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TEEN ESSAY: First year at university a study in self-discovery
apus history essay Jamestown, founded in the colony of Virginia in experience essay, 1607, was England’s first permanent settlement. Plymouth and the Massachusetts Bay Colony followed in 1620 and 1630. Six of England’s original colonies were founded before 1640. Six others were established or came under English rule during the Restoration era, between 1660 and technical calling from 1688. Georgia, the last, was settled in the 1730s. The French and Indian War began in North America in university essay, 1754 and merged with Europe’s Seven Years’ War, thus lasting nine years (17541763). It was decisive and left France temporarily with no major territorial possessions in North America. Like the Spanish, the French goal was to explore as much land as possible in hope of finding mineral wealth, like gold, and a shortcut to Asia. In 1524 France sent Giovanni da Verrazano to search for a northwest passage to Asia.
Between 1534 and 1543 Jacques Cartier made three voyages and sailed up the St. Lawrence River, searching for a rumored wealthy kingdom. Coursework? Also like the Spanish, French missionaries tried to convert Native Americans to Roman Catholicism. France also established permanent settlements, as did the Spanish. Unlike the Spanish, the French settled in the less hospitablenorthern climate of New France (Quebec and Nova Scotia), and life essay the French government provided little incentive for citizens to venture to the New World and settle in this cold area. Differences Between Essay? As a result, the French had a lesser impact on native peoples than did the Spanish. Few French settlers came to North America, and New France remained sparsely populated.
The early French arrivals tended to be single men who stayed on the move (coureurs du bois). Not until 1608 did the university experience, French make serious inroads into acquiring lucrative assets in North America, such as beaver pelts, which were in high demand in Europe. This trade led to the colonization of Quebec City that same year. In 1625 the French government strengthened its intent to spread Roman Catholicism by mathematics coursework, declaring that only Catholicism could be practiced in university life, New France. Essay About Literature? After 1630 the Jesuits worked particularly hard to Christianize New France. Steps were also taken to university experience essay, ensure that New France would be permanent. French soldiers were sent to the territory, and several hundred young women were sent over in order to provide a supply of business thinking test brides. Life Experience Essay? Minister Colbert offered bonuses to couples who produced large families. In 1673 Father Marquette and a trader, Louis Joliet, traveled down the Mississippi River in search of a passage to the Pacific. They turned back when they became convinced that the Mississippi emptied into the Gulf of Mexico. In 1682 Réné-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle traveled down the Mississippi and mathematics coursework claimed the entire Mississippi River Valley for France, calling it Louisiana.
In 1718 the city of New Orleans was established. The French expansion into the interior confined the British to university life essay, territory east of the Appalachians. A turning point came for the French with the War of the Spanish Succession and the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. France, on selfish essay the losing side, lost Newfoundland and Nova Scotia to Britain. France tried hard to strengthen its position in North America. The French erected their fortress at life Louisbourg and built forts on Lake Champlain and on the Great Lakes. Essay About? In 1745 Louisbourg fell to life experience essay, the British, largely owing to the efforts of British American colonists. The fortress was returned to France with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which ended King George’s War (War of the Austrian Succession) in 1748. The small population of New France proved to be a handicap to French efforts to counter the growing British presence in North America during the early 1700s. By 1750 British settlers outnumbered the French 3 to 1. The Louisiana territory was ceded to Spain in essay about literature review, 1763. When Britain triumphed in the French and Indian War (17541763), France temporarily had no major territorial possessions in North America: Britain controlled the continent east of the Mississippi, and university life Spain claimed the land west of the Mississippi. seventeenth-century Chesapeake region with that of slaves on nineteenth-century. cotton plantations in the Deep South.
What forces transformed the differences and christianity essay, institution of. slavery from the early seventeenth century to the nineteenth century? • The tobacco and rice planters of the Atlantic Tidewater were part of a settled region and a culture. that reached back 150 to 200 years. States such as Mississippi and Arkansas, in contrast, were at. or just emerging from the frontier stage, since most of their residents had arrived after 1815. Consequently, the society of the Southwest was more volatile. • In Chesapeake Bay the university life essay, economy was built around tobacco. Virginia planters tended to buy more. black women from Africa than did rice planters, in order to cheaply increase their supply of between buddhism slaves. through childbearing. This in university experience essay, turn allowed for healthier and more vigorous family life among. Chesapeake Bay slaves, who in beowulf essay, any event were freer of sickness because they did not work in. disease-ridden swamps and in large gangs, where contagious diseases spread rapidly.
The. Virginia slaves therefore flourished through natural increase in a fashion strikingly different from. that farther south. • The movement of slaves out university experience, of the Chesapeake was immense. In the 1790s about 1 in essay, 12 Virginia. and Maryland slaves was taken south and west. The figure rose to 1 in 10 between 1800 and 1810, and university life 1 in 5 between 1810 and literature 1820. University Life Essay? In 1790 planters in Virginia and Maryland had owned 56. percent of all American slaves; by critical thinking skills (bctst), 1860 they owned only life essay, 15 percent. • Nineteenth-century slaves were not evenly distributed throughout the region. More than half lived. in essay review, the Deep South, where blacks outnumbered whites in both South Carolina and Mississippi by. the 1850s. Elsewhere in the Deep South, the black population exceeded 40 percent in all states. except Texas. In the Upper South, on the other hand, whites greatly outnumbered blacks.
Only in. Virginia and North Carolina did the slave population top 30 percent. • A majority of blacks in the Deep South lived on larger plantations that had communities of 20 or. more slaves. There the family life of slaves tended to be relatively stable, and a distinctive African. American slave culture developed. Forced separations of spouses and of parents and children were. evidently more common on smaller plantations and in the Upper South. • Slaves living on farms or small plantations no doubt had closer contact with the white owners and. University Life Experience Essay? their families. They often ate at the same table with the about review, master and sometimes even slept in the. same cabin. But slaves who lived in such close quarters with their owners were constantly subject. to white scrutiny, always made aware of their inferior social status and had less opportunity to. meet other blacks. Experience? In addition, small farmers were more likely to run into financial problems and be. forced to technical essay calling fastformula, sell their slaves. University Life Experience? • Slaves under the business critical skills, task system (common on South Carolina and Georgia rice and cotton plantations) won the life experience, right to cultivate land as “private fields” not the little garden plots common in the. Chesapeake, but farms of up to five acres on which they grew produce and raised livestock for. market. A lively trade developed in slave-produced goods, and by the late 1850s slaves in essay about literature, the low. country not only produced and exchanged property but also passed it on to their children. University Life Experience Essay? • The tobacco and between buddhism rice planters of the Atlantic Tidewater were part of a settled region and university life essay a culture. that reached back 150 to 200 years.
States such as Mississippi and Arkansas, in contrast, were at. or just emerging from the frontier stage, since most of their residents had arrived after 1815. Consequently, the society of the mathematics coursework, Southwest was more volatile. • In Chesapeake Bay the economy was built around tobacco. University Life Experience Essay? Virginia planters tended to buy more. black women from Africa than did rice planters, in order to cheaply increase their supply of slaves. through childbearing. This in turn allowed for literature, healthier and more vigorous family life among.
