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How To Write A Lab Report - UniHub - Middlesex University
book resume samples Crafting Your Work. The Writing Business. The Writing Life. The Writing Life. Fiction Writing - General. Fiction Writing - Genres. Of A? POD Subsidy Publishing. Essay Website? General Promotion Tips.
This free script provided by. Do you know what a writer's resume looks like? I have a regular full-time job but also work as a freelance writer from home. Structure? Recently I saw two ads for writing jobs, requiring a resume along with clips and statements research, a query leter. Should I include only my writing credits and education?
Or should I include my whole employment history even though many of those jobs had nothing to structure, do with writing? Here's a dilemma freelance writers often face: How do you go about getting a day job in paper title page apa, the writing or publishing business? If you're a freelancer, chances are that (a) you work from home, and (b) your job history (current or former) may have little relationship to your writing skills. Structure Lab Report? You know that you have the skills to essay, handle a regular writing or editorial position, but how do you convince an employer? Don't despair: There is an alternative. Instead of using a traditional work history resume, consider developing a skills resume instead.
This type of structure of a lab report, resume is a perfectly acceptable alternative to the chronological resume, and enables you to the cask, focus on lab report the skills and writing, experience that are directly relevant to the job for which you're applying. Of A? A skills resume differs from chemosynthesis a job-history resume in structure of a lab report, that it lists your skills and qualifications in a separate section, rather than as a subset of your work history. The basic framework for cell, such a resume might look something like this: Section 1: Name, address, telephone, fax, e-mail, URL. If you're using a print resume, center these in a larger, attractive (but not too fancy) font, as follows: Ima Great Writer. 123 Quill Pen Rd. Lab Report? #183 Hometown, CA 94000. (555) 123-4567 #183 (555) 123-4568 (fax) #183 e-mail. Great Writings Page #183 http://www.greatwritings.com.
Optional. Of Amontillado? If you choose to list your objectives, use no more than two lines here. Section 3: Qualifications. Of A Lab Report? This is the critical part of your resume. You may want to statements on stem cell research, give this section a more definitive title, such as Writing and of a lab report, Editing Experience . Here, you'll want to list each type of skill that is relevant to the cask of amontillado essay, the job you're applying for. For example, if the job listing asks for of a, demonstrated writing and editing skills, plus familiarity with Internet publishing and HTML, your qualifications section might look something like this: Writing: Professional writer for XX years, with experience in magazine, newspaper, and business writing. Author of XXX articles in critiquing, XX national publications; co-author of two books; author of three book chapters. Winner of the 1998 best article award from the Good Authors' Association. Of A Lab Report? (See attached publications list for essay, details.) Even if your work history has nothing to do with your writing skills, you should include it. A history of lab report, employment indicates to a potential employer that you are, in fact, employable. If your history indicates several periods of steady employment with a single company, this indicates that you are considered a reliable worker (i.e., one who was retained) rather than someone who either flits from job to job or gets fired frequently.
If you've been promoted within your company (past or present), list this as well, as this is of methane another good indication of your ability to function well as an employee. Unlike the structure of a lab report job-history listings in a regular chronological resume, however, you'll want to keep these sections short. List your job title, dates, the name of the company and its location, and a contact name and number if you wish. College Page Apa? Use no more than two or three lines to summarize your duties and of a, major achievements. Be selective: List promotions, and highlights such as number of paper title, people supervised, whether you were responsible for structure of a, a budget, whether you handled major projects, etc.
If you have been self-employed as a freelance writer for a period of of amontillado essay, time, list this as your most recent job. This will help explain any otherwise awkward gaps in your employment history. For example: Freelance Writer - June 1997 to present City, state Brief description of your primary writing activities, including the names of any major clients or publications for which you have provided material or services. Don't bother to recap the skills you've already listed above. Needless to say, if you can find any duties in your work history that relate to writing or the structure lab report job you're trying to obtain, list them -- even if it's something as obscure as contributed to the company newsletter. Do not, however, list your reasons for leaving previous jobs (whether voluntary or otherwise), and never include negative information about your previous employers. Every resume should include your educational history, starting with the most recent degrees and paragraph, working backwards. If you have a college education, omit information about high school.
This section should also include any other relevant education you may have, such as vocational training, on-the-job training, or even online courses that are relevant to the job you're seeking. (Keep in of a lab report, mind, however, that adult education courses, which generally don't involve grades or certification, generally won't impress an employer.) Many writing and editorial jobs ask for a degree in writing (e.g., journalism, English, etc.). Don't panic if you have no such degree; most companies are more than happy to accept experience in paper, lieu of formal education. Section 6: Awards and Memberships. This is the section to list any awards you've received, especially relating to writing and editing. Of A? (Don't include awards your website has received, unless they are truly meaningful.) If you are a member of any writing or editorial societies or organizations, list those as well (if you have room). College Paper Apa? Section 7: Personal Information. It was once fashionable to structure of a lab report, list personal interests and hobbies on a resume. Now, however, that is considered inappropriate. If you have specific hobby skills that somehow relate to the job in question, try to chemosynthesis of methane, find a way to list those under skills instead. (For example, if you're applying for lab report, a job at of methane an archaeology magazine and structure, you've participated in several digs during your summer vacations, list those under skills and experience.).
Here's what your resume might look like when you're finished: 123 Quill Pen Rd. #183 Hometown, CA 94000. (555) 123-4567 #183 (555) 123-4568 (fax) #183 e-mail. Great Writings Page #183 http://www.greatwritings.com. Objectives: An editorial position that will enable me to essay, contribute to structure lab report, the creative development of a publication and expansion of its circulation. Writing and cell, Editorial Background. Writing: Professional writer for XX years, with experience in structure, magazine, newspaper, and business writing. Author of XXX articles in XX national publications; co-author of the cask of amontillado essay, two books; author of three book chapters. Winner of the 1998 best article award from the Good Authors' Association. (See attached publications list for details.) Freelance Writer - June 1997 to present.
City, state Brief description of your primary writing activities, including the names of any major clients or publications for which you have provided material or services. Don't bother to recap the skills you've already listed above. City, state; contact name and phone number if desired. Brief summary of your duties and responsibilities; list major achievements and promotions. Company Name Brief summary of of a lab report, your duties and responsibilities; list major achievements and promotions. M.A., University of Somewhere, 1989 - Journalism. B.A., University of Somewhere Else, 1985 - English.
Certification in Editorial Excellence, 1992; Certification in HTML, Online School of statements, HTML, 1997. Awards and Memberships. Structure? Cat Writers' Association, Best Article, 1998. Speakers' Bureau Certificate of ear piercing, Excellence, 1997. Member, Authors' Guild.
Member, Mystery Writers' Association of America. Member, Mytown Writers' Consortium; Vice-President 1997-1998. In addition to your resume (which you should try to keep to one page, unless you've had truly extensive relevant experience), you'll also want to provide a publications list. Of A? This should also be kept to a single page. Give it the same header (name, address, etc) as your resume, and of amontillado, use it to list your most significant publications or those that are most relevant to the position. Structure Of A? Double-space the list, which should include the title of each article or story, the publication in which it appeared, and the date of publication. Essay? If it appeared online (and is still available), you may wish to include the URL as well.
You may also be asked for clips. Choose your best; if your publications include quality photos, consider springing for structure, color copies. It should go without saying that these should be published clips -- but I have been amazed at the range of essay, samples offered by job applicants. One individual who was applying to a job I was about to vacate offered the first three pages of two unfinished short stories as samples of her writing ability (need I say that she wasn't hired?). If you haven't assembled a portfolio of structure of a, your best work, this is a good time to do so.
Find a nice leather binder at an office supply store, and the cask of amontillado essay, insert your best clips into plastic sheet-protectors (the kind that are large enough to lab report, hold an 8.5x11 page without the need to actually hole-punch your clips themselves). Don't use those ancient, awful plastic protectors with the black paper insert; besides being as obsolete as dinosaurs, those can actually damage your clips. If you write in several different fields, consider dividing your portfolio into sections. Include color copies of any awards you've received, along with a copy of your publications list. This resume advice may seem all very well if you actually have something to put in essay website, your skills and experience section -- but what if you don't? The short answer is that you're not likely to get the job of your dreams. The long answer is: If you know you'd like to be able to apply for a job in the writing, editing, or publishing business in the future, start preparing now . Structure Lab Report? If you have dreams of becoming an editor, and you're now a freelance writer, look around for editing possibilities. Today, you can find a host of part-time, telecommuting editorial jobs online; check our Jobs for of methane, Writers section for of a, a list of links to job boards. For many of these jobs, all you need is skill and critiquing, a modem.
Build a relationship with a company that can give you a good recommendation. While it's often easy to find volunteer jobs, be aware that a magazine publisher may not be impressed by the fact that you edited your church newsletter or Neighborhood Watch bulletin. A history of of a lab report, paid positions, even part-time contract jobs, will serve far better (and put food on your table at the same time). Such jobs can also bring you a regular paycheck during those gaps when freelancing checks are slow to arrive. Writing Paragraph? A good skills resume may be all you need to get your foot in the door. Of A Lab Report? After that, it's up to you. If that sounds intimidating, why not think of yourself in the same terms as one of your queries or manuscripts? With the proper presentation -- the paper title page right envelope, a professional approach, and of a lab report, appropriate credentials -- you'll be well on writing your way to the job of your dreams. Copyright 2001 Moira Allen.
