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Engineering and Emerging Technologies . On Spring. Keynote Presentation, LT Conference, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, December 2011. Educational Pedagogy and white, Engineering . Invited Presentation, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt, December 2011. Engineering and Pedagogy . Keynote Presentation, CSEV Conference, Madrid, Spain, November 2011. Reaching for essays the Stars . Keynote Presentation, ICBL Conference, Guatamala, Guatamala, November 2011. There is white Pedagogy and Then There is Pedagogy . Keynote Presentation, EDUCON 2011, Amman, Jordan, April 2011. Leadership in Engineering Education , Keynote Presentation, IEEE AndesCon, Bogota, Colombia, November 2010. Engineering, Pedagogy and Curriculum , Invited Presentation, Republic Polytech University, Singapore, July 2010. Engineering Education and the Noble Prize , Invited Presentation, Monash University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, July 2010. Big Vision and Small Vision Need for Leadership , Invited Presentation, Massachusetts Computer Using Educators (MassCUE) Annual Leadership Conference, March 2010. Engineering Education, Pedagogy and Curriculum , Invited Presentation, Hindustani University, Chennai, India, July 2009.
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Pedagogy as an Emerging Technology , Invited Presentation, IEEE Region 1 Summer Leadership Conference, Syracuse, New York USA, August 2006. Transforming Students into business writing Leaders, Colleagues, Innovators , Keynote Address, I-EENL Conference, University of white sox fatherhood, Campinas, Campinas, Brazil, August 2006. The Science Behind the Art of evaluation, Teaching Science: A Two-fold Vision for white essay 2020 , Keynote Address, First Saudi Engineering Forum, King Fahd University of thesis about electronics, Petroleum and Minerials, Dhahran, Saudia Arabia, May 2006. When Power and Authority are in white essay, Your Pocket! , Keynote Address, Education Forum, Belgrade, Serbia, February 2006. checkmark; An Affective Model of the thesis electronics Interplay Between Emotions and Learning (co-author), Proceedings of the white IEEE International Conference of Advanced Learning Technologies, pp. 43-46, Madison, Wisconsin USA, August 2001. This publication received the conference's Best Paper Award . Essays On Spring. It receives 300+ citations per year in other scholarly papers and white essay, journal articles! The pedagogical concepts in this publication led to performance satisfaction 2 large National Science Foundation (NSF) grants, a personal IEEE educational achievement award, and white sox fatherhood, a personal educational pedagogy achievement award from the International Society for essays Engineering Pedagogy (IGIP). checkmark; Mapping Legal Metaphors in Cyberspace: Evolving the sox fatherhood Underlying Paradigm , The John Marshall Journal of Information Technology Privacy Law , 16 J. For A Statement. Marshall J. Computer Info. L. 579 (1998) published by the John Marshall School of Law.
In their day, the two law journal publications (above) were important works when dealing with computers and white essay, computer network use policy, especially in on spring, regard to privacy related issues. My first professional publication. Recognizing the BIG Barriers: Integrating Technology into Your School! , Teachers.Net Gazette , May 2015. The Two Faces of Pre-University/K-12 Education Efforts , The Interface, August 2010. Why Should We Care About the white Pedagogy We Use? , The Interface, August 2010. Virtual Laboratories: Enhancing Deep Learning in writing, Model-based Knowledge Domains , IEEE Transactions on Education, February 2008. Web-based Instruction: Doing Things Better and Doing Better Things , IEEE Transactions on Education, November 2005. Mathematics: Teaching, Assessment, and white, Accountability Using Technology , MultiMedia Internet @ Schools , September-October 2004.
Wearable Computers , MultiMedia Internet @ Schools , July-August 2004. Acquiring Weapons of Mass Instruction , OnCue, Massachusetts Computer Using Educators, Inc., Spring 2004. Here's to Your Student's Health , MultiMedia Internet @ Schools , May-June 2004. Educational Pedagogy, Affective State, and Learning (co-author), Proceedings of formula thesis statement, SITE 2004 (Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education), Atlanta, Georgia USA, March 2004. Emotions, Learning and a Drama Model (co-author), Proceedings of LearnTec 2004, Karlsruhe, Germany, February 2004. Multimedia Didactics: eLearning and Emotions (co-author), Proceedings of LearnTec 2004, Karlsruhe, Germany, February 2004. Cognition, Affective State and Teaching Deep Reasoning (co-author), Proceedings of the International Conference on Cognition and sox fatherhood essay, Neural Systems, Boston, May 2003.
Analytical Models of parker shepherd essay, Emotions, Learning and Their Relationships (co-author), Proceedings of the white sox fatherhood International Conference on parker shepherd essay, Virtual Worlds and Simulations (VWSIM'03), International Society for Modeling and white sox fatherhood essay, Simulation, Orlando, Florida, USA, January 2003. Experiences with Civility and the Role of a Social Contract in Virtual Communities (co-author), Proceedings of the American Association of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) Fall Workshops, North Falmouth, Mass. USA, November 2002. A Pedagogical Model for Teaching Scientific Domain Knowledge (co-author), Proceedings of the IEEE Frontiers in business writing, Education Conference, Boston, Mass. USA November 2002. Emotional Scaffolding in an Intelligent Tutoring System (co-author), International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania USA, October, 2002.
Cognition and white sox fatherhood essay, Affective State , Proceedings of the essays International Conference on Cognition and white sox fatherhood, Neural Systems (ICCNS) , Boston, May 2002. Restructuring Educational Pedagogy: A Model For Deep Change (co-author), Proceedings of Pathways to Change Conference, Alexandria, Virginia USA, April 2002. Models of writing for hire, Emotions and Learning (co-author), Proceedings of the International Conference on white essay, Virtual Worlds and Simulations (VWSIM'02), San Antonio, Texas USA January 2002. A pedagogical model for teaching scientific domain knowledge (with Barry Kort), Proceedings of the Frontiers in parker, Education, Boston, Mass. Essay. 2002. An Affective Module for about electronics an Intelligent Tutoring System (with Barry Kort), Intelligent Tutoring Systems 6th International Conference, ITS 2002, Biarritz, France and San Sebastian, Spain, June 2-7, 2002. Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to white an Automated Reading Tutor That Listens Increases Student Persistence (with Gregory Aist, Barry Kort, Rosalind Picard), Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 6th International Conference, ITS 2002, Biarritz, France and San Sebastian, Spain, June 2-7, 2002. Experimentally Augmenting an Intelligent Tutoring System with Human-Supplied Capabilities: Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens (with Gregory Aist, Barry Kort, Rosalind Picard, Jack Mostow), 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI 2002), 14-16 October 2002, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Theories for Deep Change in formula thesis statement, Affect-sensitive Cognitive Machines: A Constructivist Model. Essay. (with Barry Kort), Education Technology and for hire, Society, January 2002. Establishing rules and conventions for white essay the infrastructure: the'Tragedy of the unmanaged commons' as a determinate factor (with Barry Kort), Proceedings.
IEEE International Conference on essays on spring, Advanced Learning Technologies, February 2001. An Affective Model of the Interplay Between Emotions and Learning (co-author), Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference of Advanced Learning Technologies, pp. 43-46, Madison, Wisconsin USA, August 2001. Students as Technology Support Staff , Proceedings of the sox fatherhood 2001 Computers in Libraries Conference, Washington, D.C., USA, March 2000. Director , EdNet@UMass — leadership and performance evaluation, management of the white essay University of Massachusetts School of Education's Web based professional development mechanism serving approximately 2,000 subscribers—see www.umass.edu/ednet (1995-2001). Member, Information Technology Council's Policy Sub-Committee , University of performance dissertation, Massachusetts —conceptualizing issues and crafting policy for the University of Massachusetts system-wide committee to establish technology policy for the five campuses (1994-1998). A Founding Director of K12Net — imagining what an on-line professional development system would be like and white sox fatherhood, then creating it. K12Net is gone now—replaced by the Internet.
But it was the dissertation 43 k12 UseNet newsgroups and the 'K12NET' echo areas on FidoNet, which was a worldwide dial-up store-and-forward communication network. K12Net was dedicated to curricular conversations and the conduct of on-line projects, teacher exchanges, and professional development (1984-1994). Board of Trustees , Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts, North Adams, Massachusetts USA, 2017-present. School Committee Member , Northern Berkshire Vocational Technical High School (a.k.a., McCann Technical High School), North Adams, Massachusetts USA (2012-present) Moderator (presiding officer of the town's legislative body), Town of Lanesborough, Massachusetts USA (elected position, 2005-present, 1992-2003) Board of Directors , Massachusetts Moderators Association (2016-present, 1998-2003) Governor's Juvenile Justice Advisory Committee , Commonwealth of Massachusetts USA (2011-2013, 1999-2003)
US Army , 1966-1969 (active duty) — Honorable Discharge — 249th General Hospital, 50th Signal Bn.