Chesapeake Bay slaves, who in any event were freer of sickness because they did not work in. disease-ridden swamps and in large gangs, where contagious diseases spread rapidly. The. Virginia slaves therefore flourished through natural increase in a fashion strikingly different from. University Experience Essay? that farther south. • The movement of slaves out of the Chesapeake was immense. In the 1790s about 1 in 12 Virginia. and Maryland slaves was taken south and west. The figure rose to 1 in 10 between 1800 and 1810, and 1 in 5 between 1810 and 1820.
In 1790 planters in about review, Virginia and Maryland had owned 56. Experience Essay? percent of all American slaves; by selfish, 1860 they owned only 15 percent. • Nineteenth-century slaves were not evenly distributed throughout the region. More than half lived. in the Deep South, where blacks outnumbered whites in both South Carolina and Mississippi by. the 1850s. Elsewhere in the Deep South, the black population exceeded 40 percent in all states. except Texas. In the Upper South, on the other hand, whites greatly outnumbered blacks. Only in. Virginia and North Carolina did the slave population top 30 percent. • A majority of blacks in the Deep South lived on larger plantations that had communities of 20 or. more slaves. There the family life of slaves tended to be relatively stable, and a distinctive African. American slave culture developed.
Forced separations of university life essay spouses and of parents and children were. evidently more common on smaller plantations and in the Upper South. • Slaves living on farms or small plantations no doubt had closer contact with the white owners and. their families. They often ate at the same table with the coursework, master and sometimes even slept in experience essay, the. same cabin. But slaves who lived in such close quarters with their owners were constantly subject. to white scrutiny, always made aware of their inferior social status and had less opportunity to. meet other blacks. Beowulf Selfish? In addition, small farmers were more likely to run into financial problems and be. forced to sell their slaves. • Slaves under the task system (common on South Carolina and Georgia rice and cotton plantations) won the experience essay, right to cultivate land as “private fields” not the little garden plots common in essay calling, the. Chesapeake, but farms of up to five acres on which they grew produce and raised livestock for. market.
A lively trade developed in slave-produced goods, and by university experience, the late 1850s slaves in the low. country not only produced and exchanged property but also passed it on marathi maze baba essay to their children. • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis that compares and contrasts. • Develops the thesis with substantial and relevant historical information. Experience Essay? • Provides effective analysis that compares and contrasts. • May contain minor errors that do not detract from the overall quality of the essay. Between And Christianity Essay? • Is well organized and well written. • Contains a partially developed thesis that compares and contrasts. • Supports the thesis with some relevant information. • Provides some analysis. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. • Has acceptable organization and writing. • Contains an unfocused or limited thesis that compares and contrasts. • Provides minimal relevant information or lists facts with little or no application to the question. • May address the question in a general, simplistic, or superficial manner; may deal with the goals of only experience, two nations. • May have major errors. • May be poorly organized and/or written. • Contains no thesis or a thesis that does not address the question. • Exhibits inadequate or incorrect understanding of the between and christianity essay, question. • Has numerous errors. • Is organized and/or written so poorly that it inhibits understanding.
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Poverty and experience, Education: A Critical Analysis of the Ruby Payne Phenomenon. Research indicates that poverty rates among American children have reached as high as 22 percent in recent years, and from this historically elevated figure, perhaps a third can be described as experiencing #147;persistent#148; or #147;long-term#148; poverty (Hernandez, 1997; Mayer, 1997; Brady, 2003). Coursework? It is widely believed that these children pose a major challenge to schools. Many reside in central-city neighborhoods or relatively isolated rural areas, compounding existing obstacles to life experience equal educational opportunities and academic success. Mathematics? (Books, 2004) Yet, studies consistently document that most educators themselves come from middle-class backgrounds, making it difficult for them to relate personally with students who live in poverty (Zeichner, 2003). As a result, the capacity of university essay teachers to work with poor children is shaped by beowulf selfish essay, teacher educators, school district administrators, educational researchers, and other experts.
It is not clear, however, just what lessons about the poor are being transmitted to teachers and other educators, and how they are being prepared to work with them more effectively. In the absence of a well-defined research base on university life experience, educating children affected by poverty and corresponding programs of training and professional development, a wide range of perspectives and approaches can flourish. Arguably, one of critical test (bctst) today#146;s most conspicuous speakers on issues of poverty and education is Dr. Ruby Payne, president of a company called #147;Aha Process, Inc.#148; and author of a self-published book titled A Framework for Understanding Poverty , currently in university life experience its fourth revised edition (2005). Payne has sold more than half a million copies of her book since 1996 as well as related workbook materials, and her organization conducts workshops and training sessions for tens of thousands of educators, administrators, and other human-service professionals across the essay about country and abroad. A principal thrust of these activities is teaching people about poverty and working with poor children in school settings. Payne#146;s remarkable popularity reflects growing concern about experience essay poverty and its effects on business critical skills test, children#146;s educational experiences. As educators grapple with the challenge of meeting performance standards for all groups of students, districts have been actively seeking answers to the problem of working with children in poverty. Payne and her organization have been actively involved in these developments, providing professional development designed to explicitly address these issues. In this article, we examine the conceptual and empirical foundations of her work and conduct a critical analysis of descriptive case scenarios included in an accompanying workbook for university life experience essay, teacher practice.
What viewpoints do Payne#146;s ideas about poverty represent? And what recommendations are conveyed in these training sessions? Situating Payne#146;s argument within decades of scholarship about poverty, we assess the extent to which it accurately reflects a contemporary, research-based comprehension of the technical essay calling fastformula from issue. The fact that her characterization of poverty mirrors earlier #147;culture of university experience poverty#148; theses and lacks recognition of social structural dynamics contributing to inequality could have significant implications for how educators ultimately come to view poverty and the children who experience it. Payne#146;s framework for understanding poverty. In the introduction of her book, Payne explains that her expertise on poverty resulted primarily from being married for over 30 years to her husband, Frank, who grew up in #147;situational#148; (or temporary) poverty, but lived for several years with others who were in #147;generational#148; (or long-term) poverty. Differences Between? As she spent time with his family and life experience, got to technical calling from pl/sql know #147;the many other players in [their] neighborhood,#148; her personal observations led her to conclude that there were major differences between those in generational poverty and university life experience essay, those in the middle class#151;the most important of which were not about (bctst) money (2005, p. 1). These insights were confirmed in her mind after Payne spent six years as a principal in an affluent, Illinois elementary school and life experience, was able to further contrast the differences she witnessed between children in poverty, the coursework middle class, and wealth.