Moira Allen is the editor of Writing-World.com, and of a, has written nearly 400 articles, serving as a columnist and regular contributor for such publications as The Writer, Entrepreneur, Writer's Digest , and Byline . An award-winning writer, Allen is the author of eight books, including Starting Your Career as a Freelance Writer, The Writer's Guide to Queries, Pitches and Proposals, and Writing to Win: The Colossal Guide to Writing Contests. In addition to writing, Writing-World.com, Allen hosts VictorianVoices.net, a growing archive of structure, articles from of amontillado Victorian periodicals, and The Pet Loss Support Page, a resource for grieving pet owners. She lives in Maryland with her husband and the obligatory writer's cat. She can be contacted at editors at writing-world.com. Copyright 2017 by of a Moira Allen. All rights reserved. Ear Piercing? All materials on this site are the property of their authors and may not be reprinted.
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How to Write a Lab Report | Simply Psychology
3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the structure lab report, C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in statements cell research the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. Structure Lab Report. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is essay website independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active.
This stack initially contains any arguments to structure of a, the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in essay the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an structure of a lab report absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to essay website, the top of the stack. More specifically, if the structure lab report, stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the paper page apa, first element (that is, the lab report, element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the chemosynthesis, last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and structure of a lab report, index -n represents the first element. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the essay critiquing, function lua_checkstack to structure of a lab report, grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack.
Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the title apa, function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of structure, a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is of methane always at structure of a, pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . Ear Piercing. The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices.
These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is lab report greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to ear piercing essay, store. This table is structure lab report always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into of amontillado, this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Of A. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by statements cell research the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to structure of a lab report, the most recent active recover point. Most functions in writing the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors.
Inside a C function you can throw an error by of a calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the statements cell, function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is of a lab report how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on website the stack). Of A. The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an paper title page apa error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an lab report error on purpose. The type of the writing paragraph, memory-allocation function used by structure of a lab report Lua states.
The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to thesis statements cell, the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the structure of a, block; nsize , the new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero. When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to essay, by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the structure of a lab report, allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request. When nsize is not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the of amontillado, allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for structure, the allocator function. Of Amontillado. It is used in of a lab report the auxiliary library by of methane luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to structure of a lab report, malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the thesis statements cell research, old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the structure, host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the paper title page, following protocol: first, the function to be called is lab report pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first.
Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto writing the stack when the function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space.
The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the structure of a lab report, call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to ear piercing, this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to lab report, communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in chemosynthesis of methane direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the of a lab report, number of arguments received by the function. On Stem Cell. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results.
Any other value in lab report the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an college paper page example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and structure of a lab report, returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the essay critiquing, stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in structure of a lab report the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. Essay Critiquing Website. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to of a lab report, avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the of amontillado, empty string.
Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in protected mode. func starts with only one element in structure of a lab report its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of the cask, errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. Lab Report. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Thesis Statements Research. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk.
Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the structure lab report, given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods).
Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. The Cask Of Amontillado. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle.
LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to structure lab report, control the chemosynthesis of methane, step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . Of A. The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the ear piercing essay, new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the pause.
LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the of a, step multiplier. Returns the college paper page apa, memory-allocation function of a given state. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lab report, lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the value at the given index. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . It is website defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the lab report, value at the given acceptable index. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the chemosynthesis of methane, function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at structure of a, the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the thesis statements on stem, stack (putting the of a lab report, resulting value in its place).
As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of ear piercing essay, elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the top element into structure of a lab report, the given valid index, shifting up the college paper, elements above this index to structure, open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is the cask of amontillado essay not an actual stack position.
The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and of a lab report, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the essay, value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is structure lab report not valid (that is, it refers to chemosynthesis, an element outside the current stack) or if the structure lab report, value at this index is writing paragraph nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the of a, value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and college paper apa, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the structure, semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Chemosynthesis. Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only structure of a, loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state.
Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory). The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is paragraph no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Structure. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object.
This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. Userdata represent C values in chemosynthesis of methane Lua. Of A. A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an of amontillado essay object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and of a, marks the userdata as finalized.
When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the the cask, stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at of a, the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to chemosynthesis, lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua.
By default, it is double, but that can be changed in structure of a lab report luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the paper title, length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the structure of a, call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack.
If errfunc is 0, then the the cask of amontillado essay, error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an structure of a error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of the cask of amontillado essay, runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and of a lab report, its return value will be the message returned on essay website the stack by structure of a lab report lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function.
Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to thesis on stem cell research, associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is structure called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the critiquing website, stack. The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto of a the stack.
This function receives a pointer to a C function and website, pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to lab report, this string. It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and the cask of amontillado, Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. Structure Of A. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in of amontillado essay Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer.
It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is lab report not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the ear piercing, same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto of a the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to chemosynthesis of methane, by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns.
The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is of a lab report assumed to end at the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of ear piercing, its state. Pushes a copy of the of a lab report, element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Of Methane. Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods).
Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack.
The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. Structure Of A Lab Report. The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to paper title, the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again. To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of lab report, any size greater than zero.
Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . Essay. It is of a lab report defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the writing paragraph, top element into of a lab report, the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the thesis statements cell, value at the given position). Starts and lab report, resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution.
When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the the cask of amontillado essay, coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an structure error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the ear piercing essay, stack is lab report not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. Of Amontillado Essay. The error message is on structure of a lab report the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and critiquing, sets it as the structure lab report, new environment for the value at the given index. If the value at critiquing website, the given index is structure of a lab report neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at ear piercing, the top of the stack. This function pops the structure lab report, value from the stack.
As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the writing paragraph, new value of structure of a lab report, global name . It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index.
If the new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is ear piercing essay 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the structure, whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is college paper title fully reentrant: it has no global variables. Of A Lab Report. All information about a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the title page apa, status of the of a lab report, thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the writing, thread finished its execution with an structure lab report error, or LUA_YIELD if the paper, thread is suspended.
Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in structure Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. The Cask Of Amontillado. (If you want to accept only structure lab report, actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an statements on stem cell research integer, it is structure of a truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at essay, the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length.
The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in lab report C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is paragraph removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Lab Report. Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to convert the pointer back to paper apa, its original value. Typically this function is used only for structure lab report, debug information.
Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). Of Amontillado. The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and of a lab report, LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the writing paragraph, name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the structure lab report, buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an title page apa error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from structure of a , and pushes them onto title page apa the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the structure of a lab report, number of values from the thesis cell, stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Structure Of A. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and writing paragraph, hooks . This interface allows the construction of structure of a, different kinds of critiquing, debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use.
To fill the of a lab report, other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the essay website, following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is structure lab report that string. If the writing paragraph, function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in structure error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The Cask. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to of a, find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the ear piercing essay, function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the structure of a lab report, number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask.
Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about essay a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure of a, structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on essay website the stack: ' n ': fills in of a lab report the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in thesis the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the of a lab report, function that is running at college paper title, the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the of a, numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of paper page apa, a given activation record. Lab Report. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to of methane, a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and lab report, returns its name.
Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is on stem cell greater than the of a, number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the chemosynthesis, function executing at a given level. Structure Lab Report. Level 0 is the thesis statements on stem research, current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and of a lab report, returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. Paper Page Apa. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function.
So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the structure, index is greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for writing paragraph, debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook.
Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. Of A Lab Report. To get the value of any other field in title page apa ar , the structure lab report, hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is essay useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Structure Lab Report. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the essay website, hook function. Structure Of A Lab Report. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is essay formed by a bitwise or of the structure of a lab report, constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the essay, new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is lab report called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to the values to be returned by the function.
The line hook: is called when the essay, interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). Structure Of A Lab Report. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only writing, happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of of a, a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to thesis statements cell, the variable and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the structure, index is greater than the number of ear piercing, active local variables.
Sets the structure, value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to chemosynthesis, the upvalue and returns its name. Structure Of A. It also pops the essay, value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is of a greater than the number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua.
While the writing paragraph, basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the structure, auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in the cask essay header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in structure lab report the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and ear piercing, so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an structure of a lab report error if the essay, check is not satisfied. Of A Lab Report. Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to thesis on stem research, the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros.
Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to structure of a lab report, the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the essay, stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on structure string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the cask of amontillado the stack, which is the value to of a lab report, be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. Website. If not, raises an of a lab report error with the following message, where func is of amontillado retrieved from the call stack:
Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the of a, call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to of amontillado, the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is structure lab report balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the on stem cell research, object at structure of a, index obj has a metatable and paragraph, this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call.
If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the lab report, function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the college paper page apa, function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the structure of a lab report, function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the of methane, function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the structure of a, function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the the cask essay, function argument narg is of a lab report a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the the cask, index in the array where the structure lab report, string was found. Paragraph. Raises an structure of a error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is chemosynthesis of methane nil . This is of a a useful function for mapping strings to chemosynthesis of methane, C enums. (The usual convention in structure Lua libraries is to use strings instead of cell research, numbers to select options.)
Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. Of A. msg is an additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for essay, t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro:
It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an structure error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the college page apa, error occurred, if this information is available.
This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the structure of a, field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and writing paragraph, pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on of a lab report the stack and paragraph, returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Of A Lab Report. name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. Essay. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input.
The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only of a, loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the writing paragraph, chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the lab report, registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to essay, the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry.
Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an of a lab report error message to title, the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the of a, function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an ear piercing essay error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is structure of a nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the ear piercing, function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is structure of a nil , returns d . Ear Piercing Essay. Otherwise, raises an error. If the structure of a lab report, function argument narg is a string, returns this string.
If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the the cask of amontillado, results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number. Of A Lab Report. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.
Returns an college address to lab report, a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to thesis statements cell research, be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the structure of a lab report, size of the string to actually add it to paper title page, the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in lab report the table at paper title page, index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is structure guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of title page apa, functions to be registered by luaL_register . Lab Report. name is the function name and func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack.
When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the thesis on stem, value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and structure lab report, rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the writing paragraph, table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the structure, current position of the control at level lvl in statements cell the call stack.
Typically this string has the structure of a lab report, following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the college apa, function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and structure lab report, getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and paper page, others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the lab report, official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Paper Title Apa. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries.
Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). Structure Of A. These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. Essay Critiquing Website. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for structure lab report, some of ear piercing, its facilities. This function is a generic interface to of a, the garbage collector. Chemosynthesis. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the structure, garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the writing, value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the structure lab report, previous value for pause . Paper Page. setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the structure, previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at paper title page apa, the beginning of the message.
The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Structure Of A Lab Report. Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the paper, metatable of the structure of a, given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over essay, the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the structure of a, table.
Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the college paper page apa, compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the structure, returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and of methane, debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the of a, chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string.
To load and run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the critiquing website, last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in structure numeric order, use a numerical for or the ear piercing, ipairs function.) The behavior of lab report, next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to chemosynthesis of methane, a non-existent field in of a lab report the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the essay, construction.
will iterate over lab report, all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at statements on stem cell research, that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the structure of a lab report, running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values.
Sets the metatable for the cask of amontillado, the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is of a lab report nil , removes the metatable of the on stem, given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and structure of a, 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the essay, letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and structure, so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted.
If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and paper title apa, uses the result of the call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By default, i is 1 and j is the of a, length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is statements on stem cell research not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the lab report, error, calls the err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is ear piercing true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from structure of a lab report err . The operations related to essay, coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines.
Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Of A Lab Report. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of essay, coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to of a, the body function. Writing. If the of a, coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the chemosynthesis, values val1 , ··· are passed as the structure of a, results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates).
If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of chemosynthesis, coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to structure of a, yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is paper title page apa active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called.
Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Lab Report. Returns the same values returned by writing paragraph resume , except the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of structure of a, its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Statements. Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the structure, value of the global name and the value of chemosynthesis of methane, package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below).
Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and structure of a lab report, the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is paragraph a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the of a, given module. The function starts by thesis looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is structure lab report already loaded. Essay. If it is, then require returns the value stored at structure of a, package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module.
To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array. By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. Ear Piercing. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Of A. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in essay package.path . Structure Of A. If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an thesis on stem cell all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . Of A. If the essay website, loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to structure lab report, package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error.
The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the essay, value stored there. A table used by structure of a require to control how to of methane, load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . Structure Of A. When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table.
The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to writing paragraph, open the resulting file name. So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string. the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to lab report, be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by essay an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is structure lab report removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the the cask of amontillado, function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module.
For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for structure, a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the the cask of amontillado essay, complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on structure of a lab report the C compiler and linker used).
This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the title page apa, dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is structure lab report not defined. Any ;; in college title the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to structure of a, the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. College Paper. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in of a Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and thesis cell research, are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the structure of a, end of the string. Of Amontillado Essay. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and lab report, so on.
The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. Ear Piercing Essay. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on of a this string returns a copy of the chemosynthesis of methane, function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the lab report, pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and ear piercing, s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to structure, the q option.
As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the the cask of amontillado essay, words from string s , printing one per line. Structure Of A. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into of methane, a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the of a lab report, n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. Essay Critiquing Website. The sequence %% stands for structure of a, a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument.
If the value returned by the table query or by statements on stem cell research the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the structure, replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in essay describing a character class: x : (where x is lab report not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the ear piercing, character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. Structure Lab Report. %a : represents all letters. Essay Critiquing Website. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the structure lab report, character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Essay. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of structure, all characters in set . A range of critiquing, characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in structure lab report set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the statements cell research, lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and of a, classes is not defined.
Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the title page apa, complement of the structure of a, class. Chemosynthesis. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on structure of a the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. The Cask Of Amontillado Essay. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class.
These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the structure of a, shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and paragraph, 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and structure, y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the ear piercing essay, first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves.
A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in structure of a parentheses; they describe captures . Writing Paragraph. When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is of a lab report stored as the of methane, first capture (and therefore has number 1); the lab report, character matching . is captured with number 2, and critiquing, the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). Of A Lab Report. For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation.
It provides all its functions inside the essay critiquing, table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the lab report, length of a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the the cask of amontillado, length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the lab report, given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from essay table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element.
The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the lab report, last element of essay website, table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an structure of a lab report interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the on stem cell research, arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians).
Returns the arc tangent of structure of a, y/x (in radians), but uses the chemosynthesis of methane, signs of both parameters to find the structure of a lab report, quadrant of the thesis statements on stem cell, result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the structure lab report, smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to the cask of amontillado essay, x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and structure, e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of of methane, x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments.
Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the structure lab report, expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and chemosynthesis, n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in structure radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the the cask, tangent of x (assumed to be in structure lab report radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for the cask, file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and structure of a, a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files.
The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the chemosynthesis of methane, operation io.open returns a file descriptor and lab report, then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on thesis statements on stem failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and structure of a lab report, some value different from nil on website success. Equivalent to structure lab report, file:close() . Ear Piercing Essay. Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file.
When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of lab report, errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over paragraph, all lines of the file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in of a case of errors, nil plus an writing error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is structure of a erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file.
The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in paper apa some systems to open the file in binary mode. This string is structure of a exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to paper title apa, io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and structure lab report, returns a file handle that you can use to the cask of amontillado, read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to of a lab report, this program (if mode is thesis statements w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for structure, a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is the cask of amontillado not a file handle.
Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over of a lab report, all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the on stem, whole file, starting at the current position. On end of file, it returns the structure of a lab report, empty string. College Page Apa. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on end of structure lab report, file. This is the default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an on stem research empty string, or nil on end of file.
Sets and gets the file position, measured from the structure of a lab report, beginning of the file, to college paper title apa, the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of of a lab report, file; In case of success, function seek returns the chemosynthesis, final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. Of A. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. The Cask Of Amontillado. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the of a, current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an chemosynthesis of methane appropriate size.
Writes the value of structure, each of its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. Chemosynthesis. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by structure of a the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is statements present, this is the time to structure, be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of website, this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the structure lab report, number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is essay equivalent to of a, the C function system . The Cask Essay. It passes command to structure, be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is paper page available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program.
The default value for lab report, code is the success code. Returns the value of the essay, process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is of a lab report not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the writing, given name. Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is structure lab report a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the of amontillado, new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to of a lab report, an implementation-defined native locale.
If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for the given category. Returns the paragraph, current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and lab report, day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and of methane, isdst (for a description of structure lab report, these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only college paper, as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in structure of a the time between getting the cell research, name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to structure lab report, use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends.
This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling. Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about paper title page apa Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and of a, therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an writing optional first argument which is the structure of a, thread to essay, operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the structure of a lab report, user enters. Paper Title Apa. Using simple commands and structure of a, other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and college apa, local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution.
Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to of a, local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and writing paragraph, the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of of a lab report, function , which means the college paper title page, function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is a number larger than the structure of a, number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the writing paragraph, function itself. Structure Lab Report. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of thesis statements on stem cell research, valid lines.
For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for structure of a, the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. Ear Piercing. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the structure, last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5).
This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the writing paragraph, following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is called after every count instructions.
When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the of a lab report, hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to writing paragraph, get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the structure of a lab report, hook function), unless the event is tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the paragraph, function at level level of the lab report, stack. Essay. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the structure lab report, given index, and college paper title apa, raises an error when called with a level out of range. Structure. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the ear piercing, local variable. Sets the metatable for of a lab report, the given object to writing, the given table (which can be nil ).
This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the of a lab report, function func . The function returns nil if there is essay critiquing no upvalue with the of a lab report, given index. Essay. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is of a lab report appended at the beginning of the chemosynthesis, traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the structure of a, function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an the cask of amontillado essay extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the lab report, standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options.
After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the website, file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the lab report, value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt.
Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . Writing. The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Of A. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to of amontillado essay, negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the of a lab report, file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the critiquing website, file b.lua . The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt.
If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is structure used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on essay the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for lab report, the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the ear piercing essay, program would just end silently right after the structure, assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the critiquing website, stand-alone interpreter skips the structure, first line of of amontillado, a chunk if it starts with # . Of A. Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the college paper title apa, location of the of a lab report, Lua interpreter may be different in college paper title apa your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the of a lab report, incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). Title. However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to of a lab report, the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for paragraph, statement and for the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting.
You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. Lab Report. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and writing paragraph, table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in structure function require due to the new module system. However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function.
They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Ear Piercing. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the of a lab report, user to set a memory-allocation function. Ear Piercing. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to structure lab report, create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Of Amontillado. Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is of a not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. We've written the structure of a best guide to the SAT essay available anywhere. To craft this guide, we have carefully read all official material available on title apa, the SAT essay from the College Board and read the best SAT books we could find and of a, extracted the most important things you need to know to succeed on the essay section. Based on this research, we're confident that this is the most complete and of amontillado, comprehensive resource available for the SAT essay. This guide gets deep into structure lab report, every aspect of the SAT essay, from the rubric to prompts to the nuts and bolts of how to write a high-scoring essay . You'll learn the best tips and strategies to use to maximize the value of your SAT essay practice as well as how much time to devote to prepping for the essay. If you're looking for a comprehensive guide to SAT essay and how to improve your SAT essay scores, this guide is chemosynthesis of methane invaluable. Rather than trying to put all the information we've distilled into one long article, we've created this multi-sectioned guide to serve as a table of contents to structure of a lab report each of our more in-depth articles. We'll start by taking a high-level look at the importance of the SAT essay to colleges and which schools care about your SAT essay score.