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In theory, essays are designed to demonstrate the unique traits and abilities of applicants, who may, on paper, appear to be quite similar. Unfortunately, with the proliferation of online message board and white sox fatherhood, admissions consultants who try to convince applicants that there is a ‘right’ answer to these questions, submissions often sound very similar and instead of showcasing what makes a candidate an interesting and diverse prospective student, we often read similar stories about motivation to pursue the MBA. On the same note, the video essay in not an plan writing introduction of a video creation contest – we are interested in the content of your answers and not how well you can produce videos. We already do video interviews for international applicants who we weren’t able to white essay, connect with in essays person with during our travels via Skype, so understand video is a comfortable medium for sox fatherhood essay, most of our candidates who frequently use video chat, Skype, face time, etc. to communicate with family and friends. Ultimately, our goal in introducing this new component is for our admissions committee to make better decisions about which candidates are the strongest match with the formula statement, Rotman program. Sox Fatherhood? There are a few reasons I believe this will happen, and I imagine we will uncover many more reasons as we evaluate the program: We want to consider candidates who may not present as strongly as they could ‘on paper’ (at least not yet – we know that our talented Careers team can help with this!) as identifying the ‘diamond in the rough’ type of talent is a group of students we don’t want our Admissions Committee to miss as we continue to grow the Program and see a bigger applicant pool each year This will provide us with an additional reference point beyond our current list of application requirements that tests communication skills (i.e. ability to think on your feet, communicate in a concise manner, etc.) along with demonstrates a diverse or well-rounded profile which is something we can’t begin evaluating until interviews at the moment and it is a key priority in order to business for hire, build an interesting and diverse MBA class The video content can be stored, allowing the entire Admissions Committee to white essay, access and shepherd essay, review this content when making admissions decisions instead of essay, having only one ‘in person’ perspective on electronics a candidate so we will get a broader opinion on each applicant. I was interviewed recently by Kira, the white, firm who developed this tool and shared some overall thoughts on why we love the product here: http://www.youtube.com/embed/sFmBCvio9ig. This video essay belongs where the title suggests – as a media-rich version of a ‘live’ essay question. This will not replace admissions interviews, as the depth of on primary education, conversation and direct personal interaction is a truly invaluable part of the process.
A note to candidates who started applications already – you are able to white, simply complete the previous questions you have already accessed and on spring, likely prepared for. There is no penalty, and no preference, if this is the essay, case. Otherwise, you can start a new profile and submit the video essay, along with the writing for hire, two shorter essay questions if you prefer. White Sox Fatherhood? For any questions on this, please follow up with us at firstname.lastname@example.org. Remember to be yourself, and have fun with this new feature.Good luck and happy filming! We look forward to your feedback on this new tool. 44 thoughts on “ Innovation in the Admissions Process – Introducing the “Video Essay” ” I’ve submitted the video essay through Kira. But the essay tab in applications does not allow the page to be marked as complete unless something is written in the space provided for the video essay. But in my understanding, nothing needs to written for phd thesis education, this essay prompt.
In order to mark the page as complete, I’m simply writing ”Video Essay Submitted.”. I would request the website managers for the applications process to kindly make note of this and rectify the problem or at-least add instructions as to what should be written in the space for video essay to avoid confusion. Thanks Varun – and yes, you have completed the process correctly. We will forward your feedback on to our technical team to help clarify for future candidates. Best of luck with the white essay, process! I am waiting for your process and decision. My spype account: bilinglin. I am waiting for your interview and looking forward to your reply. Thank you.
Is the business plan for hire, Video essay required for white sox fatherhood, the Morning and Evening MBA? No-this isn’t required for Morning/Evening – just the FT MBA. Your best bet is to contact Rummmy Gill (email@example.com) re: the performance evaluation satisfaction, Morning/Evening application. Whom should i contact for my video essay? Could you please provide me with their email id? Please contact the admissions office if you are encountering technical issues: firstname.lastname@example.org. I was just curious to know when the new essay topics will be out and white sox fatherhood, when is the application window starting for for hire, the 2014 MBA program?. Good timing – we are planning to post tomorrow! #128578; Stay tuned. Unfortunately, candidates in China like me cannot access to youtube. So I am not able to watch your interview video by Kira. But I like the white sox fatherhood, video essay idea.
Could you please let me know where I can find the directions about how to use and evaluation satisfaction dissertation, process video essay by white sox fatherhood Kira. Is a website video tool or something? Thanks. Here’s the business plan writing for hire, link to the Kira site: http://kiratalent.com/. The process is covered with a demonstration that should be accessible as it isn’t You Tube hosted. White Essay? Let us know if you encounter any issues! Can you let us know more about video essay.
Is it only parker essay one question this year? What are the sox fatherhood, question(s) related to. How long do we have talk. Do we have a second shot at jean shepherd essay, answering, if we think we weren’t at our best. Can you please shed more light on essay video essay. Is it going to be only one video essay for business writing, 2014 fall. please let us know regarding what the white sox fatherhood essay, questions are going to be. The video essay will continue as a core part of the process at Rotman this year. We will maintain a sample (practice) question plus two additional randomized questions. The tone/scope will be just like last year with ‘conversational’ type questions, but we have updated and expanded our question bank with new content! My skype id is sumeet.bhalla14.
And i am waiting for an interview.? I am a little unsure of what the procedure will be. Will i be given an proposal appointment on skype for it or do i have to white sox fatherhood, record them on youtube? The Video content should be posted in the next week – apologies for for a thesis, the delay, you are well ahead of us and our November 4th deadline! This will happen via an email invite, so please stay tuned #128578; I am trying to complete the MBA Application for Rotman but I cannot find any Video Essay Link to record my Video Essay.
Is there a technical problem or is there any other url from where I can record my video essay response? How do i access the video question and answer it. Pls shed some light on sox fatherhood it. I didnt find any essay topics for performance evaluation satisfaction, video essay for white, fall 2014 intake in the application page. Neither is the application process information any clear about the for hire, steps necessary for submission of such video essays.Could you please post the video essay topics and the guidelines for the video essays on the application website. You should see a live link now if you re-visit the white, application – thank you for your patience! I have intentions to study MBA in Toronto university in 2015, meanwhile i’d like to start working on the admissions from business writing for hire this year.
Can you help me with the processes involved and who to contact at white, any point when i need help? Good luck! Feel free to business plan, email email@example.com with questions. I have visited School website and it mentions No minimum requirement for white, the GMAT but at the same time I can see the average GMAT is 673 which is quite high. My question is : my work ex is plan writing, now 7 years and if I apply for 2014 session admission lets say in Jan 2014 deadline then I would be more than 7 years of work ex ..So do you have any relaxations/considerations in white GMAT score for jean shepherd, the candidate who is white sox fatherhood essay, having more work ex. like case of mine ..or Do I have to get weigh myself with the person who is having 3-4 years of work ex ? Thanks for the question. Phd Thesis On Primary Education? GMAT score represents a different skill than work experience, so this score is most closely considered along with GPA and can compensate or complement this criteria. Our average GMAT is white essay, competitive but range is quite varied (550-780) so I would encourage you to focus on submitting a GMAT score within this range to meet a competitive requirement based on previously admitted candidates profiles. Hope this helps to clarify. Can you provide more details on how Rotman encourages entrepreneurship culture ? I have 4 years of consulting background with one of Big4 consulting firms. I want to plan writing, understand and develop necessary skills to white sox fatherhood essay, start my own startup.
Can you please share some information on essays that regards? We can provide you with plenty of detail around entrepreneurship at Rotman – starting with information about our Creative Destruction Lab! This a packed question so I would like to ensure it is handled appropriately – can you send to the admissions inbox (firstname.lastname@example.org) to be connected with someone from the white sox fatherhood essay, team who can take this conversation offline and provide you with more depth? Thanks! I want to apply for the MBA program of Toronto University, and on the website, it says”e recommend candidates have at least two years of work experience but there is no minimum requirement. The average for the class entering in 2013 was four years of work experience.” I have prior undergraduate degree work experience and jean, post undergraduate degree for 2 months, but in total less than two years.
What is the chance of me getting accepted into the MBA program? Hi Jiaqi – Thanks for this question. Admissions decisions are based on the overall competitiveness of your profile, so it is simply not possible to determine your admission probability based on white one data point (work experience). You will want to essays on spring, apply when, from an sox fatherhood experience perspective, you are confident that you have enough to contribute to the Program, and also have the jean parker shepherd essay, requisite transferrable skills to be competitive recruiting into white sox fatherhood your post-MBA role of choice. Hope this feedback is helpful. Best of luck!
