 Pages.
the sequel of Jose Rizal’s first novel (Noli Me Tangere). Admissions Help. * The title of Jose Rizal’s second novel was based on his . Nets In Africa. experience in 1872 when he first heard the rutgers admissions help word “filibustero” during the height of the rate issue on GOM-BUR-ZA’s execution. * The English version of admissions essay help this novel is entitled “The Reign of Greed.” * A year after his stint as a town doctor in Calamba, Jose Rizal made changes in the plot and edited some chapters of the novel. * Gregorio Zaide noted that Rizal finished the original. El filibusterismo , Jose Rizal , Laguna 1163 Words | 4 Pages. treason, sedition and photography forming illegal societies, the prosecution arguing that he was responsible for the deeds of those who read his writings. Rutgers Essay. During his . Problem. imprisonment Rizal began to formulate in his mind his greatest poem who others later entitle, “My Last Farewell.” (later concealed in an alcohol cooking lamp) December 12 --- Rizal appears in a courtroom where the judges made no effort to check those who cry out for rutgers admissions, his death. 1896, December 15. -- Wrote an address to insurgent Filipinos to lay. 1967 , 1970 , 1972 987 Words | 3 Pages. Students were divided into media two groups, namely; RomanEmpire consisting of (internos) boarders, and the Carthaginian Empire composed of externos . (non-boarders). The Ateneo students in rutgers admissions essay help, Rizal ¶s time wore a uniform which consisted of hemp-fabrictrousers and striped cotton coat. The coat material was called rayadillo. Coursework Help. Jose Rizal school is for ilustrado family, thus, for admissions essay, rich family. Since we don¶t belong to thislevel of society, my family can only a level photography coursework help afford to the school with less expense.
And so, I was enrolled. Academic term , Ateneo de Manila University , Calamba City 1396 Words | 4 Pages. I- INTRODUCTION The name of the film was Jose Rizal , and was directed by Marilou Diaz-Abaya. I can say it was the title of the . film because this movie sees all the achievements of Rizal in our country and admissions essay help he fought us against the hand of the Spain, so he deserves the title to his name Jose Rizal . The movie tells the life story of Jose Rizal , the national hero of the Philippines. It covers his life from his childhood to problem solving pictures his execution at the hands of the rutgers admissions essay help Spanish forces occupying the coursework help Philippines. Andres Bonifacio , Calamba City , Jose Rizal 1494 Words | 4 Pages. ? 1. Admissions. RIZAL AND HIS TIME PROLOGUEThe world of interest swap thesis Rizal’s Times 2. Objectives? 1. Discuss the admissions essay historical background of the world and of the . Philippines during Rizal’s time.? 2. Identify the of amontillado essay different evils done by essay help, the Spanish authorities in nets in africa, the Philippines.? 3. Appreciate the events that led to the positive change in the lives of the 3. Before the birth of rutgers admissions essay help Rizal . 4. ? Feb. 19, 1861 – the liberal Czar Alexander II issued a proclamation emancipating 22,500,000 serfs to appease the a level photography coursework rising.
American Civil War , Colonialism , Franco-Prussian War 946 Words | 3 Pages. Relevance of Jose Rizal Today Dr Jose Rizal , national hero of the Philippines The following . article about Dr Jose Rizal is widely circulated on the Internet in celebration of Rizal Day which is essay observed every 30th day of December, the day he was executed in staples thesis, Bagumbayan by Spanish authorities, more than 100 years ago. To preserve the originality of the report,I am presenting it the same way it is found on the Internet and as written by rutgers admissions help, two sources of information, for a level photography help, which I express my indebtedness. Andres Bonifacio , Jose Rizal , Katipunan 1964 Words | 7 Pages. Characters of the Movie • Cesar Montano Jose Rizal • Joel Torre Ibarra/Simoun • Jaime Fabregas Luis Taviel de Andrade . Rutgers Admissions Essay. • Gloria Diaz Teodora Alonso • Gardo Versoza Andres Bonifacio • Monique Wilson Maria Clara • Chin Chin Gutierrez Josephine Bracken • Mickey Ferriols Leonor Rivera • Pen Medina Paciano Mercado • Peque Gallaga Archbishop Bernardo Nozaleda, OP • Bon Vibar Blanco • Subas Herrero Alcocer • Tony Mabesa Polavieja • Alexis Santaren Olive . Andres Bonifacio , Cesar Montano , Jose Rizal 769 Words | 4 Pages. Rizal in the Big Screen: A Summary Paper on Jose Rizal the Movie It was finished.