Payne recalls several informal conversations she had with concerned colleagues about the university life essay growing disciplinary problems they were experiencing as more and more of marathi maze baba their students came from low-income families. She offered them her explanation of why these behaviors were occurring, and then word-of-mouth referrals from teachers, principals, district, and state officials launched her into a series of speaking engagements where she could more formally share her insights with other educational practitioners. University? Central to Payne#146;s analysis of about review poverty is the idea that there are #147;hidden rules#148; which distinguish the thinking, values, and behaviors of people in poverty from those who are middle class or wealthy. University? And because most schools operate from an implicitly middle-class perspective foreign to poor children, educators must first understand the class culture from selfish which their students come and then teach them explicitly the rules of the life experience essay middle class needed to technical essay function more successfully in schools and society. According to university life Payne, poverty is characterized not only by marathi maze baba, lack of financial resources, but also the extent to experience which individuals possess other resources such as emotional stability, mental skills, spiritual guidance, physical health and mobility, support systems, role models, and knowledge of a group#146;s hidden rules (2005, p. 7).
These varied resources are essential to consider because, as Payne states, . . . the coursework reality is that financial resources, while extremely important, do not explain the differences in the success with which individuals leave poverty nor the reasons that many stay in poverty. The ability to leave poverty is university, more dependent upon other resources than it is upon business skills (bctst), financial resources. University Life Experience? (p. 8) Payne argues the cultivation of emotional resources is of utmost importance, defined as #147;being able to marathi maze baba essay choose and control emotional responses, particularly to negative situations, without engaging in self-destructive behavior. This is an internal resource and shows itself through stamina, perseverance, and choices#148; (2005, p. 7).
The involvement of university life experience essay role models is critical, then, because #147;it is selfish, largely from role models that [a] person learns how to live life emotionally#148; (2005, p. 9). Although all individuals have role models, Payne cautions, #147;The question is the extent to which the role model is nurturing or appropriate#148; (2005, p. 9). Good role models and support systems should be able to offer advice about and demonstrate a more desirable alternative than living in poverty. Being a teacher allows one quite naturally to serve as a role model or support to children in poverty. Payne explains, Even with the financial resources, not every individual who received those finances would choose to live differently . . Essay? . But it is the responsibility of educators and others who work with the mathematics poor to university teach the differences and beowulf, skills/rules that will allow the life experience essay individual to mathematics make the choice. (2005, p. 113) A teacher#146;s involvement is essential since #147;many individuals stay in university experience essay poverty because they don#146;t know there is a choice#151;and if they do know that, have no one to teach them hidden rules or provide resources#148; (2005, p. 62).
Payne identifies education as: . . . the key to getting out of, and staying out of, generational poverty. Individuals leave poverty for one of four reasons: a goal or vision of something they want to be or have; a situation that is so painful that anything would be better; someone who #147;sponsors#148; them (i.e., an pl/sql, educator or spouse or mentor or role model who shows them a different way or convinces them that they could live differently); or a specific talent or ability that provides an opportunity for university life experience essay, them. And Christianity Essay? (p. University Life Essay? 61) Given the #147;tremendous opportunities to influence some of the non-financial resources that make such a difference in students#146; lives#148; (2005, p. 25), Payne recommends that educators first learn to analyze the resources poor students and their families have before offering advice to improve their situation. To this end, the workbook that accompanies Payne#146;s main text presents fourteen different scenarios of poor children and their current situations for educators to practice evaluating. Payne does not offer any definite, correct answers for the exercises, but they do convey a fairly consistent view of the attitudes and behaviors presumably shared amongst those who are poor. It is useful, for this reason, to carefully examine the descriptive case scenarios Payne provides in her effort to help educators better understand poverty, its effects on children, and its implications in school settings. What characteristics and circumstances constitute poverty?
As indicated earlier, money is one of several resources included in Payne#146;s framework for understanding poverty, but she argues that it is of only slight to moderate importance compared to other factors. The logic of differences buddhism and christianity a position that seemingly disassociates one#146;s financial resources with one#146;s class status may initially seem perplexing. However, a closer examination of Payne#146;s descriptive scenarios depicting poor people#146;s lives helps to illuminate her overall view about how different resources function to maintain poverty, as well as her resulting recommendations. For example, in university life experience essay her main text, Payne differentiates between situational poverty , a temporary state caused by circumstances such as death, illness, divorce, and generational poverty , a state which endures for two generations or more (2005, p. 3). The importance of this distinction is linked to the prevailing attitudes she associates with each group#151; people in situational poverty are often too proud to accept charity, whereas people in generational poverty believe society owes them a living (2005, p. 47). Representing the mentality of situational poverty in Payne#146;s accompanying workbook meant for teacher evaluation is Opie, a 12-year-old African American girl, and her mother, Oprah, a 32-year-old widow supporting a senile grandmother and unemployed uncle. Oprah works long hours as a domestic for a doctor, and mathematics, although she is university life experience, not paid very much, she takes public transportation and seems able to make ends meet. There is no mention of the family needing public aid, and in technical fastformula fact, Oprah is hoping to be able to experience save some money for future emergencies that might arise (1998, p. 16). Essay About Literature? Another example of situational poverty is Steve, a 17 year-old White male who was put out onto experience essay, the streets by his alcoholic, abusive father.
At 16 he found a full-time job earning minimum wage to secure an apartment for himself and, later, to take care of his brother as well. Steve works hard and #147;all [he] has time to do is go to work, go to school, and sleep#148; (1998, p. 23). In both scenarios, the individuals strive to be self-sufficient through legitimate forms of employment and persist in an effort to improve their life circumstances. In contrast, though, the sense of entitlement supposedly fostered in generational poverty more commonly leads to illegitimate means of technical essay fastformula from pl/sql securing financial resources. For example, Juan is university experience, a six-year-old Hispanic boy who lives with his grandmother who cannot speak English, and a 25-year-old uncle, Ramon. Buddhism Essay? Juan#146;s father was killed in a gang-related shooting and his mother is in jail, so Ramon looks after Juan. In order to support the family, Ramon sells drugs with his gang and makes an average of $1,000 a week. Ramon does not expect to live past his thirtieth birthday because of his dangerous lifestyle, but he continues leading his gang and plans to kill a rival gang member and then flee to Mexico for a while (1998, p. 18). A similar situation is university life essay, discussed in the scenario about buddhism and christianity essay Geraldo, a 13-year-old Hispanic male who is a prominent gang member in university essay his neighborhood. Geraldo remains involved with his gang as a #147;matter of pride,#148; and makes $4,000 in a week selling drugs, sharing it with 10 other members. Literature Review? Like Ramon, Geraldo anticipates he will be dead before he turns 25 and therefore believes, #147;You might as well enjoy life and girls.#148; Ultimately, Geraldo admits, #147;. . . faithful is not in my vocabulary.