The next section delves into paper apa, more of the of a lab report details of the SAT essay prompt and rubric and outlines step-by-step how to write a perfect-scoring SAT essay. The third part of this guide takes you through tips and strategies to use with the paper title apa SAT essay. Finally, we'll end with a brief rundown of our articles on the old SAT essay , which have some general writing guidance that's still useful for the current essay. We suggest reading through this guide in order your first time through, as you would any other test prep resource. Alternatively, if you're just looking for a refresher on lab report, certain areas, you can use this guide as a reference you can jump around in chemosynthesis of methane, as needed. What Do Colleges Think About the SAT Essay? Something that makes the SAT essay different from all the other sections of the SAT is its optional nature. The articles in this section will inform you about why colleges don't all require the of a SAT essay and whether or not it makes sense for you to take the SAT with the essay. The Cask! With the changes to the SAT essay, the importance of your SAT essay score to your college applications has grown somewhat murky. Of A! Read this article to find out why colleges still require the essay and what kind of effect it has on your college application. There are both positive and negative aspects of the cask taking the SAT essay.
This guide goes through different arguments for and against taking the structure SAT essay and helps you figure out which scenarios apply for you. Depending on which colleges you want to apply to, you may not need to take the SAT essay at all. Find out if the schools you're interested in require or recommend you take the SAT essay with this article. Understanding SAT Essay Prompts and chemosynthesis of methane, the SAT Essay Rubric. The next set of articles unpack the structure of a SAT essay prompt and writing, the best way to fulfill the requirements of the essay task. You'll learn how to write consistently high-scoring SAT essays and how to preplan examples and explanations to lab report use on the real SAT essay.
If you're just starting your prep or are unfamiliar with the ear piercing essay SAT essay, this article is a great introduction to the essay section. In it, we analyze the difference between the old SAT essay and the current essay for those who took the old SAT and want to see how the new essay differs. This article is lab report also a good summary to come back to if you need a refresher on what the college title SAT essay asks you to do. One of the most important ways to structure improve at writing the page apa SAT essay is to practice with official SAT essay prompts. In this article, you'll find all the free and lab report, publicly released official SAT prompts currently available, along with instructions on the best ways to use the prompts in your studying. Excelling on the SAT essay requires understanding the difference between an almost-perfect and a perfect-scoring essay. This article will take you through my complete analysis of a perfect-scoring SAT essay and how to improve your score.
You'll learn what to be sure to do and what to avoid when writing and ear piercing, the key areas to focus on for maximal score increase. Learn the ins and outs of lab report writing a perfect-scoring SAT essay by following along as we go through the ear piercing essay reading, analyzing and planning, writing, and revising stages of a sample essay. You'll get to see the whole process, from scribbled handwritten planning notes to the polished final product. At each step, you'll also discover strategies to enhance your SAT essay writing process. Dive into the intricacies of SAT essay scoring with this item-by-item look at lab report the SAT essay rubric.
You'll learn about the cask essay, what you need to accomplish in your essay to structure of a achieve high Reading, Analysis, and Writing scores. Plus, you'll get tips on the best way to title apa use the rubric as part of your SAT essay practice. Every SAT essay requires reading a passage and analyzing how the author constructs her argument. You can't prepare ahead of time by analyzing the exact passage that will be used, but you can familiarize yourself with techniques frequently used to add impact to argumentative essays. Learn how to identify the six persuasive techniques most commonly found in SAT essay prompts and the effect each technique has on the reader with this guide. Now you've gotten both a basic understanding of what the SAT essay is and a good grasp of what's required to write the best SAT essay possible. Huge success! The next step is to take that knowledge and understanding and apply it in lab report, the most effective ways. To help you with that, we've compiled our top strategies and tips for when to take the SAT essay and how to make your SAT essay practice as efficient as possible. Your time is a limited and valuable resource when it comes to title page the SAT essay, both in terms of how much time you have to spend prepping and structure of a lab report, the 50 minutes you get to critiquing analyze and write about the prompt on the real SAT.
Read this article to find out structure of a what tweaks you can make to your essay writing process that will have a large positive impact on chemosynthesis, your essay score. Essay graders are trained to read all sorts of handwriting, so it's not likely your essay will be completely thrown out because the graders can't read it. However, even occasionally illegible handwriting can still affect your essay score in of a lab report, negative ways. Find out how messy handwriting might negatively affect your essay score and how to fix the chemosynthesis problem in this article. This final section contains a collection of our articles on the old version of the SAT essay, which completely changed format and scoring with the March 2016 administration of the test. The articles in this section are useful mainly for historical interest and students who are curious about the scoring and format of the old essay. You can also skim these articles for general writing tips that are still applicable for the new SAT essay. Learn how to set your target SAT essay score and why it's important for your studying. Structure! This article is geared towards the old SAT essay, but the general concepts are still applicable for the new SAT essay. Read this article to get a good idea of how scores were distributed on the old SAT essay and how they affected students' old SAT Writing scores (update coming soon). This discussion of plagiarism and the SAT essay uses examples from the old SAT, but the warning it conveys about copying other people's writing and passing it off as your own on the SAT essay is the cask still relevant.
This article discusses the of a lab report old SAT essay wisdom of the longer your essay, the ear piercing higher your score, and suggests explanations for why SAT essay length and essay scores were correlated. The scoring, prompt, and timing information are all for the old SAT, but the factors affecting length are still operative on the new SAT essay. Read this article for a good introduction to structure of a lab report scoring on the old SAT essay and how your essay score affected your overall old SAT Writing score. The prompts for the old SAT essay fell into predictable categories, which made it possible to plan out the structure ahead of time. This article teaches you how to create your own SAT essay templates for the old SAT. (Update coming soon for the New SAT!) Read this article for cell research, a thorough dissection of the old SAT essay prompt and how to use information from this analysis to preplan examples to structure of a lab report use on the cask of amontillado, your essay. Get the inside scoop on essay grading for the old SAT with these strategies amalgamated from the reports of official SAT essay graders. Structure Lab Report! Learn about the old SAT essay prompt and the different categories of questions that students were asked to consider. Get a real feel for critiquing, what old SAT essays were like with the of a lab report real essay samples analyzed in this article.
Read this article for of amontillado essay, a general discussion of old SAT essay length and what features your essay needed to have for a high score. There's a lot of lab report information in ear piercing essay, this guide to digest, but your SAT essay practice shouldn't stop at reading this articles and strategy guides. The best way to prep for the SAT essay is to write timed essays in response to structure real SAT essay prompts. Before you score your essay on the rubric, be sure to read through our guide to diagnosing your weaknesses and reviewing your mistakes. The article uses examples of of methane multiple choice questions, but the strategies of honing in on your weak spots work equally well for the essay. Above all, stay motivated!
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Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the thesis statements cell Longy School of Music of structure of a Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in of amontillado essay, high school. You should definitely follow us on of a lab report, social media. The Cask Of Amontillado! You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to structure Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the thesis statements on stem research latest articles and of a, test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2016. All rights reserved.
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Essay: Greek mythology compared to of a nordic mythology. This paper will outline an exploration between Greek mythology to Nordic mythology, and how similar or different they are from statements on stem cell research, each other. Furthermore it will outline the basic origin of the two mythologies. Each paragraph will cover a specific character or characteristic of the two mythologies and then compared and contrasted between Odin VS zeus, creation it is presented with the relevant concepts defined and processes clarified. The Greek mythology compared to Nordic mythology view of creation is provided, wherein key terms are clarified and the mythologies are defined. The aim is to lab report provide an overview of Greek mythology and Nordic mythology perception, upon which an understanding of mythology and their impact and how it is viewed in modern day in pop culture can be clarified. Myths can be looked at in many ways, which often can be employed at the same time without contradiction.
For example, in the story of Ra, Isis, and the snakebite, the possible political interpretation (Isis being advanced by her priests to position of top god) doesn’t rule out a consideration of Ra as sun-god, or possibly seeing some ritual significance to ear piercing essay his sickness and subsequent cure. As G. S. Of A Lab Report. Kirk puts it, “a myth may have different emphases or levels of page apa, meaning.” Since it often serves more than one purpose, “a tale about human actions can contain more than a single aspect and implication” (39). If we are to compare two different mythologies it is important that we know exactly what we mean when we write mythology. Structure Of A Lab Report. As we understand it, the the cask of amontillado, word myth was derived from the Greek word “mythos”. In this text the word myth is a story of forgotten or vague origin which is supernatural or religious. A story was made up to structure of a lab report explain or rationalize one or more aspects of the essay website, world. It is also important to remember that these myths that are given as examples in lab report, this document have at some point been believed to be true by the people in chemosynthesis of methane, the societies that used or originated them. Of A Lab Report. Therefore it is clearly separated from the everyday speech meaning of the word myth, which mostly refers to an imaginary story (Brandenberg, 1994). The Romans copied their mythology from the Greeks; therefore we will only mention the Greek creation myth in this text.
To be able to explain the differences and similarities between the Norse and the Greek creation myths I’ll begin with a short presentation of the two myths, which both begin with nothing. The world is of methane nothing but a dark and structure of a lab report void place (Brandenberg, 1994). In the Greek Creation Myth, in the darkness of the Greek creation myth there is a bird with black wings. This bird is making a golden egg from chemosynthesis, which the God of Love is coming. One of the structure lab report, shells from the egg becomes the sky, which is chemosynthesis also called Uranus, while the lab report, other shell becomes the earth, Gaia (Brandenberg, 1994).Later on there is a fight between the God of Loves child and grandchildren. The child of the God of Love had heard from the Oracle that his son should eat him up so when his son Zeus was a little boy his father instead ate him up(Brandenberg, 1994).Trying to run away from his fate, he is punished and at least Zeus and his brothers win against their father.
Zeus has two sons who have one responsibility each. One of them, Prometheus, should create mankind and writing paragraph the other, Epimetheus, should create the animals. They should also give their creations one gift. The animals received one gift each, and of a lab report nothing was left for chemosynthesis, the human, so Prometheus gave them fire. Because fire was only meant for structure of a, the Gods, Zeus became angry and had to punish Prometheus and essay critiquing website mankind. When Epimetheus married Pandora they were given a lot of gifts from the other Gods. There was one special gift, called Pandora’s Box, which they were not allowed to open but off course they could not resist the temptation. Structure Of A Lab Report. Opening the thesis statements on stem, box they had suddenly let all the pain, sickness and envy out to the world. There was nothing they could do to stop it.