Jose Rizal’s . life, works, and writings finally culminated in problem solving, the vast expanse of admissions essay help land facing the Manila Bay where he stood in front of the firing squad and of amontillado essay the teeming crowd of Filipinos and Spaniards all under the rutgers morning sun of problem December 30, 1896. This is just one of the memorable scenes in the film based on his life, not only for its historical significance, but for its cinematography and rutgers focus on production. Andres Bonifacio , Cesar Montano , El filibusterismo 1435 Words | 4 Pages. ? JOSE RIZAL , RTU STYLE When viewed from a distance, it looks like a stone guardian on a platform overlooking three massive pools . of water (with diving boards, as students call it). At night, it seems like it’s guarding a door to of amontillado essay another realm, much like the gatekeeper in rutgers essay help, the film Thor. What’s odd, though, is that it wears an overcoat. Interest Rate. But of course, it is Jose Rizal . Thousands of people pass by the monument in the University every day. For those who have seen it a countless times, it’s no unusual. Cesar Montano , Jose Rizal , Manila 1242 Words | 3 Pages. Letter of rutgers help Retraction of Jose Rizal. 1896 Jose Rizal …….
CHAPTER 22 - EXILE IN DAPITAN father antonio obach father pablo pastells don ricardo carnicero . Interest. wencesiao e. Admissions Help. retana debate(4 letters) sep 1, 1892 nov 11, 1892 jan 9, 1893 apr 4, 1893 indivisual judgement is pictures a gift from rutgers admissions essay, God binigyan ni pastell si rizal ng book na THE IMITATION OF CHRIST napaaway kay juan lardet dahit sa business dahil poor quality yung ibang logs na binenta ni rizal antonio miranda- merchant na kaibigan ni rizal 3 bahay ni rizal . 1967 , 1972 , 1977 405 Words | 4 Pages. ?Life, Works Writings of Rizal Every Filipino should know the a level photography coursework help national hero’s life, his youth, his brilliant works, as well as his love . Rutgers Admissions Essay. life, and the role he played in the Philippine Revolution. Every Filipino should know his dreams and aspiration for his country and for his fellowmen and the magnitude and intensity of his love for the land of his birth. Filipino should know how he suffered, endured, and essay died. Activity 1 : You are required to read the Rizal’s Life, Works and Writings. Ateneo de Manila University , Calamba City , Jose Burgos 1851 Words | 5 Pages.
GROUP 2 :RIZAL’S ESSAYS ORTEGA, OLLERO PASTRANA PENALOSA PFLEIDER To the young women of Malolos (London, February 22, . Admissions Essay Help. 1889) This famous letter was written by Rizal in Tagalog, while he was reading in London, upon the request of interest M.H. del Pilar. The story behind this letter is this; On December 12, 1888, a group of twenty young women of Malolos petitioned Goveror-General Weyler for permission to open a “night school” so that they might study Spanish under Teodoro Sandiko. Andres Bonifacio , Bulacan , Filipino language 851 Words | 4 Pages.
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Gerenciamento de Enxoval Passo a Passo. Estamos a poucas horas da nossa visita de auditoria nos setores de responsabilidade da Hotelaria e um dos trabalhos que arduamente viemos desenvolvendo ao longo desses quase 2 anos, foi a reestruturacao dos processos de rouparia e gerenciamento de enxoval. Cada pessoa reage a espera de uma maneira. Rutgers Admissions Essay. Pode ser engracado ou esquisito, mas minha reacao em momentos tensos e escrever. Nets In Africa. Assim parece que organizo melhor minhas ideias, meu raciocinio e consigo me concentrar em outra coisa alem da importancia do evento que se aproxima. Portanto, como um super aquecimento previo para o maior momento da verdade antes presenciado… com voces… (suspense….) Gerenciamento de Enxoval Passo a Passo! Maior Desafio : atingir e manter a quantidade ideal de enxoval para atender as necessidades da assistencia. 1. Essay. Qual e a quantidade ideal? *(quantidade de leitos x quantidade de trocas) resultado x 4 (ou 5) 2. The Cask Of Amontillado. Qual e a quantidade real? * ultimo inventario.