I#146;m only faithful to them streets#148; (1998, p. 22). The fatalistic views assumed by Ramon and Geraldo are just the opposite of what Payne describes as the essential emotional, mental, and spiritual resources required to escape poverty. Because Payne generally conceives of poverty#151;and staying in poverty#151;as at least partly a matter of experience essay choice, an individual must have the ability to identify and essay, reason through various courses of action, particularly those necessitating deferred gratification and personal restraint. The scenario of Magnolia, a 16-year-old White girl in tenth grade who single-handedly takes care of her eight siblings because her mother is neglectful and irresponsible, exemplifies a person who possesses these critical resources. Magnolia demonstrates her emotional resources by refusing to steal from others, even though her mother instructs her to do it so they can have food to eat and #147;[she] can#146;t remember a time when [she wasn#146;t] hungry sometime during the week#148; (1998, p. 24). However, Magnolia#146;s commitment to caring for her siblings is clear as she sneaks the university welfare check out of the mailbox to buy food for the family before her mother can waste it gratuitously on between essay, herself.
Magnolia gets Bs and university essay, Cs in school but aspires to be a teacher. Mathematics? Payne tells us that she could earn As if only there was time to do her homework and maximize her mental resources. Magnolia, however, is an exceptional case in Payne#146;s workbook. Most of the scenarios depict people who lack emotional, mental, and spiritual resources. For example, Habib is university experience essay, a #147;likeable and easily persuaded#148; 18-year-old, African-American male whose one great attribute is that he is #147;one heck of a fighter#148; (1998, p. 21). One day when he was sixteen, he returned home to find that his mother had been beaten by her latest boyfriend. Marathi Baba? After calling an experience essay, ambulance for her, Habib went looking for her boyfriend but decided it might be a good idea to maze baba break into life, and rob a pawnshop instead. Payne suggests that this course of action represented Habib trying to resolve his anger, and when he was caught, he also had a gun in his pocket. Another scenario portrays the lives of Tahiti, a 14-year-old girl of mixed African-American and Mexican parentage, and her best friend Theresa, a 14-year-old Hispanic girl. Neither of the beowulf selfish girls does well in university life essay school, and Tahiti#146;s family life is fraught with drinking and abuse.
In order to give their lives meaning, these girls actively try to get pregnant so they can #147;have something of [their] own#148; (1998, p. 25). All of the people in Payne#146;s scenarios have physical resources, although they function differently for men and women. While men gain advantage from their ability to fight and willingness to utilize violence (as seen in the scenarios of beowulf essay Ramon, Geraldo, and experience, Habib), Payne indicates that women can use their bodies and sex to elicit favors. The scenario of John and Adele best illustrates the significance of a woman#146;s physical resources. Adele, a 29-year-old White, single mother of two children, was left by her unfaithful but educated and wealthy husband. Differences And Christianity Essay? Her ex-husband pays minimal child support and Adele works part-time despite being an alcoholic. When Adele#146;s car breaks down, she is financially unable to university life essay have it fixed and may get fired if she cannot report to work the technical fastformula pl/sql next day. Adele assesses the available choices and determines that one way to solve her problem is to invite the mechanic over for experience, dinner. The mechanic later calls and invites her out to dinner instead, mentioning that they might be able to work something out in terms of payment. Adele thinks, #147;It has been a long time since [I] have been out, and mathematics coursework, he is university life, good-looking and seems like a nice man#148; (1998, p. 15). Payne suggests that Adele would likely benefit from having a support system for between buddhism essay, times of need, and that Ramon, Geraldo, and Habib could use role models to teach them appropriate, less destructive behaviors.
The scenario of Wisteria and Eileen attests to the importance that Payne attributes to support from extended family. In this case, Wisteria, a 70-year-old woman on Social Security, provides a home for life essay, Eileen, her 10-year-old granddaughter who was abandoned by her drug-addicted, prostitute, and currently incarcerated mother. Wisteria only receives about $150 a week and is in marathi maze baba essay declining health, but her willingness to take care of Eileen means that the child will not be placed in a foster home. Experience Essay? Furthermore, Wisteria has accumulated modest financial resources and enlists support from the church where she has been a member for 40 years (1998, p. 17). The church is a critical institution in Payne#146;s view, but it is business thinking test (bctst), unable to address the life problems of poverty by itself. A church serves as a social support in the scenario about Maria and Noemi, a Hispanic mother-and-daughter pair from a devout Catholic family that receives food stamps but is otherwise quite loving and intact.
What Payne suggests 10-year-old Maria learns from Noemi#146;s role-modeling, however, is that she should get married, have children, and stay home like her mother (1998, p. 19). Similar patterns of early pregnancy are also perpetuated by the maternal example in the scenario of Tijuana Checosovakia, a 14-year-old African-American girl who had her first child when she was 11 (1998, p. 20); Sally#146;s 15-year-old sister in the scenario of Sally and Sueann (1998, p. 10); and Vangie, an African-American woman who conceived her first child at 13 (1998, p. 12). Again, for business thinking test, Payne it is emotional and university life essay, moral resources that count more than financial support. Coursework? Even if the individuals and families in her various scenarios have adequate material means of subsistence, it is their values and behavior that most critically determine their prospects for university life experience essay, escaping poverty. Interestingly, the mathematics primary positive role models mentioned in Payne#146;s scenarios are educators. This is hardly surprising, given her involvement in professional development activities for teachers. For instance, Magnolia#146;s aspiration to become a teacher (discussed earlier) was inspired by the kindness of university her own fifth-grade teacher who provided a Thanksgiving meal for her hungry family. Differences Buddhism And Christianity Essay? As a result, Magnolia believes that she could help kids too if she was a teacher. In the scenario about Steve (also discussed earlier), it is a school counselor who persuades him to stay in school and graduate even though he is exhausted trying to balance a full-time job and classes. The counselor expresses faith in Steve#146;s ability to learn, and personally meets him at life, 7:00 in the morning to about provide algebra tutorials. Through these interactions with teachers and other school officials, Magnolia and Steve have role models who can serve as their #147;sponsors#148; out of poverty.
They can, in other words, finally be provided an opportunity to university experience essay learn the hidden rules of the middle class to do well in marathi school and university experience essay, become financially self-supporting, successful members of our society. Of course, these also are examples of educators who are going beyond the general call of duty, working with students outside of the normal workday and using their own resources rather than those of the school or district. What these individuals draw upon are emotional and moral resources as well, and their examples in Payne#146;s scenarios reinforce the emphasis that she places upon these attributes. In framing the social problem of business skills test poverty in such basic human terms, Payne adds considerable force to her arguments about its origins and the possibilities for its resolution. On the other hand, the reality of working with such students is often considerably more complicated than her scenarios may suggest, and poverty may not be as closely tied to life experience essay morality and associated #147;hidden rules#148; as she seems to believe. A critique of Payne#146;s framework. Without doubt, the beowulf conceptual clarity and apparent applicability of Payne#146;s framework for understanding poverty are among its primary assets. Yet, given the university life heated scholarly debates regarding poverty over the last several decades, her authoritative-sounding pronouncements about children#146;s socioeconomic status and their educational and behavioral outcomes are rather remarkable.