I am a Chinese Student who want to jean parker, apply for the 2014Fall MBA Program, But I really did not understand how I can complete the Video Essay, I am confused about it, because in my online application from, there is a step that need to provide the Video Interview information including Video Interview URL, or I can not complete my online application form. White? So please guide me the step in details that to complete the Video. I do not know how to use this website to complete it https://www.kiratalent.com, Waiting for your kindly reply!! Thank you very much!! Hi Tang! If you follow the link included in formula the application to KIRA, you will receive the unique URL once you complete the interviews.
Hope this helps and good luck! I’m experiencing some confusion in terms of the “Video Essay” and “Video Interview”. Could you kindly confirm whether they are interchangeable terms? (I.E the interview to white sox fatherhood essay, be completed on the KIRA website) In regards to the actual video interview questions, are they given to phd thesis on primary education, us prior to the recording? Apologies for the confusion! “Video essay” and “video interview” refer to the same thing in our application- that is, it is the video you need to do through the Kira website. The essay questions are given as soon as the recording begins. However, you can practice as many times as you want (with different questions each time though) to white essay, help you get as comfortable with the video essay as possible. I am preparing to apply for 2015 fall FT MBA class.
However, i have two pressing issues. 1. In my country Ethiopia – we have three years undergraduate studies not four years. ETHIOPIA Master’s Minimum Admission Requirements:Bachelor’s Degree Equivalent: Bachelor`s, requiring 4 years of study.What does it mean for application? Do I still apply and compensate on the courses if i got admitted or I can’t apply at all? 2. I am planning to thesis statement, come to white, Canada early October – is there any possibility of visiting Rotman? Your kind support on essays this is greatly appreciated!
Answers to your questions: 1. If a candidate is sufficiently strong we can grant exceptions in cases like this where they have a 3 year degree instead of a 4-year degree. White? So I would definitely still encourage you to for a, apply. Just make sure the rest of white essay, your application is as strong as possible. 2. We will actually be hosting our Open House in mid-October which would be a great opportunity to parker, see the white, school and essays, sit in on white sox fatherhood essay sample classes, meet current students, alumni, etc. Stay tuned to our admissions events calendar for about, full details: If you can’t make it for the Open House though, email us at white, email@example.com and we can schedule a time to meet us! I am Venkatesh from India. I have attended the admission event conducted by your school in India.
I am very much interested to do FULL TIME MBA, 2015 in your school. I finished my BE degree in 2012 with a CGPA of 7.76. I have 8 months work experience as a Software Engineer. I am running an E-commerce business in India for the past one and half year. I am planning to performance dissertation, write GMAT in one month. Am I elegible to get into Rotman School of Management. Great to see your interest in studying at our school! You can learn about our application requirements on our website here, which should help answer your question:
Request your help on the video interview question – does the sox fatherhood, link on Rotman’s application form for jean parker, the video essay allow me to white sox fatherhood, practice to prepare for answering these questions. If yes, will i need to finish the practice sessions and the real test in one seating? Many thanks for your help in performance evaluation dissertation advance – and regards, Hi Gopal – yes you need to white, finish in performance evaluation one setting. One practice question and two ‘real’ questions. Best advice is to record yourself first on your own webcam before going to the live site. Good luck!
I already had a MBA degree in my home country, but plan to apply for MBA of Rotman, aim to learn with worldwide famous professors and understand more about the global business management. would you please advise if my gained MBA degree will helpful for my application of Rotman? Second question is, if I have not yet finished IELTS examination, can I apply? And if I cannot get 7.0, is there any langue course in U of T for international student? You’ll need to white essay, think about phd thesis how to position this as the white sox fatherhood, Committee will want to understand the desire to pursue another MBA – ultimately the answer to this question will depend on your reasoning. We do require a language test to be completed, but more importantly our Program is an thesis intensive experience so we encourage applicants to target Rotman if they are confident in white sox fatherhood essay their English fluency.
The language requirement is simply a signal about the importance of communication skills to ensure that our students can actively contribute to performance evaluation satisfaction dissertation, the Rotman experience.
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#8220;Angela#8217;s Ashes#8221; by Frank McCourt Essay. The autobiography Angela#8217;s Ashes by white sox fatherhood, Frank McCourt tells the life of the McCourt family while living in poverty in Limerick, Ireland during the 1930#8217;s and 1940#8217;s. Frank McCourt relates his difficult childhood to the reader up until the jean shepherd time he leaves for America at the age of nineteen. Angela#8217;s Ashes has many prevailing themes, but one of the most notable is the settings relationship to the family. The setting of the book ultimately influences the choices and white essay lifestyle of the performance evaluation satisfaction McCourt family in many ways. Living in poverty and not being able to meet basic needs leads the characters to result to desperate measures, such incidents as stopping Frank McCourt#8217;s education and taking a job to support the family. Frank is forced to white sox fatherhood essay, take the job mostly because his father is an alcoholic and uses all the money to buy beer instead of feeding his family. Frank describes this pattern of drinking away the money by saying #8221; when dad comes home with the drink smell there is no money and Mom screams at him till the twins cry#8221;(42). This situation lasts until Mr.McCourt leaves to work in England and is never heard from again which forces Frank to take a job at fourteen years old. Frank takes on the role of the head of the family proudly and comments #8221; Its hard to sleep when you know the next day you#8217;re fourteen and starting your first job as a man#8221;(309).
Frank#8217;s ability to provide financial stability leads to greater comfort and living conditions for his family. The members of the McCourt family are also forced to beg and steal in order to help the family#8217;s well being. Mrs.McCourt begs charities especially the phd thesis on primary education St.Vincent de Paul Society for help with basic necessities for the family such as food, clothing, and furniture. Mrs.McCourt is even forced to beg for the family#8217;s Christmas dinner. The butcher who she begs to tells her #8221; What you can now missus, Is black pudding and tripe or a sheep#8217;s head or a pig#8217;s head#8221;(97). Essay! Mrs.McCourt reluctantly accepted the plan writing for hire pig#8217;s head and is ridiculed walking home with it. Also, the children are forced to pick up scraps of coal for the fire from the road on Christmas Day.
Frank describes the children#8217;s humiliation by saying, #8221; Even the poorest of the poor don#8217;t go out sox fatherhood, Christmas Day picking coal off the road#8221;(99). Despite Frank McCourt#8217;s horrid poverty, tiresome starvation and jean parker essay devastating losses, Angela#8217;s Ashes is not a tragic memoir. It is in fact up lifting, funny and at times triumphant. #8220;When I look back on my childhood I wonder how I managed to survive at all. It was, of course, a miserable child hood: the happy childhood is hardly worth your while. Worse than the ordinary miserable childhood Is the white sox fatherhood miserable Irish childhood, and worse yet is the miserable Irish Catholic childhood#8221;, writes Frank McCourt of his early life Although Frank McCourt#8217;s autobiography, Angela#8217;s Ashes, paints a picture of both terrible poverty and struggles, this text is appealing and up lifting because of its focus on both humor and hope. McCourt#8217;s text shows the on primary education determination people living in dreadful conditions must have in order to rise above their situations and make better lives for themselves and their families. The effect of the story, although often distressing and sox fatherhood essay sad, is not depressing.
Frank as the young narrator describes his life events without bitterness, anger, or blame. Poverty and hardship are treated simply as if they are a fact of life, and in spite of the hard circumstances, many episodes during the performance evaluation novel are hilarious. Frank McCourt was born in Brooklyn in 1930, just after the beginning of the sox fatherhood essay Great Depression. During this time, millions of people around the world were unemployed and struggling to essays on spring, survive. Franks father, Malachy McCourt, struggled to obtain work and lost it easily due to sox fatherhood, his alcoholism. His mother, Angela McCourt, being a good catholic wife produced five babies in four years, leaving her unable to provide the formula most basic care for her children.
When the baby, Margaret, died due to the shocking living conditions in Brooklyn, Angela subsided into clinical depression, which went untreated. Other women in the building where the McCourt#8217;s lived looked after the children until Angela#8217;s cousins arranged for the family to return to Ireland. Life in Limerick was considerably poorer, with a less supportive population than Brooklyn. The McCourt#8217;s lived in a succession of substandard flats and houses characterized by poor sanitation and essay lack of electricity. The family had so little furniture that they shared beds, with no sheets or blankets. When Malachy McCourt took his family back to an impoverished Ireland he chose to plan for hire, live in the south, where he was discriminated against because of his northern name and accent. He was unable to sox fatherhood, find work and essays on spring when he finally did it was too late.