(entre quantidade ideal e quantidade real) = resultado + (quantidade de baixas) + (a quantidade da evasao) = QUANTIDADE NECESSARIA PARA REPOSICAO. Somente para essa primeira parte voce precisara levantar: # um controle detalhado das baixas (ou seja, pecas que sao tiradas de circulacao tanto para reaproveitamento quanto para descarte), # de inventario e # de consumo de enxoval.* *nem sempre voce tera um numero homogenio de trocas. Essay. Entao, procure descobrir quantas pecas voce precisa para abastecer o hospital durante 24 horas. Conseguiu descobrir e adequar a quantidade ideal? Otimo, entao vamos para o segundo passo: Otimizar recursos, Identificando as Causas de Evasao e as Causas das Baixas, ou melhor, as Causas de Desgaste de Enxoval. Para as causas de evasao , voce tera que investigar mesmo: Procure alinhar um processo e controle de retirada e devolucao de enxoval com as equipes de remocao e transporte de pacientes – principalmente se essas forem terceirizadas; procure avaliar os indices de relave da lavanderia (os niveis aceitaveis estao entre 8 e 12%, dependendo do perfil e especialidade do hospital). Staples Thesis. Caso os indices de relave* estejam superiores a 12%, procurar saber o motivo (pois pecas estao indo e nao estao retornando).
Procure tambem ter camareiras (ou funcionarias) diretamente nas alas, que sejam responsaveis pelo controle absoluto da distribuicao das pecas nos quartos. Essay. Nao esqueca de seguir o fluxo de obito: pode ser que as pecas estejam indo muito mais longe do que a nossa imaginacao possa alcancar… (tudo bem, nao foi engracado) . Para as causas de desgaste , acrescente 4 ou 5 colunas no seu controle de baixas: furos/manchas/ rasgos/ desgaste/ dano quimico. German Gcse. Ao final do mes, avalie o total de cada causa, qual tem maior incidencia e como pode ser corrigida (continue lendo para umas ideias) e entao voce tera uma Metodologia de Controle de Desgaste de Enxoval. Tenha acesso a palestra online com Case completo e detalhado da experiencia que originou essa publicacao aqui. Para ter uma analise ainda mais criteriosa sobre o desgaste, avalie a vida util / durabilidade das pecas. Rutgers Admissions. No mesmo controle de baixas, anote a data que essa peca foi colocada em uso.
O que?! Voce nao anotou o mes e o ano na etiqueta? Entao e hora de comecar a anotar… De cada mes, veja qual foi a peca que durou mais, a que durou menos e tambem calcule uma media entre todas (ou entre aquelas que apresentam uma variacao comum). Problem. Depois, tire a durabilidade media do ano. Admissions Essay. Esse sera seu indice de desgaste . The Cask Of Amontillado. *Esse indicador facilita muito seu planejamento orcamentario, alem do planejamento de reposicao. Avalie tambem o uso desnecessario e o uso errado, ou seja, aquele cobertor que e utilizado como coxim, aquele lencol que vira tapete ou a toalha que e utilizada para conter um vazamento. Rutgers Admissions Help. Proponha e implante alternativas adequadas para essas finalidades, pecas reaproveitadas para contensao de vazamentos seria uma delas. Pictures. Em resumo, todo uso desnecessario implica diretamente no desgaste das pecas , pois significa aumento na quantidade de lavagens. Admissions Essay Help. Reveja tambem seu mapeamento de distribuicao de roupas: pecas a disposicao alem da quantidade necessaria implicam diretamente em desperdicio, ja que… “ta sobrando mesmo!” . Realizar treinamentos de conscientizacao com a enfermagem mostrando pecas danificadas pelo mau uso, manchas de arraste, fotos de como nao utilizar (…) bem como o impacto financeiro dessa perda, traz resultados excelentes. Distribuir corretamente o peso sujo nos centros de custos de origem tambem e uma forma de engajar todos quanto ao desperdicio no uso.
Terceiro Passo: Avalie os Resultados: Apos a implantacao das melhorias atuando nas causas de desgaste, avalie os resultados pelo indice de quilo paciente / dia* porque o consumo por paciente pode ter tido uma reducao significativa, mas com o aumento da taxa de ocupacao dificilmente teremos um dado fidedigno para mensurar essa reducao. Avalie o comportamento das baixas tambem. The Cask Of Amontillado. Elas devem diminuir, ou entao, a qualidade das pecas precisa aumentar… Qual foi o impacto financeiro da reducao de uso de enxoval? E com a reducao de baixas? E com a reducao da taxa de evasao? Quanto voce deixou de gastar?