This apparent certainty appeals to many people#146;s common-sense notions of how poverty functions and how it can be eliminated. It is important to note, however, that the underlying logic of Payne#146;s conception of poverty is not well-supported by contemporary social science research, and marathi essay, her straightforward explanations and conclusions may hold problematic implications for poor children and those educators who serve them. In the discussion that follows, we consider a number of potential criticisms of life experience essay Payne#146;s work, including her selective use of essay calling pl/sql social science research to support her arguments about the impact of poverty on university experience essay, education and other outcomes for children in baba essay society. One problem in university life essay Payne#146;s framework of poverty is the extent to which she essentializes the values, behaviors, and business thinking skills, orientations of those who are poor. Although Payne distinguishes between different circumstances of poverty, she routinely describes the poor in sweeping fashion as individuals who differ markedly from experience others in the middle and wealthy classes. For example, Payne explains that poor people lack the ability to govern their own behavior which is necessary for functioning in the middle class (2005, p. 77). As a result, the scenarios discussed earlier in skills (bctst) this article are intended to illustrate how #147;the line between what is legal and illegal is thin and life experience, often crossed#148; so that the poor #147;simply see jail as a part of life and not necessarily always bad#148; (2005, p. 22). Also, she maintains that the poor assume their life circumstances are inevitable, so money is either shared or spent immediately.
Disciplinary action is seen as being about penance and forgiveness rather than really changing negative behaviors; men value hard labor and identify as #147;a lover#148; and #147;a fighter#148; with bars and work as their main social outlets; and women learn that #147;sex will bring in money and favors. Values are important, but they don#146;t put food on the table#151;or bring relief from intense pressure#148; (2005, p. 23#150;24). Payne paints provocative pictures, but they are usually variations on a single theme. Life in poor families is characterized by constant chatter and background noise from the TV which is almost always on; disorganization and clutter; matriarchal and extended family structures; and multiple internal feuds #147;with nearly everyone having multiple relationships, some legal and some not#148; (2005, p. 51#150;56). Such scenarios convey powerful images, and all but a couple of them depict poor people as engaging in essay behavior of questionable moral character. Even if the main character in a story is a largely innocent student, she or he is usually presented as contending with adults who have proven to be morally weak. Whether it is an out-of-work uncle or a father in jail, an university life essay, unwed pregnant sister or a drunken mother, the children in these stories are victims of the adults who have failed them.
While Payne presents the stories in a straightforward fashion to encourage analysis, they are ultimately morality tales inviting judgment from an audience of largely middle-class professionals. A second concern is that Payne#146;s essentialized portrayal of the poor and problems related to poverty can lead to maze baba misconceptions or contribute to popular stereotypes about people in poverty. As noted earlier, central to Payne#146;s analysis of poverty is the idea that there are #147;hidden rules#148; or #147;mental models#148; which distinguish the thinking and behavior of people who are poor from those who are middle class and wealthy. University Life Experience? In identifying these characteristics, Payne appears to rely heavily on thinking skills (bctst), the work of Oscar Lewis (1968), Michael Harrington (1962), Richard Sennett (Sennett Cobb, 1973), and life experience essay, other writers from the fastformula from pl/sql 1960s and early 1970s who, to one degree or another, endorsed a #147;culture of life essay poverty#148; thesis about behavioral differences between the poor and technical essay fastformula pl/sql, others. Payne herself uses this term sparingly, but throughout the book she argues that individuals in generational poverty exhibit characteristics consistent with the culture of poverty thesis. As evident in the descriptive scenarios, the university experience essay poor are generally depicted as having a weak work ethic, little sense of differences between and christianity essay internal discipline or future orientation, and leading lives characterized to one extent or another by disorder and violence. In making these characterizations, Payne seems to be unaware of the many studies dating from the late 1960s that challenged the culture of poverty thesis, in many instances directly testing the extent to which traits such as these were more prevalent among the poor than other groups. By and large, these studies found that such characteristics were not more likely to university experience be evident in poor individuals or households. Indeed, people in poverty valued work, saving money, behaving properly, maintaining stable families, and a number of other #147;middle-class#148; attributes as much as their counterparts in higher social and economic strata. These results, moreover, held across groups with experiences of differing duration in poverty and across racial and ethnic lines (Roach Gursslin, 1967; Irelan, Moles, O#146;Shea, 1969; Coward, Feagin, Williams, 1974; Davidson Gaitz, 1974; Abell Lyon, 1979; Carmon, 1985; Jones Luo, 1999).
To put the matter another way, this body of research suggests that many of the attitudes that Payne attributes to the poor are also evident to essay about literature varying degrees among the non-poor, groups that Payne would describe as the #147;middle class#148; and the #147;wealthy.#148; After all, there is considerable evidence that individuals in these groups have characteristics of the sort that Payne attributes only to the poor: a variable work ethic, inability to save money, and uncertainty in interpersonal relationships. Recent studies indicate that traditional middle-class values on a range of essay issues have shifted in the past several decades. Divorce, for instance, is now widely seen as acceptable, a broad range of personal behavior is tolerated or accepted, and work judged to be demeaning is often spurned, even in the face of unemployment. Differences Buddhism? (Thornton Young-DeMarco, 2001; Jaynes, 2000) Mainstream values of the sort Payne holds up as exemplary appear to be considerably less prevalent today than in experience the past, throughout all segments of the population. Much of the behavior Payne describes, consequently, is not exclusively a problem of the poor and may therefore reflect values that she incorrectly attributes to poverty. Middle-class or upper-class individuals, of mathematics coursework course, are less likely to suffer as a result of such behaviors because, as Payne notes, having monetary resources makes the consequences of such attitudinal or behavioral characteristics considerably less dire.
However, a major problem in experience her interpretation is suggesting that there may be a causal force to these attributes. While they may make it difficult for some to escape poverty under current social and economic conditions, there is little evidence that such traits are especially prevalent among the poor, and they do not explain why some people fall into business test (bctst), poverty and others do not. Studies challenging the culture of life poverty thesis have cast serious doubt on the proposition that a clearly distinguishable #147;culture of literature review poverty#148; in fact exists. By and large, it is a term that has fallen out of use in the social science literature today. The studies that Payne does reference offer little support for her formulation of #147;mental models#148; that distinguish the behavior of the poor. One study she cites a great deal is Susan Mayer#146;s (1997) book, What Money Can#146;t Buy . Mayer argues that #147;. . . activities, possessions and housing environments that are important to children#146;s outcomes are only moderately related to parental income#148; (p.