He had become an alcoholic, unable to control his drinking and conform to white sox fatherhood essay, the demands of a job. This meant that his family was reduced to existence on the dole and as a result, his children starved, and were forced to thesis about electronics, pick coal up from the side of the road in order to sox fatherhood, keep the fire burning. Proposal! When Malachy left for work in England he sent no money home and Angela was forced to beg for food. In these terrible situations two more of her children died, Angela was hospitalized with a miscarriage and pneumonia, while Frank was hospitalized with typhoid fever and conjunctivitis. White Sox Fatherhood! Survival for the family was clearly difficult and life only improved when Frank found full time employment as a telegram boy. His sense of satisfaction dissertation responsibility guided him to give his mother his wages in order to support the family.
Life in Limerick was often associated with humor. A lot of laughter derived from religious practices such as taking the sox fatherhood wafer at essays, mass. Since the wafer regularly stuck to peoples tongues, the boys at school had to practice sucking pieces of sox fatherhood newspaper, sticking their tongues out for the teachers. The sins that the thesis proposal children confessed were also often sources of white sox fatherhood essay humor for the priests, and when grandma#8217;s demand to know if she should clean Franks vomit up with Holy Water is jean shepherd essay pure mockery. #8220;bless me father for I have sinned, its been a minute since my last confession#8221;, becomes a sarcastic comment on sox fatherhood Grandma#8217;s ignorance. Poverty itself reduced the family to other slapstick situations. Pious Grandma#8217;s deliberate lie to the real estate agent when she denied that there had ever been two rooms upstairs in Angela#8217;s house has a savage humor in light of on spring her piety.
For the children Grandma was often the source of unintentional humor from the moment they heard her accent. White Sox Fatherhood Essay! There is humor in the situations caused by Roman Catholic censorship. On one occasion Frank is evicted from the public library for reading a book about sex left on on primary education the table. The irony here is he really wanted to white, read Butlers Life of the Saints but was enticed by a book that shocked the business writing librarian. From an early age Frank promised to support his family. To do this he dreamed of white returning to America. During the novel there was discussion between Frank and his father about the difference in economies of the two countries when his father discussed this over the paper he encouraged him to get a good job in the land of opportunity.
These discussions were placed in the context of the English oppression of Ireland. It is the symbols associated with New York that really sustained Franks dream over the years. The images of the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island which he kept as he left New York as a small boy were so clear that he recognized them on his trip back. McCourt#8217;s hope of a better future was shared by his father, brother Malachy and hisUncle Pa Sheehan. However, it was Frank that had the determination to work at on primary, any job available and to save money even id his family starved, in order to make the dream real. There is no magic in Angela#8217;s Ashes. Poverty and despair are cured by both hard work and white breaking the law.
Not everything that Frank did to save his fare was honorable, but his choices were made with long term goals in mind. Formula Thesis! Angela#8217;s Ashes depicts unrelenting poverty and the terrible consequences for individuals living in white essay dirtiness. However, Frank McCourt shows that there is phd thesis education always humor in white life, no matter how desperate the situation is. Combined with this is the for hire hope that sustained McCourt and drove him to seek a better life in the USA. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.
Date: 21 April 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on #8220;Angela#8217;s Ashes#8221; by Frank McCourt. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. 3422 Old Capitol Trail, Suite 267, Wilminton, DE 19808, USA.
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essay semiotics Cultural Criticism: Semiotics and Cultural Criticism. In this chapter I address some of the basic concepts in semiotics, to show how it enables us to white sox fatherhood find meaning in texts and other phenomena. I try to on primary explain each concept as simply as possible, and white I quote extensively from jean essay important passages written by white essay, various authorities, to give the phd thesis on primary education, reader some idea of how these writers express themselves. There is, however, a certain amount of technical language involved with semiotic analysis that cannot be avoided. There are many advanced books on semiotics available or those who wish to pursue the study of white sox fatherhood essay semiotic theory and applied semiotic analysis; interested readers will find several such titles in the list of suggested further reading that follows the final chapter in proposal this volume.
Semiotics can be seen as a form of applied linguistics; semiotic malysis has been applied to everything from white essay fashion to advertis- ing, from James Bond stories to Star Wars. The most fundamental concept in semiotics is the sign; semiotic theorists posit human beings as sign-making and sign-interpreting animals. It is with signs that this discussion of semiotics and cultural criticism begins. Signs in Semiotics and Semiology. Semiotics is, literally speaking, the for a thesis statement, science of white sox fatherhood essay signs. The word semiotics comes from the Greek root semeion, or sign, and parker is used to white essay describe a systematic attempt to understand what signs are and how they function. Semiotics is probably the more commonly used term, but some students of signs use the term semiology, literally words (togas) about signs . Performance Dissertation. Semiotics is associated with the work of the Americon philosopher, C S Peirce (although its roots are in medieval philosophy) and semiology with the work of the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure. Both are concerned with how meaning is genereated and and communicated. In his posthumousty published book A Course in General Linguistics, Saussure (1966) states. Language is a system of signs that express ideas, and is therefore comparable to a system of white essay writing, the alphabet of phd thesis on primary deaf-mutes, military signals, etc.
But it is the sox fatherhood essay, most important of all these systems. A science that studies the life of signs within society is conceivable it would be part of social psychology and consequently of general psychology; I shall call it semiology (from Greek, semeion sign) Semiology would show what constitutes signs, what laws govern them. (p. Thesis Proposal About. 16) This may be looked upon as one of the charter statements about semiotics / semiology. Saussure suggests that signs are made of two parts: a signifier (sound, object, image, or the like) and a signified (concept). The relation that exists between the signifier and essay the signified is arbitrary, based on convention, or, to use the technical term, unmotivated.
Because of this fact, we develop and thesis use codes to help us learn what some signs mean. In addition, Saussure asserts that concepts do not mean anything in themselves; they gain their meanings only white sox fatherhood relationally or differentially: Concepts are purely differential and defined not by their positive characteristics but negatively by their relations with the jean parker shepherd essay, other terms of the system (p.ll7). For all practical purposes, the most important relationship among terms is binary opposition. One difference between semiotics and semiology is that semiotics draws its basic ideas from a trichotomy elaborated by C. S Peirce (1931-1935,1958). According to white essay Peirce, there are three kinds of performance evaluation satisfaction dissertation signs-icons, indexes, and symbols: Every sign is sox fatherhood, determined by its object, either first, by proposal, partaking ir the characters of the object, when I call a sign an Icon; secondly, b) being really and in its individual existence connected with the in- dividual object, when I call the sign an Index; thirdly, by rnon! or les! approximate certainty that it will be interpreted as denoting the object, in sox fatherhood consequence of a habit (which term I use as including 2 natural disposition), when I call the sign a Symbol. (quoted in Zeyman 1977,p.36) Because semiotics is concerned with everything that can be seen as a sign, and given that just about everything can be seen as a sign (that is, substituting for plan writing, something else), semiotics emerges as a kind of master science that has utility in all areas of knowledge, especially in the humanities, arts, and social sciences. White Essay. It has been used, as noted above, in criticism of the fine arts, literature, film, and popular fiction as well as in for a interpreting architecture, in studying fashion, in analyzing facial expression, in interpreting magazine advertisements and radio and television commercials, in medicine, and in many other areas.
Let us consider signs now in a bit more detail, with a focus on how they function. How Signs Function. A sign can also be defined as anything that can be used to stand for sox fatherhood essay, something else, but understanding how signs function is some-what complicated, because, for Peirce and semioticians, there are always others involved. According to Peirce, a sign is something which stands to business plan writing for hire somebody for something in white sox fatherhood some respect or capacity (1977, p. 27). He adds a philosophical point: It seems a strange thing, when one comes to ponder over it, that a sign should leave its interpreter to supply part of its meaning; but the explanation of the phenomenon lies in the fact that the entire universe-not merely the universe of existents, but all that wider universe, embracing the universe of existents as a part, the universe which we are all accustomed to refer to as the truth-that all this universe is perfused with signs, if it is not composed exclusively of signs. (Peirce; epigraph in parker shepherd essay Sebeok, 1977, p. vi) If the universe is perfused with, if not composed exclusively of, signs, then humans are, of white essay necessity, semiotic animals-whatever else they may be (rational creatures, tool makers, featherless bipeds, and so on).
Umberto Eco (1976) has added an insight worth considering. If signs can be used to tell the truth, they can also be used to lie: Semiotics is concerned with everything that can be taken as a sign. A sign is everything which can be taken as significantly substituting for something else. Essays. This something else does not necessarily have to exist or to actually be somewhere at the moment in which a sign stands for it. Thus semiotics is in principle the discipline studying everything which can be used in order to lie. White Sox Fatherhood Essay. If something cannot be used to tell a lie, conversely it cannot be used to tell the truth; it cannot be used to tell at thesis all. (p. 7) Phenomena such as wigs, dyed hair, elevator shoes, imitation foods, impersonators, and impostors all involve lying with signs. Saussure (1966) first describes signs as being made of a concept and a sound-image: The linguistic sign unites, not a thing and a name, but a concept and a sound-image (p. 66).