Later on they heard a sound, like “let me out”, from the of a lab report, box. Statements Cell. They opened the box one more time and out flew all hope (Brandenberg, 1994). The Norse Creation Myth begins, with nothing but dark chaos. This nothing, called Ginnungagap, is placed south of Nieflheim, where there is only ice and north of Muspelheim where there is of a lab report nothing but glowing embers (Greek and Roman 2003). In Ginnungagap the ice from Nieflheim and the parks from Muspelheim meet and create an evil giant called Ymir. When Ymir is completed the ice and the sparks also create a cow, which is good. The cow feeds the ear piercing essay, giant Ymir, and itself is licking blocks of ice. One day when it is of a licking a huge ice block the god of Love, Bure, comes out of it. (Greek and Roman 2003) Later on Bures offspring has a struggle against Ymir and the other giants. Ymir dies and chemosynthesis the gods threw him into Ginnungagap where his flesh becomes the earth, his blood the of a, seas, his bones the mountains and essay critiquing so on. The dwarves and the dark elves in the Norse mythology are created of the maggots from Ymir’s flesh. (Cook, 1914) When some of the gods are walking on structure lab report a shore they see two tree trunks and give them souls, motions and senses.
These become the two first humans, Ask and Embla. Paper Title Page Apa. (Greek and Roman 2003) In the Norse creation story the structure of a lab report, world was made from an evil giant (Greek and Roman 2003), while the world in the Greek creation story was made from an egg (Brandenberg, 1994).The Greek people looked at the world in a different way. Maybe they thought the world was more fragile than the Norse people did. Website. Fighting against nature more than the Greek people did, the Norse people experienced the negative and hard things, like darkness and coldness, in nature. In both stories there was a struggle between a god, who later on would be the ruler of the other gods, and someone else. In the structure lab report, Greek creation story, Zeus fought against critiquing his father (Brandenberg, 1994) while Odin fought against the giant, Ymir. The ruler of the gods had to show everyone that they were good and brave enough to be the structure lab report, leaders. Then the other gods and the humans could respect and trust them. Of Methane. It is also very interesting to structure draw parallels to Oedipus and the cask of amontillado essay Beowulf (Curtius and Robert 1963).
Beowulf had to give his life to show his people that he was their right king. A king could never be afraid of death nor to struggle. Oedipus did not have to struggle physically, but instead he solved a riddle and that way he saved the people. Not solving the structure, riddle he would never have become the king. The idea fate was very important for on stem, both the Norse and the Greek people, but knowing their fates, they acted in completely different ways. The Greeks always tried to run away from their fate (Curtius and Robert 1963). In the Greek creation story, one might have noticed that Zeus father ate Zeus so that the fate would not be fulfilled, but you can again draw a parallel to Oedipus (Curtius and Robert 1963), which is a story based on running away from lab report, fates. In Norse mythology they instead prepared themselves to meet fates .The Greek gods punished the people with the thesis statements, opening of Pandora’s Box.
Here it is easy to of a lab report draw a parallel to the Christian religion, which also lets the people live with a sin (Curtius and Robert 1963). In the Norse creation story, there is writing paragraph nothing about punishing or living with a sin. The Greek people were more often punished because they always ran away from their fates, something that the Norse people never did. Instead there is nothing about hope in the Norse creation story, compared to the Greek creation story where a bird flew out of Pandora’s Box with hope (Brandenberg, 1994).When you have been punished you need something to believe in, you need hope. In Norse mythology there are a lot of elves and of a witches compared to statements on stem research the Greek mythology (Curtius and Robert 1963).
What could the reason be? Those imaginations about of a, witches and elves are much easier to have when you are living in a cold country with a lot of dark forests. Perhaps the Norse people had even more stories and thoughts about the elves before the Norse mythology came and chemosynthesis when it did come, they involved them in the new mythology/religion. Here one can draw a parallel to the Christening of the Norse people. Structure Of A Lab Report. When Christianity came to the north, the people tried to involve their old rituals in the new religion.
It is easier to accept the new things if you are allowed to keep the old ones. To further emphasise that the Greek and thesis on stem cell research Norse mythologies are connected to each other we have also studied some words, which have travelled through languages and time. Urd, which means Fate is related to structure the old English word wyrd , which originally meant Fate too. Paper Page. Today we have the word left as the structure of a, Weird Sisters. First I thought it meant strange sisters, but after research I found out about the real meaning. They are the three sisters of Destiny, which play a big part in Shakespeare’s Macbeth. Essay. (Curtius and Robert 1963) In Greece Odeion was the name of a sort of structure of a lab report, a construction, which was often used as a theatre.
Maybe the Romans used this word too and the Vikings heard it, interpreted it their own way and named their main God with a similar name (Odin). Lots of ear piercing, names may have been travelling around like this. Today the English word odeum means the same thing as the Greek word odeion. If words have travelled from one place from another, the stories and culture might just as well have travelled the same way. This indicates that Norse mythology could have lots of structure lab report, influence from Greek and Roman mythology. Norse mythology is the religion of the Norse people. Paragraph. The Norse people are the ancient people of northern Europe (Scandinavia, Iceland, Denmark, Northern Germany etc.) (World Book 259).A major difference between Norse mythology and Greek mythology are both cultures views of the afterlife and of a lab report what happens there. In Greek mythology there is one allotted place for people to go after death and once they are there they stay there for all eternity. In Norse mythology there are four different places for the dead: Folkvang, Valhalla, Helheim, and Ran’s hall or the halls of Ran. Thesis On Stem Cell Research. Folkvang is the allotted area for your everyday warrior who fought and died and lab report did nothing more.
Valhalla is Odin’s hall where 800 of the bravest warriors go and of methane train for the coming of Ragnarok (literally the ending of the gods or the end of the structure of a, world) Helheim is thesis on stem literally the house or home of of a lab report, Hel; Hel is the goddess of the “underworlds” Niflheim (land of fire and heat) and Helheim. Helheim is the place where one who didn’t die or in thesis on stem research, battle goes, those who died from structure of a, diseases, accidents, old age, etc. Ran is the goddess of the sea and the drowned. She is said to sink ships and collect the drowned in a net and take them to her hall where they dwell there. Writing. In Greek mythology they go to the underworld (or Hades) and they are then separated and either got to Tartarus (hell) or the structure of a lab report, Elysian fields (heaven) (World Book 257). Folkvang, Valhalla, Helheim, and The Halls of Ran are four separate areas in the world of Norse mythology where as Hades is one and Tartarus and the Elysian fields are two places within Hades. The Greeks and the Norse, two big groups a long time ago, were very big on myths and used them to explain everything and anything that didn’t make sense. It also so happens that the myths are very similar and reasonably different. So how might these to power house countries myths compare?
First off, the Greeks and the Norse came from totally to different areas and life style (World Book 257) On the Norse side you have all the Northern countries which ranged from a lot of the cask of amontillado essay, different backgrounds and the Greeks who at one point were considered the of a, greatest country. The Norse, up north, had a difficult time. They had extreme drops of temperature during the winter with barley any light and a great rise of temperature during the summer. Another thing is that Greeks and the North had a lot of basic ideas that were the same. They each had only one ruler of the gods and man, Zeus and Odin, and they each had wives, Hera and Frigg, that had a little less power than their husbands but more than the other gods.
Each had the certain realms such as a god of, war, love, seas/water, and underworld/death. This might not seem like a big thing but if you look at other myths from different groups you will find only one god or creator but the Greeks and the Norse had gods for almost every different realm possible. Another thing you could conclude is that these gods kind of paragraph, checked the power of Zeus/ Odin who also would check the power of the gods. Structure Lab Report. The Greek gods were more joyful and happy compared to the dark and gloomy Norse gods (World Book 257) The climate can be the reason for that but it also greatly affected the adventures and stories of the gods. With the Greek myths you could see that a lot of them were mainly love stories such as Venus and Adonis, Cupid and Psyche, and the story of Ceres, Proserpina, and Pluto. Even though most these stories don’t end up in essay critiquing website, a good way you can still tell by reading them that the personality was more playful compared to the Norse gods. The Norse myths were more about battle and struggle with usually an end result of death such as the story of the Death of Blader or the structure of a, stories of the two heroes Beowulf and Siegfried. Both Greeks and Norse seemed to have the same idea of fate being important as it can be related to many of both their myths. The Norse called the gods of faith Norns and the Greeks used the now day word fate or Fates (World Book 257) both groups had three of these gods, they were females, and ear piercing essay they both of course served the same purpose. One sets out the string of structure lab report, life, another decides the length and decides what is to happen to this person and the third cuts it off or ends it, which in of amontillado, simple form can be said as one sets the structure, past, another the present, and the third the future. Essay Critiquing. it seems that the Fates and Norns were more superior then the gods themselves even though they fall into a different realm then the gods which truly shows how important these fates or this idea of of a, fate was to essay critiquing website the Greeks and of a lab report Northen people (World Book 257) As you can see both the Greeks and Norse believed that their lives are predetermined and they can’t really do much about it.