113). In other words, the poor do not lack in resources necessary for children to succeed, and life experience essay, middle-class status is hardly a guarantee of a child#146;s success. Essay Calling Fastformula From Pl/sql? What matters are the #147;values#148; of parents, and Mayer (like many other researchers) offers scant evidence that the poor have different values than other groups. University Life Experience? On the surface, of course, this point would appear to support Payne#146;s argument, and it is no doubt for this reason that she cites Mayer#146;s work. But Mayer#146;s position is more complicated than this, and directly addresses the question of whether income is related to parenting practices, an issue at the core of Payne#146;s argument. In examining this matter, Mayer reports that there is negligible difference between the poor and other families. After reviewing the evidence from survey data, she concludes, #147;These results provide little evidence that parents#146; income has a large influence on parenting practices. Nor do the results in technical essay calling from this chapter suggest that parental income has a large effect on parents#146; psychological attributes other than their feelings of efficacy. And parental efficacy has only a moderate effect on children#146;s outcomes#148; (1997, p. 124). By and university experience essay, large, according to Mayer, parenting practices and the values that inform them are generally unrelated to income. This is hardly a finding that provides support for Payne#146;s framework for understanding poverty, despite her use of Mayer#146;s book for confirmation of her theories.
Mayer does indicate that #147;some persistently poor parents are shiftless and neglectful,#148; adding that their households exhibit #147;neither the moral nor the material standards that most Americans believe children require#148; (1997, p. 151). But she also makes it clear that families falling into this category are only a part of the persistently poor, who also suffer from illness, depression, and other limitations quite separate from their moral predilections. This suggests that poor families of the sort that Payne describes as reflecting #147;generational poverty#148; represent a modest proportion of the poor, perhaps less than a quarter and probably lower. Given these figures, it stands to reason that the children in such families would be a rather small fraction of all children, possibly just 3 or 4 percent. As Mayer concludes, #147;poverty alone is not synonymous with incompetence,#148; and as the technical calling fastformula from pl/sql number of families living in poverty rises, #147;the average poor person becomes more like the university life average middle-class person#148; (1997, p. Mathematics Coursework? 152). This too is an argument in sharp distinction from Payne#146;s, which suggests that the numbers of attitudinally deviant poor families are increasing (Payne, 2005, p. 61). Another book Payne cites a number of times is university life, a collection of studies edited by Greg J. Duncan and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn (1997) titled, Consequences of Growing Up Poor . Again, Payne appears to have been rather selective in choosing quotes from marathi maze baba essay this source, as the various studies provide little support for her analysis. In the chapter examining the link between income levels and parenting practices, for instance, Hanson, McLanahan, and Thomson (1997) echo Mayer#146;s points described above, #147;We found that household income and debt are only weakly related to effective parenting. University Experience Essay? Consequently, differences in the levels of parenting do not account for much of the association between economic resources and children#146;s well being#148; (p. 219). While the researchers did find evidence that various approaches to parenting had different effects in technical essay fastformula from pl/sql poor and non-poor households (with control and supervision being less important in the latter), this did not materially affect the relationship between income and children#146;s outcomes.
In another study, Canadian researchers found little evidence of a relationship between poverty and university life experience essay, behavioral problems in the schools (Pagani, Boulerice, Tremblay, 1997). These and similar conclusions throughout the book indicate that the relationship between poverty, the values and behavior of parents, and the welfare of children are a good deal more complicated than Payne suggests. What is perhaps most problematic about mathematics Payne#146;s framework for university experience essay, understanding poverty is its underlying logic that suggests poor people have choices about whether to business critical thinking skills (bctst) remain in#151;or escape from#151;poverty. As illustrated in the scenarios described earlier, Payne argues that the poor may not realize they have a choice to live differently, and even if they do recognize their own agency, they may be reluctant to university exercise it without the aid of a sponsor who can model the appropriate use of emotional resources. Coursework? Payne explains that in poverty,
There is a freedom of university experience verbal expression, an appreciation of between individual personality, a heightened and intense emotional experience, and a sensual, kinesthetic approach to life usually not found in the middle class or among the educated. These patterns are so intertwined in the daily life of the poor that to life experience have those cut off would be to lose a limb. Many choose not to live a different life. And for some, alcoholism, laziness, lack of motivation, drug addiction, etc., in effect make the choices for the individual. (2005, p. 113) As a result, Payne indicates that helping poor children develop self control requires both structure and choice so that they can recognize what behaviors are expected of them, identify the critical thinking skills test consequences accompanying particular actions, and ultimately #147;emphasize that the university essay individual always has a choice#151;to follow or not to marathi maze baba essay follow the expected behaviors#148; (2005, p. 78).
Emphasizing that emotional resources are the most important factor in the perpetuation of poverty implies it is the poor themselves who bear the greatest responsibility for university essay, their condition, despite the beowulf essay extensive research literature suggesting otherwise. For example, Payne overlooks the predominant social and economic causes of poverty highlighted in social science literature such as deindustrialization, discrimination, unequal educational resources, and socioeconomic segregation (Massey Denton, 1993; Wilson, 1996). These studies dispel prevalent beliefs that changing individuals#146; values and experience, behavior can affect their social mobility, or that children in poor and lower-class households have the essay calling fastformula pl/sql same objective opportunities for inter-generational social mobility as children from more affluent families. Recent research on life experience, the state of the very poor in American society suggests that their social environment is considerably more influential than Payne#146;s book indicates. The Gatreaux project in Chicago, for instance, has demonstrated that moving families out of inner-city communities with highly concentrated poverty can have a significant effect on the life chances of children and adults alike. Buddhism And Christianity? Once relocated to middle-class neighborhoods, children performed better in school, adults found employment, and family prospects improved. (Kaufman Rosenbaum, 1992) This research casts considerable doubt on the #147;mental models#148; theory that Payne postulates in university experience her book. The failure to consider this perspective is marathi maze, a major shortcoming of her analysis. Furthermore, although Payne#146;s reference to individuals in situational and generational poverty does not correspond to data categories on the census and are thus difficult to quantify exactly, the research literature on poverty indicates that the largest group of these children are racial/ethnic minorities (mostly African-American) living in central-city neighborhoods where local employment opportunities are severely restricted.
Payne, however, suggests that race is largely unrelated to poverty. In doing so, she sidesteps the critical issue of systematic, historical patterns of discrimination and exploitation that have contributed to the persistence of widespread poverty in university life essay the United States. Here, too, she ignores the very research upon which her book purportedly relies. A study cited by Payne reports that African-American families in 1980 were more than seven times more likely to experience #147;persistent#148; poverty (more than six years) than Whites. African-Americans also were more likely to live in a neighborhood where more than a fifth of the essay about literature review residents were persistently poor by life, about the same margin (Brooks-Gunn, Duncan, Maritato, 1997). Children in these families often live in technical essay fastformula pl/sql environments where the effects of #147;concentrated poverty#148; are evident, a term employed by William Julius Wilson to university experience essay describe to describe the impact of deindustrialization and marathi essay, long-term unemployment on inner-city communities (Wilson, 1987, 1996). These statistics tell a different story about the relationship between poverty and race than Payne describes, particularly with respect to the #147;persistent#148; poor. Meaningful efforts to educate poor children and work towards the elimination of poverty in life society at large necessitate a commitment to understanding and reforming the existing structure of socioeconomic stratification. This entails a critical analysis of contemporary economic shifts and needs (Books, 2004; Kantor, 1999; Ranney, 1999; Wilson, 1987), as well as attention to critical skills test (bctst) the advantageous functioning of the experience essay system to particular groups of privileged people (Gans, 1995; Jencks, 1972). For example, although there is greater parity in amount of education received by Blacks and Whites in the United States, this has not translated into more equal occupational success or earnings (Conley, 1999, p. Business Critical Skills (bctst)? 86). Even larger economic disparities can be captured when considering wealth rather than income between groups, as some social scientists have suggested.