He later modifies his definition: I propose to retain the word sign [signe] to designate the whole and to replace concept and sound-image respectively by signified [singifie] and signifier [signifiant]; the last two terms have the advantage of in- dicating the opposition that separates them from the whole of which they are parts. (p. White Sox Fatherhood Essay. 67) He uses the term semiology to on spring describe the science that would study the life of signs within society, originally placing semiol- ogy within social psychology. He suggests that a sign is like a piece of white sox fatherhood paper: One side is the signifier and the other is the signified, and together they make the sign/ sheet of paper. Symbols, however, are a different matter. Symbols in formula for a statement Saussure's System. A symbol is a subcategory of a sign.
It is a sign whose mean- ing is white sox fatherhood essay, not completely arbitrary or conventional. Saussure (1966) explains: The word symbol has been used to designate the linguistic sign, or more specifically, what is here called the phd thesis on primary, signifier. . Sox Fatherhood. One charac- teristic of the symbol is business plan, that it is never wholly arbitrary; it is white essay, not empty, for business plan writing for hire, there is the rudiment of a natural bond between the signifier and the signified. The symbol of justice, a pair of scales, could not be replaced by white, just any other symbol, such as a chariot. (p. 68) Peirce sees the symbol as conventional, unlike the on spring, icon and index, which are not conventional in white sox fatherhood essay his view of things. What is important about symbols is that they stand for something, they convey meanings. These meanings are often connected to historical events, traditions, and so on. The symbol, generally an object or an image, because it can represent historical events, because it contains all kinds of extraneous matters connected to it, because it can be a repository of meanings, because it can have so many connotations, can become very important to people. Think of religious icons, for example.
Carl Jung (1968) explains this matter in some detail in his book Man and His Symbols: Thus a word or an image is symbolic when it implies something more than its obvious and immediate meaning. It has a wider unconscious aspect that is never precisely defined or fully explained. Nor can one hope to define or explain it. As the mind explores the symbol, it is led to on primary education ideas that lie beyond the grasp of sox fatherhood reason. (p.
4) We are profoundly affected by symbolic phenomena, Jung suggests, all the time-when we are awake and when we dream. As Freud has pointed out, in our dreams we use the processes of symbolic condensation and displacement to disguise our real thoughts and desires and evade the formula for a thesis, dream censor. It would wake us up if it recognized the sexual content of our dreams, as mani- fested, for example, in phallic symbols and symbols of the female genitals. In our visual and literary arts we also use symbolization in an attempt to generate certain responses-assuming there is common understanding of what specific symbols mean (which is not always the case, of course). In literary criticism, for example, we often find that the study of symbolism in texts is connected with an investigation of their mythic elements-what might be called a myth and symbol school of analysis. Heroes and heroines in novels and plays and films often have symbolic dimensions: What they say and what they do often are symbolic and allegorical as well as connected, indirectly, to white the actions of ancient mythic heroes and heroines. Thesis Proposal Electronics. That is why some critics argue that all texts are intertextually related to other texts, even though audiences may not be aware of the white, fact or the creators of texts aware of what they have done.
It is because texts of on spring all kinds-fi1ms, television programs, novels, plays, works of visual art-are full of white essay symbolic phenomena (objects, actions of formula for a thesis characters, geographic locations, and white sox fatherhood so on) that they resist easy interpretation. Their symbolic (and mythic) aspects make them extremely complex, and so they are seldom easily understood. Icon, Index, Symbol: Peirce's System. In Peirce's theory of semiotics there are three kinds of thesis proposal about electronics signs: icons, which communicate by resemblance; indexes, which com- municate by logical connection; and symbols, which are purely conventional and whose meanings have to be learned. Essay. Peirce developed an extremely involved theory of signs, but it rests on the cornerstone of his trichotomy-icon, index, and symbol. He differs from Saussure, who argues that the relationship between a signifier (sound, object) and its signified (concept) is arbitrary and based on convention (except in the case of the symbol, where the relationship is quasi-motivated or quasi-natural). In Peirce's theory, both icons and indexes have natural relation- ships with what they stand for: for statement, example, a portrait of someone and the person being portrayed (an icon) and smoke indicating fire (an index). The meanings of symbols, on the other hand, have to white sox fatherhood be learned. Table 4.1 presents Peirce's trichotomy in graphic form. For Hire. Semiotics is white essay, important, Peirce argues, because the universe is in essence a system of signs. Everything, that is, can be seen as standing, in one respect or another, for something else and thus functioning as a sign.
Let us now look at evaluation one aspect of Peirce's trichotomy in a little more detail. Table 4.1 Pierce's Trichotomy. An image is conventionally understood to be a visible repre- sentation of something, though it can also be a mental picture of sox fatherhood something (such as the image of the businessman as found in early-20th-century American literature). We live in a world of photoelectronic images, and with the development of television, all kinds of images that we never would have seen in real life are now brought to us, in mediated form, on the video tube. As the result of thesis statement developments in printing, photography, and video, im- ages play an white essay, increasingly important role in our lives. Indeed, some scholars suggest that we have moved from dissertation a logocentric (word-centered) to an occulocentric (image-centered) world, with sight exercising hegemony or domination over our other senses. From a semiotic perspective, a visual image is a collection of essay what Peirce would call signs, which means that, for example, in a print advertisement we have icons, indexical phenomena, and symbols.
Icons are relatively easy to interpret because they communicate by resemblance, but understanding indexical signs in- volves finding some kind of a relationship between signs and their meanings, and symbols are purely conventional, which means we must learn their meanings. In considering images with which we are not familiar, such as paintings from earlier periods, we may not recognize the symbology, so our understanding of the messages conveyed in such images may be relatively primitive. Let me offer an example. In the painting by Ian Van Eyck titled Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride , painted in 1434, we find a number of symbols whose meanings are not evident to most people in the late 20th century. The painting shows a man holding hands with his wife (who looks pregnant and has her hand on her stomach) in thesis an ornate room. White Sox Fatherhood. Behind the two figures we see a convex mirror, lighted candles in a chandelier, and a small table with fruit on it. In front of the couple we see a dog. Table 4.21ists the symbolic objects or representations in the painting and their meanings for people of the period. bride's hand on her stomach.
willingness to bear children. Today, most would not know the meanings of many of these symbols (or even recognize that candles and dogs could have symbolic meaning), but the thesis, symbology would have been evident to many people living in sox fatherhood 1434. Just as we may not recognize the significance of shepherd symbolic phenomena from earlier times, we may be blind to the symbolic significance of phenomena from different cultures. When we look at an image (a painting, an advertisement, a work of sculpture, an object) we can look at it in two opposing ways, according to art historian Alois Riegl. Claude Gandelman (1991) discusses Riegl's theories: Riegl stated that one type of artistic procedure, which corresponds to a certain way of looking, is based on the scanning of white objects according to their outlines. This trajectory Riegl called the optical. The opposite type of parker vision, which focuses on surfaces and emphasizes the value of the superficies of white sox fatherhood objects, Riegl called the haptical (from the Greek haptein, to seize, grasp or haptikos, capable of phd thesis on primary education touching:).
On the level of artistic creation, the optical look-if the eye belongs to the painter-produces linearity and angularity, whereas haptic creativity focuses on surfaces. White Sox Fatherhood Essay. Using Riegl's formula, all forms of art may be grouped under the heading Outline and/or color in plane and volume. . The optical eye merely brushes the surface of things. The haptic, or tactile, eye penetrates in shepherd depth, finding its pleasure in textile and grain. (p. White Sox Fatherhood Essay. 5) From the haptic perspective, vision becomes a form of touching. Thesis About Electronics. Riegl was not the sox fatherhood, first person to deal with this notion (it is found in the work of Descartes and Berkeley, also, Gandelman points out), but his calling our attention to these two opposing ways of perception is important. It is also possible, of course, to combine these two perspectives. If seeing haptically is a form of touching, it would suggest that our relation to images is much more complicated than we might suppose. We do not simply glance at formula images and put them out of our minds; our experience of looking is much more powerful than that. This might explain, in part, the phenomenon of scopophilia, literally looking (scopo) loving (philia), a psychological phenomenon involving people who derive sexual pleasure from looking at others or, in the case of autoscopophilia, from looking at themselves.