Divulgue, isso aumentara o comprometimento das pessoas. Quarto passo: Comprometa e Envolva as Pessoas. Continue com o trabalho de conscientizacao, divulgando os resultados obtidos. Mostre o comportamento de consumo das areas, forcando uma competicao saudavel pela reducao no uso. Avalie seu fornecedor (caso a lavanderia seja terceirizada). Essay Help. Qual e a pontualidade da entrega, os funcionarios estao devidamente uniformizados, portanto cracha e EPIs?
Quantas pecas com avarias (manchas, furos, rasgos ou sem condicoes de uso) sao encaminhadas no meio da roupa pronta para uso? Como e o atendimento, a correcao dos pontos observados? Havendo possibilidade, liste esses indicadores em um SLA delimitando as margens aceitaveis e avalie mensalmente. *Indice de Relave = peso sujo total /dividido/ pelo peso limpo total. *Indice de Evasao= ultimo inventario – menos – [inventario atual – menos (total de baixas do periodo + reposicoes ou compras) ] = resultado dividido pela diferenca de meses entre um inventario e outro. *Quilo Paciente / Dia = total de quilo de roupa suja / total de pacientes (esse indicador fica melhor quando avaliado por area . Nao realizamos esse post (baseado no nosso trabalho) com base em nenhuma referencia bibliografica, mas sim com base nos ensinamentos e orientacoes de profissionais referencia da area, grandes amigos e professores. Segue portanto nosso reconhecimento e agradecimento ao: Marcio Granato, Diretor Operacional da MaxLav Services e. Ana Paula Araujo, Coordenadora de Governanca do Hospital Insraelita Albert Einstein e nossa querida professora de Gerenciamento de Enxoval no curso de Pos Graduacao em Hotelaria Hospitalar da mesma instituicao.
Tenha acesso a palestra online com Case completo e detalhado da experiencia que originou essa publicacao aqui. Idealizadora, criadora e principal colunista do site HotelariaHospitalar.Com. Especialista em reestruturacao da area de hotelaria nos hospitais com foco em certificacao de qualidade e humanizacao, sendo palestrante em eventos nacionais e internacionais. Socia fundadora da empresa Hotelaria Hospitalar Comunicacao e Treinamentos, possui MBA em Gestao em Saude, Pos Graduacao em Hotelaria Hospitalar e Graduacao em Hotelaria. Empreendedora, Empresaria, Palestrante. German. Socia Fundadora da Hotelaria Hospitalar Comunicacao e Treinamentos. Rutgers Essay Help. Formada em Hotelaria pelo SENAC, MBA Gestao em Saude pela UNIFESP, pos graduada em Hotelaria Hospitalar pelo Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa do Hospital Albert Einstein. Problem Pictures. Ingles fluente.
Alemao Intermediario. Vaga para Coordenacao de Hotelaria Hospitalar. Implantacao da Hospitalidade Passo a Passo. Gestor de Nutricao Hospitalar: QUEREMOS SUA RECEITA. Hospital Auxiliadora e Hotelaria Hospitalar: Humanizacao e Excelencia em Atendimento. 38 thoughts on rutgers, “ Gerenciamento de Enxoval Passo a Passo ” Parabens pelo trabalho realizado. Staples Thesis. Boa sorte. Aproveito seu comentario para incentivar que as pessoas deixem sugestoes, ideias e dicas tambem. Tive um pouco para passar, mas tenho muito mais ainda a aprender. Admissions Help. Vamos trocar experiencias!
Vou verificar com o Hospital em que trabalho se posso publicar a apresentacao de resultados desse gerenciamento. Ola Ana, parabens pela excelente materia!! A pratica e tudo! Tenho certeza que este post vai dar um norte para muitos colegas hoteleiros!! Obrigada pela visita e pelo comentario! A area de Gerenciamento de Enxoval representou pra mim um grande desafio e uma excelente oportunidade de aprendizado. Gcse. Ainda temos muito a aprender a aprimorar… de qualquer maneira, espero que nossa experiencia ajude sim nossos colegas hoteleiros! Continuamos aguardando seus excelentes insights sobre Gerenciamento de Leitos!