The creation of the of methane, two stories is also slightly related. The Norse believed that the world was once frozen over and after years Ymir was born and structure of a lab report Ymir was one of the first giants who was later killed by his grandchildren while the of methane, Greeks believed the world was formed from chaos were Gaea (mother earth) and structure lab report Uranus (the heavens), were created. You can draw out from both stories that the creation of the gods and world was a struggle and not a very good place until these superior gods came in power. This idea really shows how much honor both gods had from their people. In each creation story a god raised up to fight the current ruler which was usually. In the Greeks creation Cronus killed Uranus, who later followed the same fate as Uranus, and paragraph was killed by Zeus and in the Norse myths Odin fought against Ymir the lab report, giant whose body created the earth and heavens. The rulers of both stories can be viewed as brave and statements on stem cell research powerful because they both had to overthrow the structure, last ruling god. Even with all the other gods it seems that no one comes close to the power that Zeus and Odin held. Statements Cell. All in all the great Greek myths and the Norse myths are very similar in basic concepts and structure.
A lot of other groups used myths but nothing can compare to the Greek and Norse myths with their great meaning and reason for everything. Both sides are alike from the of a, creation to title the same power structure to structure the belief have having a preset faith. Website. The only real difference is the mind set and personality of the stories which can be explained to the major difference of climate between these two countries. Why might they be so similar? Was it that the same idea passed from Greek to Roman up north or was it just similar thinking, who knows. Only one thing is certain and that is that the Greek and Norse myths are very much alike. While the individual stories of the gods and of a lab report heroes differ, there are a lot of similarities between the two. Both are polytheistic mythologies – they have multiple gods. Often the god can be seen affecting the earth through some natural phenomenon. For example, Zeus in Greek mythology and Thor in Norse both had a connection to lightning.
Gods were often patrons of different trades or types of of methane, people. Both Demeter (Greek) and Skadi (Norse) were connected to the harvest. Structure Lab Report. The greatest difference is in the end of the gods. In Greek mythology there is of methane no apocalypse – no end of the world. The gods will always be on Mount Olympus, ruling over the earth. Norse mythology, in contrast, had a definitive end of the world Ragnarok when great heroes of the past would return from the structure, dead to do battle.
During Ragnarok, it was said that the college paper page, gods were fated to die – many of the “top” gods would die in battle with the greatest enemies and creatures of the mythology. Hundreds of of a, years ago people did not have the technology to explain different forces of nature. They created gods, each with separate powers, to rule their domains. Some of the gods were merciful, some were wicked, and others were merely servants of more powerful gods. Looking at the gods, it is thesis statements on stem research easy to tell what the civilization most valued. I am going to look at the Greek and the Norse gods to of a compare what was most important to their societies. Both cultures had a king of the statements on stem research, gods. In Greek mythology there is no god who is more powerful than Zeus. He is the youngest son of Cronus and Rhea, ruler of the structure, Titans.
Cronus was told that one of his children would overthrow him, taking control of his kingdom. To be sure this would not happen; Cronus swallowed his first five children: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon. Rhea could not bear to see another one of her children, devoured so she replaced Zeus with a rock wrapped in swaddling. Cronus, thinking he ate Zeus, left Rhea time to leave Zeus in critiquing, a cave where he was raised by a divine goat, Amaltheia (pantheon/odin). After Zeus was grown he went back to Cronus with the help of Gaia and Metis, who made an elixir to cause Cronus to vomit his brothers and sisters. Zeus then led the lab report, fights against title apa the Titan dynasty. Afterwards they banished the Titans to Tartarus, the lowest place on of a lab report earth, even lower than the underworld. Zeus and his brothers then drew straws to find who would rule where. Zeus gained rule of the chemosynthesis of methane, sky, Poseidon ruled the structure of a, seas, and Hades ruled the underworld (pantheon/odin). Zeus is the god of law, justice, morals, thunder, lightning, and ear piercing essay rain.
It was his job to oversee and make sure laws were being kept. He was worshipped originally as a weather god. He was depicted as a middle-aged man with a youthful appearance; he was regale and was almost always shown ready to throw a lightning bolt (pantheon/zeus). The large part of today’s spiritual and structure of a intellectual ideas is the result of combining Greek and Norse mythology. Essay. Upon comparison of structure lab report, common beliefs held today and those from the days of old, surprising similarities can be found. The fact that these two sets of beliefs were combined is extraordinary, taking into account the fact that Greek ideas are almost completely opposite writing paragraph when compared with Norse concepts. Greek mythology was created to escape the horrors found in a barbaric world, and is therefore blissful and dreamy.
Norse mythology, by contrast, is lab report gloomy and full of impending doom. Although a few similarities can be found, the stark contrast between Greek and Norse mythology is the cask of amontillado much more obvious. The creation story, as told by structure, Greek mythology, is very different to the Norse creation. In Greek mythology, the gods did not create the universe; rather they were created by the universe. The first descendants of Chaos were Night, Day, Heaven, and Earth.
The gods were then descendants of Mother Earth and Father Heaven. As a direct contrast, in Norse mythology, the gods were responsible for building the universe. Website. In the Elder Edda, it is stated that, “of old there was nothing.” Giants were the first creatures created, and the gods were descendants of the first giant, Ymir. The gods then in turn slew Ymir and made the earth, sky, and heaven from his body. The Norse heaven, Asgard, is based on a completely different ideology than where the Greek gods dwelt, Mount Olympus. Structure Of A Lab Report. There is no joy or bliss in Asgard, merely a dismal sense of doom. Accompanied with Asgard is the unceasing threat of inevitable and complete destruction.
The gods who inhabit Asgard know that one day Asgard will eventually be completely inebriated. Mount Olympus, by contrast, is a place full of merriment and carefree celebration. The gods spend their time drinking ambrosia and toying with the forces of essay, nature. Their every action is for their own joy and delight, not necessarily for the benefit of mankind. Never does any thought of devastation or doom cross their minds, for the gods of Mount Olympus cannot be brought down. Another distinction between Greek and Norse mythology is seen in the attitudes of their gods.
The Greek gods are immortal and indestructible while the lab report, Norse gods know they will be defeated and college title page apa annihilated by evil forces. The Greek gods are assured victory in any battle, and structure cannot be considered heroic for this very reason. Every Olympian is immortal and invincible; they go into a battle sure of their victory and fearing nothing. A drawback to this great advantage is title that the Greek gods never know the exhilaration in of a lab report, overcoming astounding odds, or the adrenaline that comes from confronting danger. The Norse gods are well accustomed to this type of stimulation, for of amontillado essay, they exist with the knowledge that they will one day be defeated. Of A. In the writing paragraph, end, when the forces of good and evil fight the final battle, evil will succeed over structure the Norse gods. There is nothing the ear piercing, gods can do to prevent their fate. The gods do not give up, but will put up a strong fight until the very end. In all cultures, a hero is one who closely resembles the gods; therefore Norse heroes are always destined for doom, but face their fate fearlessly. Norse heroes confront disaster, knowing they cannot escape through heroic deeds.
The Norsemen felt that the ultimate proof of a hero is continuing to resist while facing certain death. In this manner, the hero dies undefeated, for he did not let even death falter his courage. Signy, a Norse heroine, embodies these ideas. She dies along with her enemy after getting revenge for her family’s death. Structure Of A. Her heroic death is more of a triumph than avenging the wrong done to her. Mark Twain stated that, “Courage is essay resistance to fear, mastery of fear not absence of of a lab report, fear.” The Norse idea of essay, a hero embraces this idea, but the Greek notion of a hero opposes it. Contrasting to the Norse heroes, Greek heroes are fierce warriors who seem unconquerable.
As Norse heroes are like Norse gods, so are Greek heroes like Greek gods in that they appear invincible. They slay monsters left and right, avenge those who have been wronged, and overcome all odds. The true test of a Greek hero is found in his strength, courage, or lack of fear, and brave deeds. Hercules, the quintessential Greek hero, was the most loved and most famed of all heroes in Greek culture. The son of a mortal woman and Zeus, Hercules is half god and half human.
Oftentimes appearing godlike himself, Hercules possesses an of a lab report, incredible amount of strength, and fears nothing. His innumerable counts of of amontillado, bravery even include aiding the of a, gods in conquering the Giants. A major difference between Greek and essay Norse mythology can be found in the personalities of Zeus and Odin. The Greek Zeus is Lord of the Sky and ruler over all the other gods. He is a powerful god with the ability to of a induce fear, but also, “a capital figure of thesis on stem, fun.” Zeus is structure of a supposed to have upheld the standards of right and wrong, but this is not always a very high standard. He entertains numerous affairs with mortal women and delights in causing trouble for mankind.
Zeus is often pictured as amorous, joyful, and paragraph comic. Odin, Zeus’ Norse counterpart, is also the sky father and structure lab report ruler of the other Norse gods. Other than their similar roles in mythology, Zeus and Odin could not be more opposite. Odin is always described as being strange, solemn, and detached, a probable result of his constant grapple with threatening doom. Of Methane. While Zeus spends his time frolicking with other women, Odin seeks as much knowledge as possible, often gained only through physical trials. He alone bears the brunt of the responsibility for delaying as long as possible the day of complete destruction. Of A Lab Report. The chasm between Greek and Norse mythology is huge. Norse mythology is full of despair, sacrifice, and desolation, creating a dark and gloomy portrayal of Norse culture. The only bright spot in college page apa, Norse mythology is remarkable heroism, which is characteristically marked by the death of the protagonist.
Greek mythology contains stories of great victories over evil, love, adventure, and a carefree life. Structure Lab Report. The hero inevitably wins and essay critiquing mankind is always celebrated. Lab Report. It seems impossible that the two could become one, but as different as they are, Greek and Norse mythology have combined to form the culture of the modern world. The Norms exist in the Norse mythology as the three creatures that determine Fate. Before they came to cell Asgard time did not exist. Because of this, one can say that the Norms are above the gods in such meaning that the gods cannot stop the Norms from doing their job, which is to create time. Without time one cannot determine Fate, because then you don’t know when the events are going to take place or in structure of a lab report, which order. The Norms visit each being, human or god, immediately after they are borne to determine his or her future. Even though some stories say that there are many Norns, there are usually three mentioned; Urd (past), Skuld (present) and Verdandi (future).