Oliver and Shapiro (1997) explain, Wealth is money that is experience essay, not typically used to purchase milk, shoes, or other necessities. Sometimes it bails families out of financial and personal crises, but more often it is used to create opportunities, secure a desired stature and mathematics, standard of living, or pass along a class status already obtained to a new generation. (p. 171) The measure of one#146;s wealth#151;including things such as inheritance, investments, and property#151;has the university experience #147;particular attribute of marathi baba essay quantifying the social value of ideas or objects#148; (Conley, 1999, p. 144). Payne concludes that in conceptualizing poverty,
Naming the problem is the first step toward a solution, and university essay, the most important step, for if the problem is not named accurately the calling from pl/sql course of action based on that faulty assumption will only lead further and further from a solution. So naming problems accurately#151;making the correct diagnosis#151;is crucial because it is on those definitions that the theories of essay change and program activities are based. Mathematics? (2005, p. 169) Yet, Payne#146;s own viewpoint is university life experience essay, largely unsubstantiated in current research literature. Through a detailed analysis of the descriptive scenarios Payne provides to accompany her framework for maze essay, understanding poverty, it is clear that the poor are portrayed rather monolithically in their values and behaviors, which generally correspond to the culture of poverty thesis of the late 1960s and early 1970s. In like fashion, then, Payne recommends that educators serve to inspire and model change so the poor know there is a more desirable way of living. If only the problem of poverty could be so simply diagnosed, then the remedy would be fairly straightforward. Yet Payne#146;s work may misinform well-intentioned efforts to educate poor children by locating the university life experience problem of poverty within the individual without regard to the larger social context in which they live and are expected to succeed.
The Payne phenomenon in perspective. Given the marathi maze baba issues identified above, the influence of Dr. Ruby Payne presents something of a puzzle. If her viewpoint is so heavily tilted toward a certain perspective and university life, the research base for her work is coursework, so questionable, what explains the popularity of her book and the apparent success of university life essay her workshops? As suggested above, the clarity of her explanation for poverty and business thinking skills, related issues, along with the confident tone of her narratives and recommendations, may explain part of the life experience appeal. The fact that she purports to draw upon decades of mathematics coursework academic research no doubt lends credibility to her enterprise and its publications. But it is life experience, also possible that a good deal of the interest her perspective draws from educators is rooted in their own middle-class conceptions about the poor and selfish, the causes of poverty. Most educators, after all, are unfamiliar with the extensive research literature on poverty and its effects on children, and if Payne#146;s citations seem to support their own views about the poor, they would hardly be in a position to challenge the interpretation of research that Payne offers. If they are predisposed to believing that the poor are lazy and impulsive as well as unreliable and university, temperamental, they are more likely to differences between buddhism essay agree with Payne#146;s analysis than to question it. In short, Payne may be popular simply because she echoes commonplace assumptions about why some individuals appear to life experience essay succeed in American society while others do not.
As historian Michael Katz has noted, traditional views toward the poor have existed in the country for at least two-hundred years (Katz, 1986). In the past, observers of the poor distinguished between those considered #147;worthy#148; and #147;unworthy.#148; The difference was typically linked to personal rectitude, much like the essay about distinctions that Payne notes in university essay separating #147;situational#148; from between buddhism essay #147;generational#148; poverty. Her #147;mental models#148; conceptual framework and the scenarios she describes echo the ideas of university essay middle-class welfare reformers from the past, for whom poverty was more a moral condition than a matter of economic status. Now, as then, children are depicted as victims of the problematic attitudes and mathematics coursework, behaviors their parents exhibit and deemed highly susceptible to inheriting the same dysfunctional worldviews. While this may elicit sympathy and concern for students who live in poverty, and perhaps cause teachers to devote more time and attention to their needs, it is unlikely to create a sound, research-based comprehension of the problems presented by university life experience, poverty and the best ways to address them. Because of this, it seems unlikely that Payne#146;s framework will lead to meaningful, long-term change in the circumstances of poor children#146;s lives and essay about literature, the ability of life experience essay schools to work with them. Ultimately, it is differences and christianity essay, necessary to consider whether the apparent success of Ruby Payne and her organization represents a failure on the part of teacher educators and life experience essay, the many social science researchers who have addressed the connections between poverty and schooling over maze baba, the past several decades. After all, if thousands of professional educators have been misinformed to one extent or another by Payne#146;s analytical framework, it is at least partly because the training they received in colleges and universities did not prepare them to life experience essay critically assess its problems.
If teachers and principals lack an understanding about how poverty and social class affect children#146;s education, it may be because their own professional education provided little information or theory for them to draw upon for this purpose. At the essay review same time, researchers focusing on these issues have not contributed to university experience essay the development of successful in-service education programs that acknowledge the realities and needs of teachers and other education professionals in the classroom. Ruby Payne has thus filled a critical vacuum in the field. This, too, explains some of her success. Where others have been uninterested or perhaps unable to help teachers understand just how poverty and education are related, Payne and her collaborators have been quite willing to step into the breach. Perhaps it is time for the research and teacher education community to take up the challenge of poverty and begin to engage the questions that Ruby Payne has addressed so actively for the past decade or so. This is not an easy undertaking since the links between poverty and schooling are far from fully understood. As a number of studies have noted, the particular mechanisms that account for why some individuals and families end up in poverty and remain there for any length of time are still poorly comprehended (Sawhill, 1988).
Quantitative studies using large national or even local databases, despite their many important contributions, are unlikely to provide definitive answers. As the authors of a chapter on #147;intergenerational transmission of poverty#148; in the Duncan and Brooks-Gunn volume note, #147;While we know that growing up poor reduces children#146;s economic mobility, these analyses tell us little about why#148; (Corcoran Adams, 1997, p. Mathematics Coursework? 514). In their concluding chapter, Duncan and Brooks-Gunn refer to the absence of university life essay strong relationships between parental income and school performance in quantitative studies as an marathi baba essay, #147;enigma#148; (Duncan Brooks-Gunn, 1997, p. 603). University Life? More fine-grained analyses of the effect of schooling and critical, development of children living in poverty are needed before answers to these questions can be generated. While teachers and schools do have an university, important role in addressing issues of educational opportunity and equity for poor children, much additional research will be necessary before effective programs of professional assistance for differences buddhism and christianity essay, them can or should be undertaken. Ruby Payne#146;s program, while doubtless well intentioned, is not based on a sound or thorough understanding of poverty and life essay, its causes.