Images, then, play a significant role in our lives, whether we recognize this to be the case or not. Sox Fatherhood Essay. They have to be interpreted, and this takes a good deal of statement work, for it is not always easy to understand how images function. Cultural critics have, in recent years, expanded upon their interest in sox fatherhood essay images and now talk about the phenomenon of representation. This concept (addressed previously, in plan Chapter 3) deals with images of all kinds in the context of the social and political order in white which these images are found, and considers such matters as who creates images, who controls the image making in a society (especially images generated and spread by the mass media), and the functions these images have for the sociopolitical order and for individuals. At the simplest level, codes are systems for interpreting the for hire, meanings of various kinds of communication in which the meanings are not obvious or evident. Consider the two apparently meaningless words below; As soon as I tell you that the codes for interpreting these series of letters are, respectively, plus 1 and minus 1, you can easily find that both are coded ways of saying codes:
In the world of espionage, messages are often coded (so that if they are somehow intercepted they will not be understood). Sox Fatherhood Essay. The same applies to the world of culture. Much of what we see and satisfaction dissertation hear around us in sox fatherhood our culture carries messages, but because we do not know the codes that enable us to find the meanings in these messages, we do not pay any attention to them, or, if we do, we tend to about interpret them incorrectly. We also tend to be blind to the codes that we have learned because they seem natural to white sox fatherhood us; we do not realize that when we find meaning in phd thesis on primary things, we are actually decoding signs. White. We are like Moliere's character who had not realized he was speaking prose all the time. There are in every society, semioticians suggest, culture codes- hidden structures (in the business, sense that we are not aware of them or pay no attention to sox fatherhood them) that shape our behaviour. These codes deal with aesthetic judgments, moral beliefs, cuisine, and many other things. They are directive and generally are highly articulated and specific, even though those who use them tend to be unaware of them. We need codes because we need consistency in our lives.
Codes vary in scope from the universal to the local. If the relationship between a word and the object it stands for, or a signifier and a signified, is arbitrary and based on convention, as Saussure suggests, and performance satisfaction dissertation symbols are purely conventional, as Peirce suggests, then we need codes to tell us how to know what words mean and what signifiers and essay symbols mean. Business Plan. The meaning is arbitrary, based on convention, not natural. Thus, by extension, what we call culture can be looked upon sox fatherhood, as a collection or system of codes, analogous in many respects to thesis proposal about language. Terence Hawkes (1977) addresses this relationship; in discuss- ing the work of the French cultural anthropologist Claude Levi- Strauss, he writes: He attempts to perceive the constituents of cultural behaviour, ceremonies, rites, kinship relations, marriage laws, methods of white cooking, totemic systems, not as intrinsic or discrete entities, but in terms of the contrastive relationships they have with each other that makes their structures analogous to business plan writing for hire the phonemic structure of sox fatherhood language. (p.34) Thus the work of cultural critics involves the process of evaluation dissertation decoding texts of various kinds in many different realms: words, images, objects, literary and subliterary works, social rituals, food prepa- ration, socialization of children, and numerous other areas. Creators of white sox fatherhood texts that are distributed through mass media have a problem of difference between their own codes and the codes of the formula thesis, audiences for these texts, who may (and probably often do) decode them differently from the way the creators intended.
In such cases, it is white essay, difficult to avoid what Umberto Eco calls , aberrant decoding. This problem exists in oilier areas as well-for instance, when individuals who have been socialized (that is, have learned codes for behaviour) in essays subcultures become members of mainstream institutions and have difficulty in behaving properly (e.g., when a member 0f a motorcycle gang becomes a student at a university). We now move on to discussion of two concepts that affect cultural meaning in rather specific ways: connotation and white sox fatherhood denotation. Connotation is a term used to describe the cultural meanings attached to a term-and, by extension, an image, a figure in a text, or even a text. In contrast, denotation refers to the literal meaning of a term, figure, text, or so on. Connotation comes from the Latin connotare, to mark along with. Thus connotation deals with the historic, symbolic, and emotional matters suggested by or that go along with a term. Take the figure of jean parker shepherd James Bond as an example. From a denotative point of view, he is the hero of a number of popular spy novels and films. But the connotations of James Bond extend to white such matters as sexism, racism, absurd images of the British held by others, Bond's personal idiosyncrasies, the nature of the British intelligence establishment, the performance evaluation satisfaction, Cold War, images of sox fatherhood essay Americans, and Russians, and so on. In his Mythologies (1972), Roland Barthes deals with the mythic significance or what could be called the jean parker, cultural connotations of a number of phenomena of everyday. Essay. life in France, such as wres- tling, steak and chips, toys, Garbo's face, and the striptease.
His purpose is to take the world of essays what-goes-without-saying and show connotations (which reveal themselves generally to be ideo- logical matters) connected with them. White. For example, he notes in a discussion of toys in France: French toys always mean something, and this something is always entirely socialized, constituted by the myths or the techniques of modern adult life: the Army, Broadcasting, the formula for a thesis statement, Post Office, Medicine. White Sox Fatherhood. ..School, Hair-Styling. . the Air Force (parachutists), Transport (trains, Citroens, Vedettes, Vespas, petrol-stations), Science (Martian toys). (p. 53) These somethings are the connotations of these objects, which Barthes explores in about some detail, with brilliant stylistic flourishes and imaginative reaches. Sox Fatherhood Essay. He does the same thing for Japanese culture in evaluation satisfaction Empire of Signs (1977, 1982). We can make an sox fatherhood essay, analogy with Saussurean semiological theory here. In a sense, we can suggest that denotation is the thesis proposal electronics, signifier and white connotation is the formula for a thesis statement, signified, recognizing, however, that one signifier can have many signifieds. From Peirce's perspective, connotation would involve the sox fatherhood, realm of the symbolic, in which conventions are crucial. The meaning of the symbol has to be learned, and satisfaction a given symbol can have many different meanings.
The process of condensation is also relevant here. An image in white a dream can be made of many different images or parts of images, and the connection of these different images to one image is performance, similar in nature to the process of connotation. Denotation involves taking terms literally (including images, sounds, objects, or other forms of communication), in contrast to connotation, which involves looking at the various meanings a term carries with it or has given to it. Denotation deals with the literal meaning a sign conveys. Thus a Barbie Doll denotes a toy doll, first marketed in 1959, that was 11.5 inches high, had measurements of 5.25 inches at the bust, 3.0 inches at the waist, and 4.25 inches at the hips (these measurements have changed in recent years).
What we have here is white sox fatherhood essay, a literal description of a Barbie Doll and no more. Phd Thesis On Primary. What Barbie Dolls connote is another matter, about which there are many different views. For example, some scholars have suggested that the introduction and subsequent great popularity of the doll (and others like it) mark the end of motherhood as a dominant role for white sox fatherhood, little girls in the United States, because Barbie spends her time as a courtesan, buying clothes and having relationships with Ken and other dolls. She does not prepare little girls to be mothers, as earlier dolls did, dolls the girls could treat as babies, imitating their mothers' roles. A great deal of criticism involves examining the connotations of objects, characters, and images and tying these meanings to writing for hire historical, cultural, ideological, and other concerns. We turn now to a discussion of metaphor and essay metonymy, which noted linguist Roman Jakobson suggests are fundamental ways of generating meaning. Parker Essay. (I list Jakobson as an American in Table 1.1 because he spent many years teaching in the United States, but his origins are European.) Metaphors are figures of speech that communicate meaning by ana1o. Most people think they can get along perfectly well without metaphor. We have found, on the contrary, that metaphor is pervasive in everyday life, not just in language but in sox fatherhood thought and action. Our ordinary conceptual system, in terms of which we both think and business plan writing act, is fundamentally metaphoric in nature.
The concepts that govern our thought are not just matters of the intellect. They also govern our everyday functioning down to the most mundane details. Our concepts structure what we perceive, how we get around in the world, and sox fatherhood essay how we relate to other people. Our conceptual system thus plays a central role in defining our everyday realities. (p. 3) Metaphor, then, plays an important role in the way we think and pervades our thinking. It is not just a literary device used by poets and essay other writers to generate certain kinds of emotional responses; it is a fundamental part of the way humans think and communicate. Lakoff and Johnson discuss a number of different kinds of metaphors. Among them are the white sox fatherhood, following: • structural metaphors, which shape how we think, perceive, and act. • orientational metaphors, which deal with spatial orientation, as reflected in performance evaluation dissertation polar oppositions.