These creatures live by writing, the first root of Yggdrasil (the world tree) next to structure a well, which is known as the statements on stem cell research, Well of Fate. Every morning they come out of the cave they spend their night in, then scoop up water and structure of a mix it with the sand around the tree to create magic dough. They spread it on Yggdrasil to prevent it from become rotten and preserve the writing, life spirit of the tree (Kirk, 1974). The Fates of Greek mythology are also known as the Moirae or Apparotioners. These three females decide how long every individual is going to live. Of A. They were sometimes considered superior to the gods. They were called Clotho (the Spinner), Lachesis (the Drawer of Fates) and Atropos (Inevitable). Writing Paragraph. Clotho comes to the newborn and spins out the thread of structure, life, Lachesis measures it and of amontillado essay decides what is going to happen to this being and Atropos cuts it off. (Kirk, 1974).There is a verse about lab report, them to remember what they did: Clotho colum retinet, Lachesis net, et Atropos occat, which means Clotho holds the spinning wheel, Lachesis spins and Atropos cuts it off. (B3) They are often imagined sitting around a cauldron or a spinning wheel. (Kirk, 1974).In both sets of mythologies the creatures that determine Fate are identical in purpose, gender and number. They are both above the gods and their jobs are inevitable for everyone. Ear Piercing. No one can go against the Fates.
There are several Greek stories, which tell about the tragedy of the persons who try to overcome their fate (e.g. Oedipus). In Norse mythology Odin himself learns about his fate (being killed during Ragnar??k, the lab report, doomsday, by the wolf Fenris) from the Norms, and there is paragraph nothing he can do about it but prepare himself and structure lab report his allies. Both the Norms and the Fates were thought as sitting around something circular, this may represent the circle of life, which is not exclusive to these myths. If we consider the mythologies as a reflection of the society, the conclusion is that both the chemosynthesis, Greeks and Vikings believed that their lives were already decided and of a one can only follow his/hers fate. This maybe made it easier for people to live, as no matter what they did it was already predicted. Of Methane. As written, the power of the Weird Sisters was inevitable for everyone (Kirk, 1974). The Greek and Roman Mythologies have fascinated human beings for structure of a, centuries, inspiring books, movies, research, and conversation among those who want to college title page apa learn more and who want to share the fables of the Gods and structure lab report Goddesses.
Their stories (myths or mythos, depending on the origin), their triumphs and failures, and paragraph their imminent Immortality has been the influence of many other religions, including Paganism and Norse Mythology. Of A. Unfortunately, many people do not know the differences between Greek and Roman mythology, assuming that the two are interchangeable at will. In reality, the two are very different from one another, and capture almost opposing life values that are central to the people of the time. Essay Critiquing. Greek and Roman gods were not worshipped, as the Christian God is, but rather used as a model for how mortal humans should and should not behave. The Greeks came first, some 1,000 years before the Romans. Their most appreciated work, the Iliad, was distributed 700 years before the Roman’s most popular manuscript, the Aeneid. The Iliad was based on at least 300 years of myths and stories, which were gathered from the tales passed down by mortal observant, which certainly correlates with the Christian Bible. It was not meant as a holy scripture, however, but as a recorded history of the Greek Gods and Goddesses, who were revered by men during that time. The Greeks were focused primarily on life on earth, versus the eventuality of the afterlife. They believed that a man’s worth was determined by his actions during his life, and structure of a lab report that his true immortality was in the remembrance of his gifts to the world.
His traits, his personality, and his interaction with other people spoke for ear piercing essay, his self-worth. Gods and Goddesses were based on human personality traits – such as Love, Honor, Dignity, and Hatred – and their actions in myths were symbolic of the actions of of a, men. Many myths involved a mortal or a deity snatching something back from the Underworld, which illustrated their belief that the afterlife was not of any concern, and that it was the pysical world that was important. Poets, artists, and those who gave themselves to creative pursuits were well-honored by the Greeks. They held creativity above physical works in the mortal and mythical world; myths reflected those personal traits and were meant to expose the positive and negative aspects of humanity. Deities were important to the progression of life, but mortal heros were just as sacred, for it was their contributions to society that mattered in the end.
Individualism was also very important; the thesis statements, actions of of a lab report, a group were not as consequential as the the cask, actions of an individual. Men were responsible for their own well-being, and could not be bothered by the mistakes of the of a, masses. Romans, on the other hand, were far more disciplined than the Greeks, and focused on actions rather than words. Whereas the Greeks revered the poet, the Romans held up the warrior as the epitome of paper title apa, sanctity, and rewarded bravery and of a lab report risks taken by both mortals and deities. Essay. They strongly felt that good deeds on structure of a earth would be well-received in the cask of amontillado, Heaven, and they strove to earn their place among the Gods in the afterlife. In fact, they believed that if one performed well enough in life, that they would transcend to of a lab report Gods after death. The Romans adopted many of the writing, myths and deities of the Greeks, though they changed names and circumstances to support their own beliefs. For example, the Roman Gods were not individualistic, as were the Greek Gods, and were named after objects and actions rather than human characteristics. Myths were rooted in the brave, heroic acts of the Gods, and rarely displayed the lives of mortals, because mortal life was not as important as that after death. Also, Roman Gods and Goddesses were often not gender-specific, since their individual characteristics were not central to their actions. Roman and Greek Mythologies are decidedly different, though they are rooted in of a lab report, similar histories.
A study of their individual characteristics illustrates the values and beliefs of the chemosynthesis of methane, Greeks and Romans respectively, and can offer a better understanding of how these myths and anecdotes originally came about. In Western culture there are a number of literary or narrative genres that scholars have related in different ways to myths. Examples are fables, fairy tales, folktales, sagas, epics, legends, and etiologic tales (which refer to causes or explain why a thing is the of a lab report, way it is). Another form of tale, the parable, differs from the cask of amontillado essay, myth in its purpose and character. Even in the West, however, there is no agreed definition of any of lab report, these genres and some scholars question whether multiplying categories of narrative is helpful at all, as opposed to working with a very general concept such as the traditional tale.
Non-Western cultures apply classifications that are different both from the Western categories and from one another. Most, however, make a basic distinction between “true” and “fictitious” narratives, with “true” ones corresponding to what in the West would be called myths. If it is accepted that the category of thesis statements cell research, traditional tale should be subdivided, one way of doing so is to regard the various subdivisions as comparable to structure of a lab report bands of color in a spectrum. Within this figurative spectrum, there will be similarities and analogies between myth and folktale or between myth and legend or between fairy tale and folktale. In the section that follows, it is assumed that useful distinctions can be drawn between different categories. It should, however, be remembered throughout that these classifications are far from the cask of amontillado essay, rigid and that, in many cases, a given tale might be plausibly assigned to of a more than one category. The importance of studying myth to provide a key to a human society is a matter of historical record. In the middle of the on stem, 19th century, for structure of a lab report, instance, a newly appointed British governor of chemosynthesis, New Zealand, Sir George Grey, was confronted by the problem of how to come to terms with the lab report, Maori, who were hostile to essay critiquing website the British. He learned their language, but that proved insufficient for an understanding of the lab report, way in ear piercing, which they reasoned and argued.
In order to be able to conduct negotiations satisfactorily, he found it necessary to study the Maori’s mythology, to structure of a which they made frequent reference. Other government officials and Christian missionaries of the 19th and 20th centuries made similar efforts to understand the mythologies of nations or tribes so as to facilitate communication. Of Amontillado Essay. Such studies were more than a means to an end, whether efficient administration or conversion; they amounted to the discovery that myths present a model or charter for man’s behavior and that the of a lab report, world of myth provides guidance for crucial elements in human existence–war and peace, life and death, truth and falsehood, good and evil. In addition to such practically motivated attempts to understand myth, theorists and scholars from many disciplines have interested themselves in the study of the subject. A close study of myth has developed in the West, especially since the 18th century. Much of writing, its material has come from the study of the Greek and structure of a Roman classics, from which it has also derived some of its methods of thesis statements on stem research, interpretation. The growth of of a lab report, philosophy in ancient Greece furthered allegorical interpretations of myth–i.e., finding other or supposedly deeper meanings hidden below the surface of mythical texts. Such meanings were usually seen as involving natural phenomena or human values. Related to this was a tendency toward rationalism, especially when those who studied myths employed false etymologies.
Rationalism in essay, this context connotes the scrutiny of myths in structure lab report, such a way as to make sense of the statements contained in them without taking literally their references to gods, monsters, or the supernatural. Thus, the ancient writer Palaiphatos interpreted the story of Europa (carried off to Crete on the back of a handsome bull, which was actually Zeus in disguise) as that of a woman abducted by a Cretan called Tauros, the Greek word for bull; and Skylla, the bestial and cannibalistic creature who attacked Odysseus’ ship according to Homer’s Odyssey, was by college paper title, the same process of rationalizing interpreted as simply the name of a pirate ship. Of special and long-lasting influence in the history of the structure of a, interpretation of myth was Euhemerism (named after Euhemerus, a Greek writer who flourished about of methane, 300 BC), according to which certain gods were originally great people venerated because of their benefactions to mankind. The early Church Fathers adopted an attitude of modified Euhemerism, according to which classical mythology was to be explained in terms of mere men who had been raised to superhuman, demonic status because of their deeds. Of A Lab Report. By this means, Christians were able to paper title apa incorporate myths from the structure, culturally authoritative pagan past into a Christian framework while defusing their religious significance–the gods became ordinary humans. The Middle Ages did not develop new theoretical perspectives on myth, nor, despite some elaborate works of historical and chemosynthesis etymological erudition, did the Renaissance. In both periods, interpretations in terms of structure of a lab report, allegory and essay critiquing Euhemerism tended to predominate. About 1800 the of a lab report, Romantics’ growing fascination with language, the postulation of an title page apa, Indo-European language family, the lab report, study of Sanskrit, and the growth of on stem cell, comparative studies, especially in of a lab report, history and philology, were all part of a trend that included the study of myth. The relevance of Indo-European studies to an understanding of Greek and Roman mythology was carried to an extreme in paper page apa, the work of Friedrich Max Muller, a German Orientalist who moved to Britain and undertook important research on comparative linguistics. Structure Lab Report. In his view, expressed in such works as Comparative Mythology (1856), the mythology of the original Indo-European peoples had consisted of allegorical stories about the workings of nature, in particular such features as the sky, the Sun, and the dawn. In the course of time, though, these original meanings had been lost (through, in Muller’s notorious phrasing, a “disease of language”), so that the myths no longer told in a “rationally intelligible” way of phenomena in the natural world but instead appeared to describe the “irrational” activities of gods, heroes, nymphs, and others.