Parabens pelo sucesso e pela lideranca da Sociedade Mineira de Hotelaria Hospitalar! Na espera de nos reencontrarmos em breve, te mando um grande abraco diretamente do interior(rrr) de Sao Paulo. Obrigada Ana, abraco apertado(rrrr) recebido!! rsrs 2013 conto com voce em nosso Forum mineiro! =D Com certeza, Mylaidy, estarei em Minas com o maior prazer. Obrigada pela visita. Qual e um indice “aceitavel” de evasao de enxoval? Obrigada pela visita e comentario. Em discussao com profissionais da area, concluimos que nenhum indice de evasao e aceitavel. Rutgers Admissions Help. MAS o indice medio que temos visto trocando experiencia entre gestores de hotelaria hospitalar, varia entre 3 e 5%, reforcando -nao que seja aceitavel-. E complicado aceitar que nosso enxoval se perca, ainda que o indice seja abaixo de 3%. Mantenha-se conectada, traremos novidades em breve!
Obrigada Ana, pelo retorno. Interest Thesis. Eu ate coloquei entre aspas o aceitavel, pois eu nao consigo aceitar por menor que seja a evasao, mas infelizmente essa e uma realidade da nossa area. Rutgers. Muito atenta para saber das novidades. Of Amontillado Essay. Manterei contato sim. Verdade, Elisemary, eu percebi! =D. Vamos mantendo contato sim! Obrigada novamente pela visita e comentario, havendo contribuicoes, o espaco esta aberto para publicacao! Estava realizando algumas pesquisas sobre Gerenciamento de Enxoval Hospitalar quando achei este seu passo e passo.
Sensacional, muito claro objetivo e possivel. Me interessei bastante tambem pelo case mas nao esta mais disponivel. Rutgers Admissions Essay Help. Como faco para ter acesso? E para estar disponivel sim, vou verificar o que esta acontecendo. Obrigada por avisar! Envio um email assim que tiver corrigido o problema. Gostaria de saber como esta o percentual aceitavel de retorno da lavanderia Enxoval utilizado X enxoval Limpo ainda sao 10%? Obrigada pela visita e comentario. Esse percentual depende muito do perfil do hospital. Photography Coursework Help. Normalmente varia entre 08 e 12%.
Mantenha-se conectada, estamos preparando muitas novidades ja para o primeiro semestre. Desculpe nao tenho muito conhecimento em indicadores e estou aguadando uma oportunidade no setor para o cargo de Lider de Hotelaria. Por favor como posso montar uma planilha de Kg paciente x dia? Poderia me ajudar fico agradecido. Obrigada pela sua visita e comentario! Mantenha-se conectado, teremos uma palestra especifica sobre indicadores muito em breve.
Realizei uma compra como mostra abaixo e ate agora nao chegou! O tema e sobre gerenciamento de enxoval hospitalar. Ola Selma Maria Sanchez Malo Biscaro, No dia 03/02/2015, voce realizou um pagamento atraves do PagSeguro para Hotelaria Hospitalar no valor de R$ 60,00. Rutgers Essay Help. Caso tenha ocorrido algum problema com a sua compra, converse com o vendedor para verificar o motivo. Gostaria de saber em que situacao esta essa compra. Enviamos seu acesso no dia 4 de Fevereiro, bem como certificado e a apresentacao de slides, assim que o Pagseguro nos confirmou sua compra. Acabamos de reenviar, por gentileza, verifique se o email chegou com sucesso. Help. Caso contrario entre em contato pelo email email@example.com com um email alternativo e estaremos reenviando.
Obrigada por ter solicitado acesso a gravacao da nossa palestra. Permanecemos a disposicao. me adiciona no grupo, tambem trabalho na area hospitalar. Aprovaremos sua entrada assim que solicitar. Rutgers Admissions. #128521; Gostaria de verificar se o curso de gerenciamento do enxoval se toda a equipe de lavanderia pode assistir, tenho esta duvida poruqe a inscricao esta no meu nome ha algum problema? A licenca para assistir e individual. A Level Coursework Help. Temos opcoes para grupos tambem, voce pode negociar por email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Atuo no Hospital das Clinicas ha 04 anos como diretora administrativa, e ha 01 mes assumi o desafio de participar do projeto de implantacao de locacao de enxoval hospitalar, ate o momento utilizamos proprio. O gigantismo de Complexo Hospitalar exige um certo cuidado nos gerenciamento do enxoval. Solicito informacao referente os controles mais efetivos e quais os indicadores ideais a serem utilizados. Fico no aguardo de sua orientacoes e informacoes.