• ontological metaphors, which interpret life in sox fatherhood terms of business plan common objects and substances. We often use verbs metaphorically, as in white sox fatherhood the following: The ship sliced (the ship is a knife or is education, like a knife) through the waves. Essay. We could substitute other verbs-raced, cut, tore, or something else-and in each case a different meaning would be conveyed. Metaphor, then, is satisfaction dissertation, not limited to the figurative language one finds in poetry; rather, it is a fundamental means of generating meaning. The same applies to metonymy, which is discussed in the next section. Metonymy is sox fatherhood, a figure of speech in which meaning is communicated by association, in contrast to metaphor, where meaning is communicated by analogy. The term metonymy is composed of two parts: meta, or transfer, and onoma, or name. Business Writing. Thus, literally speaking, metonymy is white, substitute naming. In an essay of considerable theoretical importance (and difficulty) on aphasia-a disease associated with brain damage that prevents people from thesis electronics expressing ideas-Roman Jakobson (1988) discusses the sox fatherhood essay, difference between metaphor and metonymy: Every form of aphasic disturbance consists in some impairment, more or less severe, either of the faculty for selection and substitution or for combination and contexture. The former affliction involves a deterioration of metalinguistic operations, while the latter damages the capacity for maintaining the hierarchy of linguistic units.
The relation of similarity is suppressed in performance dissertation the former, the relation of contiguity in the latter type of aphasia. Metaphor is alien to sox fatherhood the similarity disorder, and metonymy to the contiguity disorder. The development of a discourse may take place along two different semantic lines: one topic may lead to another either through their similarity or through their contiguity. The metaphoric way would be the most appropriate for the first case and the metonymic way for the second, since they find their most condensed expression in metaphor and metonymy respectively. (pp. 57-58) We have, then, two polarities: metaphor and metonymy. Metaphor communicates by selection (a focus on the similarity between things) and metonymy by combination (a focus on electronics, the association in white sox fatherhood time and shepherd space between things). Simile is a weaker form of metaphor (using like or as) and synecdoche is a weaker form of metonymy (in which a part stands for the whole, or vice versa).
These differences (and a number of others, drawn from other sections of Jakobson's article) are shown in Table 4.4. According to Jakobson, one can determine a writer's style based on essay, how he or she uses these two rhetorical devices and which of business plan these poles prevails. The distinction has relevance for any symbolic process, as Jakobson (1988) explains: A competition between both devices, metonymic and metaphoric, is manifest in any symbolic process, be it interpersonal or social. Thus in an inquiry into sox fatherhood, the structure of education dreams, the decisive question is whether the symbols and the temporal sequences are based on contiguity (Freud's metonymic displacement and synecdochic condensation) or on similarity (Freud's identification and sox fatherhood symbolism). About Electronics. (p. 60) It is white sox fatherhood, relatively easy to analyze metaphors, Jakobson adds, but dealing with metonymy is much more difficult, and the process, which he says easily defies interpretation, has been relatively neglected. What makes things even more complicated is that we frequently find the two processes mixed up together. Thus, an image of a snake in a painting or advertisement can function metaphorically as a phallic symbol and metonymically as suggesting the snake in the Garden of Eden.
This reference to thesis about Eden has a historic aspect to it, which leads us to our next set of concepts, synchronic analysis and diachronic analysis. Synchronic Analysis and Diachronic Analysis. Ferdmand de Saussure (1966) makes a distinction between static (synchronic) and evolutionary (diachronic) linguistics, a distinction that we now apply to modes of analyzing texts and cultural phenomena: All sciences would profit by indicating more precisely the co- ordinates along which their subject matter is aligned. Everywhere distinctions should be made. ..between (1) the axis of simultaneities . which stands for white, the relations of coexisting things and from which the intervention of time is excluded; and (2) the axis of successions . on shepherd essay, which only one thing can be considered at a time but upon which are located all the things on essay, the first axis together with their changes. (pp. 79-80) Saussure further explains the difference between these two perspectives by suggesting that we imagine a plant.
If we make a longitudinal cut in the stem of the plant, we see the business writing for hire, fibers that constitute the plant (p. 87), but if we make a transverse cut (that is, a cross-sectional cut), we see the fibers in a certain relationship to one another-which we do not see when we look at essay the longitudinal cut. Thus the perspective one takes, synchronic or diachronic, affects what one sees. The differences between synchronic analysis and diachronic analysis are shown in Table 4.5. A person cannot deal with something from both synchronic and diachronic perspectives at the same time, Saussure adds, but both perspectives are necessary; Saussure makes this distinction as part of an argument for studying linguistics from performance a synchronic as well as a diachronic perspective. Instant in Time.
relations in a system. analysis is the focus. relations in white time. development the focus. Let us consider how the distinction between synchronic analysis and diachronic analysis applies to the study of media and popular culture. A person can focus on the way a given phenomenon, such as MTV or rap music, has evolved, or he or she can focus on the phenomenon at a given point in time, or he or she can use one perspective and then the other-bul one person cannot take both perspectives at the same time. This notion that the two approaches are mutually exclusive is similar to essays on spring the figure and ground phenomenon involved in sox fatherhood essay an often-seen optical illusion: a picture of two silhouetted profiles that can be seen instead as the silhouette of a vase.
One can look either at the figure and see the thesis, vase or at the ground and see the faces, but one cannot see both at the same time. The approach a person takes, synchronic or diachronic, depends on what he or she is trying to discover-in this example, about MTV or rap music. Essay. If taking the synchronic view, the jean parker, person would look at MTV or rap at a given point in time and try to relate it to cultural, social, and political matters. If taking the white essay, diachronic perspective, he or she would examine the way MTV or rap has evolved over the years, important figures in MTV or rap, and that kind of thing. Another way an investigator might look at rap music involves its relation to other forms of African American expression, such as the doubles, in which case he or she would be looking at it in terms of its historical connections. Semiotics and semiology focus our attention on how people generate meanings--in their use of language, in their behaviour (body language, dress, facial expression, and so on), and in jean creative texts of all kinds. Everyone tries to make sense of human behaviour, in our everyday lives, in the novels we read, in the films and television shows we see, in the concerts we attend, in sports events we watch or participate in--humans are meaning-generating and meaning-interpreting animals, whatever else we are. We are always sending messages and always receiving and white essay interpreting the messages others send us. What semiotics and semiology do is for hire, provide us with more refined and sophisticated ways of interpreting these messages-and of sox fatherhood essay sending them.
In particular, they provide us with methods of analyzing texts in cultures and cultures as texts.
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Essay:Counter to If God Created Everything, Who Created God. It does not necessarily reflect the views expressed in white sox fatherhood RationalWiki's Mission Statement, but we welcome discussion of a broad range of ideas. Unless otherwise stated, this is original content, released under CC-BY-SA 3.0 or any later version. Business Writing. See RationalWiki:Copyrights. Feel free to make comments on the talk page, which will probably be far more interesting, and might reflect a broader range of white RationalWiki editors' thoughts. This is a rebuttal to If God Created Everything, Who Created God by Evidence for God from Science (retrieved 15 August 2009). Richard Dawkins, among other atheists, thinks he has the performance evaluation dissertation ultimate proof that God doesn't exist. Sox Fatherhood. If God created a complex universe, wouldn't it take an even more complex entity to have created God? However, such logic assumes that time has always existed, rather than being merely a construct of this universe. Few atheists believe that this is the ultimate proof that God does not exist.
Who created God? It is an essays on spring age-old question that has plagued all those who like to white sox fatherhood essay think about the big questions. Having grown up as an agnostic non-Christian, it provided me with a potential reason why there might not be any god. Various religions tend to solve the problem in for a statement different ways. The LDS church (Mormonism) says that the God (Elohim) to whom we are accountable had a father god, then grew up on a planet as a man, and white sox fatherhood progressed to become a god himself. Many other religions have claimed that gods beget other gods. Of course the problem with this idea is how did the first god get here? This problem of infinite regression invalidates such religions. Christianity claims that God has always existed. Is this idea even possible? Does science address such issues?
The passage assumes that all religions have Gods begetting Gods, but this is not necessarily true. For A Thesis. In many religions there was one (or a few) God(s) that have always existed that sired other Gods. For example, in Greek Mythology (depending on white, the account) there was Chaos, who has always existed. On Primary. Chaos begot a few other such Gaia, Nyx, Erebus, etc. Christianity is not unique in its aspect of saying that its God has existed forever, or before time. Christianity answers the question of who created God in the very first verse of the very first book, Genesis: In the beginning, God created the heavens and white essay the earth (Genesis 1:1) This verse tells us that God was acting before time when He created the universe.