For instance, one Greek myth related the pursuit of the nymph Daphne by the god Phoebus Apollo. Since–in Muller’s interpretation of the evidence of comparative linguistics–“Daphne” originally meant “dawn,” and “Phoibos” meant “morning sun,” the essay, original story was rationally intelligible as “the dawn is put to flight by the morning sun.” One of the of a lab report, problems with this view is, of course, that it fails to account for essay, the fact that the Greeks continued to tell this and similar stories long after their supposed meanings had been forgotten; and they did so, moreover, in the manifest belief that the stories referred, not to nature, but precisely to gods, heroes, and other mythical beings. Interest in myth was greatly stimulated in Germany by Friedrich von Schelling’s philosophy of mythology, which argued that myth was a form of expression, characteristic of a particular stage in structure lab report, human development, through which men imagine the statements cell research, Absolute (for Schelling an all-embracing unity in which all differences are reconciled). Scholarly interest in structure, myth has continued into critiquing website the 20th century. Many scholars have adopted a psychological approach because of interest aroused by the theories of Sigmund Freud.
Subsequently, new approaches in sociology and anthropology have continued to encourage the study of myth. In the industrialized Western society of the 20th century, myths and related types of tales continue to be told. Structure Of A. Urban folklorists collect stories that have much in common with the tales collected by of amontillado essay, the Grimm brothers, except that in the modern narratives the structure lab report, lone traveler is likely to be threatened, not by a werewolf, but by a phantom hitchhiker, and the location of his danger may be a freeway rather than a forest. Computer games use sophisticated technology to represent quests involving dragons to be slain and princesses to website be saved and married. The myth of Superman, the superhuman hero who saves the world and preserves “the American way,” is a notable image embodying modern Americans’ confidence in the moral values that their culture espouses. Of A Lab Report. Not dissimilar are myths about the ear piercing, early pioneers in the American Wild West, as retold in countless motion pictures. Such stories often reinforce stereotypical attitudes about the moral superiority of the settlers to the native Indians, although sometimes such attitudes are called into structure of a lab report question in paragraph, other movies that attempt to demythologize the Wild West. A particular illustration of the power that myths continue to exert was provided as late as the 1940s by the belief in the existence of an Aryan racial group, separate from and lab report superior to the Semitic group.
This myth was based in part on essay critiquing the assumption that peoples whose languages are related are also related racially. The fact that this assumption is spurious did not prevent the Aryan myth from gaining wide acceptance in Europe from the 18th century onward, and it was eventually to provide a supposed intellectual justification for the persecution of the Semitic Jews by their Aryan Germanic “superiors” during the period of Nazi domination. This episode suggests that, in politics, a myth will take hold if it serves the interests and focuses the aspirations of of a lab report, a particular group; the truth or falsity of the statements research, myth is irrelevant. In a sense, of course, this function is merely an extension of its more general role in religion, where a myth, as well as addressing questions such as a society’s place in the cosmos, may serve to justify a particular kind of governmental organization. In conclusion, if we think of structure of a lab report, myths as true, if we believe in them, then obviously, we are thinking in religious terms. But belief is also psychological: some say humans need to paragraph believe in some power greater than them. Others, like Joseph Campbell, see the origins of myth and religion in the psychological response of early man to the trauma of structure, death. The Cask. Thus, belief in a greater power arises when humans are faced with the mystery of what happens after death. The earliest efforts to structure lab report rationalize myth by seeing it as disguised history, as disguised philosophy, or as fables illustrating moral truths all proceeded from a desire to essay website make the seemingly irrational and immoral actions of gods and men appear rational and moral. Thus, bizarre or grotesque elements in of a, the stories could be rationalized as disguised history, philosophy, or morality. However, these early rationalizes often ignored elements of the myths which did not fit into their allegorical schemes and made little attempt to look at website, myths psychologically or symbolically, or to place the them in their proper historical context. (The “history” of these early “euhemerizers” was often mere wishful thinking, as when they saw Zeus as a tribal hero who had been deified.) But myths do embody historical, philosophical, and moral elements; we must search for them more carefully than early mythologists did.
Students should remember, however, that the symbolic, religious, ritual, or magical explanations that myths offer may differ from modern scientific or historical explanations. Something as great as God may be quite difficult for limited human minds to comprehend, Joseph Campbell says we can only know God through stories and symbols, or myth. But our stories are human and limited, and thus cannot, according to Campbell, tell literal truths, but all can and do tell metaphoric and symbolic truths. Ritual is another way in which humans attempt to embody or even call upon the unknown. Ritual patterns may reappear in myths and mythic motifs may be reflected in of a, rituals (Hero 381). But there is no easy rule for tracing the influence of ritual on myth or vice-versa. Mythologists continue to argue whether the repetitive patterns of motifs and plot seen in many myths stem from ritual patterns (Hero 381), or from psychological archetypes inherent in the cask of amontillado essay, humans, or from the repetition common in oral forms of storytelling (Hero 381). No one way offers a key to structure the interpretation of myths, but all can offer insights to writing paragraph different motifs and structure of a lab report plot elements. Essay. When interpreting myths, students should remember Campbell’s wise advice: “There is structure of a lab report no final system for the interpretation of myths, and there never will be any such thing” (Hero 381). This may sound like a cheerless sentence, but cheer up: there may be no foolproof system, but there are ways to trap the truth in myths. According to Campbell, myths are like the god Proteus (sometimes called the of methane, Old Man of the Sea) in the Odyssey who “always speaks the truth” (Homer 52, my emphasis).
But first you must catch him and hold onto him, which isn’t easy because he constantly changes shapes in order to get away. “He will turn into all sorts of shapes to try you, into all the creatures of that live and move upon the earth, into water, into blazing fire; but you must hold him fast and press him all the harder” (Homer 53). Great advice for any student of myth! Hold onto that story, no matter how much it changes or how weird it seems, and eventually it will calm down and answer your questions. Structure Lab Report. But Proteus only answers the specific questions put to him. So, to get good answers, you have to ask a lot of different questions. Brandenberg, Aliki .The Greek Gods and Goddesses of Olympus. p. 30. 1994. Burkert, Walter. Essay. Ancient Mystery Cults.
Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1987. Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. 2nd ed. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1968. Cook, Zeus Cambridge University Press, 1914, I, figs 397, 398. Curtius, Ernst Robert. European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages. Trans. Willard R. Trask. New York: Harper, 1963.
David Syme Russel. Daniel. Structure. (Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press, 1981) 191. Dundes, Alan. “The Flood as Male Myth of Creation.” The Flood Myth. Ed. Alan Dundes. Berkeley: U of California P, 1988. 167-182. Durant, The Life of Greece (The Story of Civilization Part II, New York: Simon Schuster) 1939:23.
Eliade, Mircea. The Myth of the Eternal Return or, Cosmos and History. 1949. Trans. Willard R. Trask. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1965. Finley, M. I. The World of Odysseus. New York: Meridian Books, 1959. Gennep, Arnold van. The Rites of Passage. 1909.
Trans. Monika B. Vizedom and ear piercing G. L. Structure Of A Lab Report. Caffee. Chicago: U of the cask of amontillado essay, Chicago P, 1960. Greek and Roman Mythology”, Mythology: Myths, Legends, Fantasy, Sweet Water Press, 2003, p. 21, ISBN 9781468265903. Thorfinnsson, Snorri . The prose Edda: Norse mythology. London: Penguin, 2005. Structure Of A Lab Report. Print. Hesiod. Works and Days / Theogony. Trans. Stanley Lombardo.
Indianapolis: Hacket, 1993. Homer. The Odyssey. Trans. W. H. D. Rouse. New York: NAL 1937. Hamilton, Edith .Mythology (1998 ed.). Chemosynthesis. New York: Back Bay Books. p. 467. 1942. ISBN 978-0-316-34114-1.
Jung, Carl Gustav and Carl Ker??nyi. Essays on a Science of Mythology. 1949. Structure Lab Report. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1963. Kirk, G. Title Apa. S. The Nature of structure, Greek Myths. New York: Penguin, 1974. Leach, Edmund.
Claude L??vi-Strauss. New York: Penguin, 1970. Morford, Mark P. O. and Robert J. Lenardon. Classical Mythology. 4th ed. New York: Longman, 1991.
Pointed out by Bernard Clive Dietrich, The Origins of Greek Religion (de Gruyter) 1973:15. Richard Wyatt Hutchinson, Prehistoric Crete, (Harmondsworth: Penguin) 1968:204, mentions that there is no classical reference to the death of Zeus (noted by Dietrich 1973:16 note 78). Rodney Castleden, Minoans: Life in Bronze-Age Crete, “The Minoan belief-system” (Routledge) 1990:125. Seznec, Jean. The Survival of the Ancient Gods. New York: Harper, 1961. Wells,JohnC. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow, England: Longman.1990.
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