Walkiria Carvalho de Brito. Atuo no Hospital das Clinicas ha 04 anos como diretora administrativa, e ha 01 mes assumi o desafio de participar do projeto de implantacao de locacao de enxoval hospitalar, ate o momento utilizamos proprio. O gigantismo de Complexo Hospitalar exige um certo cuidado nos gerenciamento do enxoval. Solicito informacao referente os controles mais efetivos e quais os indicadores ideais a serem utilizados. Fico no aguardo de suas orientacoes e informacoes. Walkiria Carvalho de Brito. Fico muito feliz com sua visita ao nosso site e comentario. Percebi que voce esta inscrita para nosso 1? evento sobre Hotelaria Hospitalar, Humanizacao e Qualidade.
Na palestra do Marcelo Boeger, ele estara abordando os indicadores da area de hotelaria. Alem da palestra, teremos oportunidade de conversar pessoalmente e trocar mais experiencias. Admissions Help. Aqui no site mesmo disponibilizo o case desse texto “Gerenciamento de Enxoval Passo a Passo”. Mas conversaremos melhor pessoalmente. Interest Rate Swap. Sera um prazer recebe-la! Ana Augusta estou com muita dificuldade preciso montar um pop de rouparia e kits hospitalar mais nao estou conseguindo me ajuda . Ana Augusta estou com muita dificuldade preciso montar um pop de rouparia e kits hospitalar mais nao estou conseguindo me ajuda desde ja agradeco . Nossa que materia incrivel, adorei. Parabens me ajudou muito. Ola Ana Augusta, tudo bem? Tive o prazer de conhece-la no evento hospital quality management em 2014 e guardei o seu contato. Sou gerente da qualidade de um hospital publico no ABC-SP e em reestruturacao de algumas rotinas da hotelaria , surgiu a duvida referente a utilizacao de kits de enxoval. Admissions Essay. gostaria de saber se o uso de kits de enxoval tras beneficio para o hospital como , diminuicao do indice de evasao, diminuicao do uso exagerado dos profissionais da saude? Aguardo um retorno.
Ola Elenice, como vai?! Agradeco o contato e comentario, estou bem, obrigada! Na minha opiniao, o uso de kit agiliza o processo de distribuicao do enxoval nas areas (ou rouparias satelites), facilita o transporte dessas pecas para o apartamento e leitos e tambem inibe a questao de contaminacao por serem pecas acondicionadas em embalagens. MAS nao vejo impacto na reducao dos indices de evasao ou uso indiscriminado: pelo contrario. Quando um profissional da enfermagem ou hotelaria precisa de uma unica peca e todo enxoval esta disposto em kits, ele vai acabar inutilizando (ou expondo a contaminacao) todas as demais pecas da embalagem para utilizar uma. Solving Pictures. Para evasao tambem: e comum (pelo menos ja presenciei esse fato) encontrarmos kits completos guardados onde nao deveriam. Isso e so minha opiniao.
Vou colocar sua pergunta em nosso grupo de debates do Facebook e ver o que os outros gestores comentam! Entre e acompanhe as discussoes! Oi boa tarde. Essay Help. Adorei muito bom, gostaria de aprender mais sobre. Nets In Africa. Se alguma vez vai ter no Rio de Janeiro?? Agradecemos muito pelo seu comentario e visita! Sim, podemos ir ao Rio de Janeiro assim que nos convidarem #128521; Mas a grande vantagem de termos o conteudo gravado e que ele vai ate voce onde estiver, e ainda pode ser revisto quando e quantas vezes desejar por um periodo determinado de tempo.
Espero encontra-la pessoalmente! Podem me ajudar? Preciso saber qual e o indice de evasao mensal aceitavel no mercado. Ola Marta, boa tarde! =D. Obrigada pela visita e comentario.
Sua pergunta e realmente interessante. Rutgers Admissions. Em nossas trocas de experiencias com outros hospitais, constatamos que existe uma media de evasao de 5%, mas nao consideramos essa taxa como aceitavel. German Gcse Coursework. E possivel reduzir esses indices para menos de 2% com um controle efetivo dos processos de distribuicao, abastecimento, entrada e saida de enxoval. Rutgers Help. Ainda assim, nenhum indice de perda ou extravio de pecas poderia ser considerado como aceitavel. Esperamos ter ajudado! Mantenha-se conectada, um grande abraco! Deixe uma resposta Cancelar resposta.
Hotelaria Hospitalar Responde: O que Caracteriza Hotelaria Hospitalar? Hotelaria Hospitalar Entrevista: Susan Stone CEO SHARP Coronado.