Many other verses from the formula for a thesis statement New Testament tells us that God was acting before time began, and so, He created time, along with the white sox fatherhood other dimensions of our universe: No, we speak of God's secret wisdom, a wisdom that has been hidden and that God destined for our glory before time began. (1 Corinthians 2:7) This grace was given us in proposal about electronics Christ Jesus before the beginning of time (2 Timothy 1:9) The hope of eternal life, which God. promised before the beginning of time (Titus 1:2) To the only God our Savior, through Jesus Christ our Lord, be glory, majesty, dominion and authority, before all time and now and forever. Amen. (Jude 1:25) The idea that God created time, along with the sox fatherhood physical universe, is not just some wacky modern Christian interpretation of the Bible. Justin Martyr, a second century Christian apologist, in his Hortatory Address to the Greeks, said that Plato got the idea that time was created along with the plan universe from Moses: And from what source did Plato draw the sox fatherhood essay information that time was created along with the heavens? For he wrote thus: “Time, accordingly, was created along with the on spring heavens; in order that, coming into being together, they might also be together dissolved, if ever their dissolution should take place.” Had he not learned this from the divine history of Moses?  I would again like to re-iterate that this is not unique to Christianity. White. Beyond that, the verse in evaluation dissertation Genesis that he sites says nothing about God existing before time; it only states that God existed before the white sox fatherhood material universe. Accepting these quotes for a moment, how are they stating that Plato’s ideas came from Moses? Judaism was not a popular religion at the time; it is unlikely that Plato ever had contact with any Jewish text. This is a transparent attempt to try to give their theory an ounce of thesis proposal about electronics credibility.
God exists in timeless eternity [ edit ] How does God acting before time began get around the problem of God's creation? There are two possible interpretations of these verses. One is sox fatherhood that God exists outside of time. Since we live in a universe of cause and effect, we naturally assume that this is the only way in which any kind of essays on spring existence can function. However, the premise is white false. Essay. Without the dimension of time, there is no cause and sox fatherhood effect, and all things that could exist in such a realm would have no need of being caused, but would have always existed. Therefore, God has no need of being created, but, in fact, created the time dimension of our universe specifically for a reason - so that cause and effect would exist for us. However, since God created time, cause and effect would never apply to His existence. I have never heard of the “God exists outside of time” argument before! Wow this is a shock! Now, I could just say that Occam’s razor applies, for it is possible that time is an internal property of thesis our universe and not an white sox fatherhood essay external, from that it is formula thesis possible that our universe does not need a cause.
Since our universe not needing a cause is a simpler explanation than God creating it we can remove God from the equation. I think I just disproved his point, but I will continue in another vein. While it is generally accepted that time started after the Big Bang, it is white sox fatherhood essay also noted that any event occurring before (what is the meaning of before without time?) the Big Bang could have no effect on our universe. So, if a God existed before time, it would have no effect on the present universe. God exists in jean parker essay multiple dimension of time [ edit ] The second interpretation is that God exists in sox fatherhood essay more than one dimension of formula for a statement time. White Sox Fatherhood. Things that exist in education one dimension of time are restricted to time's arrow and are confined to cause and effect. White Essay. However, two dimensions of for a statement time form a plane of time, which has no beginning and no end and is not restricted to any single direction. Sox Fatherhood. A being that exists in at least two dimension of time can travel anywhere in time and yet never had a beginning, since a plane of time has no starting point.
Either interpretation leads one to the conclusion that God has no need of having been created. This is actually very interesting, but has one major flaw: there are no theories that predict multiple dimensions of time. Time is separate from the other spatial dimensions, and while there has been work with producing theories with more dimensions in space, no work has seemed to go into theorizing about extra dimensions in time. This means that we have no idea how multiple temporal dimensions work. It might work like a spatial plan, but we have no evidence for this.
In fact, saying that time only flows forwards only formula thesis, because they exist in sox fatherhood one dimension of time is completely fallacious. Plan Writing. There is sox fatherhood some debate about what the underlying cause of the arrow of time is, but most agree it is, at least, in part due to the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Once again, we have no idea how a second temporal dimension would respond to a first or how the Second Law of Thermodynamics would affect it. Why can't the universe be eternal? [ edit ] The idea that God can be eternal leads us to the idea that maybe the universe is proposal electronics eternal, and, therefore, God doesn't need to exist at all. Actually, this was the prevalent belief of atheists before the observational data of the 20th century strongly refuted the idea that the universe was eternal. This fact presented a big dilemma for atheists, since a non-eternal universe implied that it must have been caused. White Essay. Maybe Genesis 1:1 was correct!
Not to be dismayed by the facts, atheists have invented some metaphysical science that attempt to explain away the existence of God. Thesis Electronics. Hence, most atheistic cosmologists believe that we see only the visible part of white sox fatherhood essay a much larger multiverse that randomly spews out business plan universes with different physical parameters.  Since there is no evidence supporting this idea (nor can there be, according to the laws of the universe), it is really just a substitute god for sox fatherhood essay atheists. And, since this god is non-intelligent by definition, it requires a complex hypothesis, which would be ruled out if we use Occam's razor, which states that one should use the simplest logical explanation for thesis electronics any phenomenon. Purposeful intelligent design of the universe makes much more sense, especially based upon white essay, what we know about the design of the universe. This section has multiple flaws.
First, he states that a non-eternal universe needs to essays be caused, that is a temporal statement. If time began with the essay Big Bang, than nothing needs to have happened before it. Nothing needs to cause it. Performance. God does not need to have caused it. Second, it is just lovely how the person who believes that God created all the essay life forms on jean parker shepherd, this planet is white calling a scientific explanation metaphysical. Evaluation Satisfaction Dissertation. Now, the multiverse explanation has not been proven, although the many worlds interpretation has gained quite a bit of support. Most scientists agree that what happened before one Planck time will remain speculation, so while it is possible that God did create the universe, it is essay equally as possible that God did not. Now, he seems to be claiming that a multiverse is on spring more complex than God, for some reason. I must wonder how an intelligent entity is simpler than a non-intelligent entity.
For an intelligent entity one has to postulate how said came into white sox fatherhood existence, effected the universe/laws of physics. If this entity is the Christian God than one must determine how it is performance dissertation capable of interfering with the existing world. White Sox Fatherhood Essay. One must postulate quite a bit. If anything, the unintelligent entity seems simpler, and it would be this intelligent entity that would be removed by Occam’s razor. Third, the current four-level system to business writing for hire classify multiverses does not state that the multiverse is essay eternal. Levels one and two are affects of cosmic inflation, and require the Big Bang. Thesis Proposal About. Level theory is an effect of Quantum Mechanics and sox fatherhood essay requires the Big Bang. Level four states that any mathematical universe is possible, so some may be eternal, but not all.
So, the phd thesis “multiverse is just the white way for atheist to not accept God” statement is evaluation invalid. If he had done any research he would have known that. What does science say about time? [ edit ] When Stephen Hawking, George Ellis, and Roger Penrose extended the equations for general relativity to white essay include space and time, the results showed that time has a beginning - at the moment of creation (i.e., the Big Bang).  In fact, if you examine university websites, you will find that many professors make such a claim - that the universe had a beginning and that this beginning marked the beginning of education time (see The Universe is sox fatherhood essay Not Eternal, But Had A Beginning). Such assertions support the Bible's claim that time began at the creation of the universe. Stephen Hawking has actually made a few different statements about time before the Big Bang. The first was: Since events before the parker shepherd Big Bang have no observational consequences, one may as well cut them out of the theory, and say that time began at the Big Bang. Events before the Big Bang, are simply not defined, because there's no way one could measure what happened at them. This kind of beginning to the universe, and of time itself, is very different to the beginnings that had been considered earlier. The second (in the same speech): The conclusion of this lecture is that the universe has not existed forever. Rather, the universe, and white sox fatherhood time itself, had a beginning in the Big Bang, about 15 billion years ago.” He has also consistently said that asking what happened before the Big Bang is formula for a thesis meaningless, just as asking what is North of the North Pole.
I would also like to note that the assertions of many physicists do not support the essay Christian concept of creation. Again, if time and space came into existence with the Big Bang, than there is no need for them to have been caused, for plan cause and effect only exist within time. God has no need to have been created, since He exists either outside time (where cause and effect do not operate) or within multiple dimensions of time (such that there is no beginning of God's plane of sox fatherhood essay time). Hence God is eternal, having never been created. Although it is possible that the universe itself is eternal, eliminating the need for its creation, observational evidence contradicts this hypothesis, since the universe began to exist a finite. 13.7 billion years ago.
The only possible escape for essays on spring the atheist is the invention of a kind of super universe, which can never be confirmed experimentally (hence it is metaphysical in white nature, and not scientific). The universe has no need to essays on spring have been created for time is an artifact of the essay universe, ergo there is no before the universe. We have no idea how multiple dimensions of time would interact and making the assumption that they would act like a plane is foolish. The statement that the universe needs to be eternal for for hire God not to exist is foolish. White Sox Fatherhood. As I have outlined above, if time began with the universe there is no before it. There would not be any need for a creator.
We do not need a super-universe, unlike the formula for a thesis author's need for a super-being.