However, if her efforts to address the selfish difficulties educators face in working with poor children generates increased research attention and a resolution to better connect researchers#146; findings with educators#146; instructional concerns, then perhaps her work will turn out to have been significant indeed. Abell, T., Lyon, L. (1979). Do the differences make a difference? An empirical evaluation of the culture of poverty in the United States. American Ethnologist, 6 (3), 602#150;621. Books, S. (2004) Poverty and schooling in the U.S.: Contexts and consequences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Brady, D. (2003). Rethinking the university sociological measurement of poverty. Social Forces , 81 (3), 715#150;752.
Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G. J., Maritato, N. (1997) Poor families, poor outcomes: The well being of children and youth. In G. J. Coursework? Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 1#150;17). New York, NY: Russell Sage. Carmon, N. (1985). Poverty and culture: Empirical evidence and experience essay, implications for public policy. Sociological Perspectives, 28 (4), 403#150;417. Conley, D. (1999). Being black, living in the red: Race, wealth, and social policy in America . Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
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Davidson, C. Gaitz, C. M. (1974). Life Experience? Are the poor different? A comparison of work behavior and attitudes among the marathi maze urban poor and nonpoor. Social Problems , 22 (2), 229#150;245. Duncan, G. J., Brooks-Gunn, J. University Life? (1997). Maze Essay? Income effects across the life span: Integration and interpretation. In G. J. Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 596#150;610). New York, NY: Russell Sage. Gans, H. J. (1995).
The war against the poor: The underclass and antipoverty policy . New York, NY: Basic Books. Hanson, T. L., McLanahan, S., Thomson, E. (1997). Economic resources, parental practices, and children#146;s well-being. In G. J. Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 190#150;238). New York, NY: Russell Sage. Harrington, M. (1962).
The other America: Poverty in the United States . New York, NY: Macmillan. Hernandez, D. J. University? (1997). Poverty trends. Mathematics? In G. J. Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp.18#150;34). Life? New York, NY: Russell Sage.
Irelan, L. M., Moles, O. Differences Between Buddhism? C., O'Shea, R. M. (1969). University Life Experience Essay? Ethnicity, poverty, and selected attitudes: A test of the #147;culture of technical essay calling from poverty#148; hypothesis. Social Forces, 47 (4), 405#150;413. Jaynes, G. D. (2000). Identity and economic performance. The Annals of the American Academy of university life experience Political and Social Science , 568 (3), 128#150;139. Jencks, C. (1972). Inequality: A reassessment of the effect of family and business critical thinking (bctst), schooling in America . New York, NY: Basic Books. Jones, R. K., Luo, Y. University Life? (1999). The culture of poverty and African-American culture: An empirical assessment. Sociological Perspectives , 42 (3), 439#150;458.
Kantor, H. (1999). Essay About Literature Review? Race, education, and university life, joblessness in the inner city, 1970#150;1990. Maze? The Urban Review , 31 (3), 225#150;242. Katz, M. B. (1986). In the shadow of the poorhouse: A social history of welfare in life essay America. Review? New York, NY: Basic Books. Lewis, O. (1968). A study of slum culture: Backgrounds for La Vida . University? New York, NY: Random House. Massey, D. Mathematics Coursework? S., Denton, N. Life Experience Essay? A. (1993). American apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. Calling From? Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Mayer, S. (1997). What money can't buy: Family income and children's life chances. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Oliver, M. L., Shapiro, T. M. (1997). Black wealth/white wealth: A new perspective on racial inequality . New York, NY: Routledge. Pagani, L., Boulerice, B. Life? Tremblay, R. (1997). The influence of poverty on mathematics, children#146;s classroom placement and university experience essay, behavior problems. Technical Calling Pl/sql? In G. J. Duncan J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. Life Experience Essay? 311#150;339).
New York, NY: Russell Sage. Payne, Ruby K. (1996). A framework for understanding poverty: Modules 1#150;7 workbook . Highlands, TX: aha! Process, Inc. Payne, Ruby K. (2005). A framework for understanding poverty . Essay About Literature? Highlands, TX: aha! Process, Inc. Ranney, D. C. (1999). Class, race, gender, and poverty: A critique of some contemporary theories.
In L. Experience? Kushnick J. Jennings (Eds.), A new introduction to coursework poverty: The role of race, power, and politics (pp. 39#150;56). New York, NY: New York University Press. Roach, J. Essay? L., Gursslin, O. R. (1967). An evaluation of the concept #148;culture of poverty#148;. Social Forces , 45 (3), 383#150;392. Sawhill, I. V. (1988). Poverty in the U.S.: Why is it so persistent? Journal of Economic Literature, 26 (3), 1073#150;1119.
Sennett, R., Cobb, J. (1973). The hidden injuries of class. New York, NY: Vintage Books. Thornton, A., Young-DeMarco, L. (2001). Four decades of maze baba essay trends in attitudes toward family issues in the United States: The 1960s through the life essay 1990s. Between Essay? Journal of Marriage and the Family , 63 (4), 1009#150;1037. Wilson, W. J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged: The inner city, the underclass, and public policy . Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Wilson, W. J. (1996). When work disappears: The world of the life experience new urban poor . Thinking (bctst)? New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf. Zeichner, K. M. (2003).
The adequacies and inadequacies of three current strategies to recruit, prepare, and retain the best teachers for all students. Teachers College Record , 105 (3), 490#150;519. http://www.tcrecord.org ID Number: 12596, Date Accessed: 10/4/2017 7:07:00 AM. University of Kansas. JENNIFER C. University Life Experience Essay? NG is an assistant professor in the School of Education at essay literature, the University of Kansas. Her primary research interests include the socialization of beginning teachers in university experience urban schools, as well as such multicultural issues as race, class, and technical fastformula, gender. University Life Experience Essay? Her recent publications have appeared in thinking test (bctst) Educational Studies and Education and Urban Society. University of Kansas.
JOHN L. RURY is life experience, a professor of education at the University of Kansas. His area of specialization is the marathi essay history of American education, with special reference to problems of inequality and discrimination in schooling.
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Christopher Okigbo Okigbo, Christopher - Essay. Christopher Okigbo 1932–1967. (Full name Christopher Ifenayichukwu Okigbo) Nigerian poet. The following entry provides an overview of Okigbo's career. For further information on his life and works, see CLC , Volume 25. An important transitional figure between traditional and life essay contemporary African literature, Okigbo was one of Africa's most prominent poets writing in English. Chinua Achebe stated: While other poets wrote good poems, Okigbo conjured up for us an amazing, haunting poetic firmament of a wild and violent beauty. In his poems, which have been described as highly musical, Okigbo combined traditional elements of African culture with such non-African influences as Christianity and Western poetics. His work is sometimes cryptic, due in part to his obscure allusions, but critics acknowledge him as a master poet.
Born in Ojoto, Nigeria, Okigbo graduated from the University of Ibadan and worked as a teacher and librarian before beginning a literary career. Okigbo explained that the turning point came in 1958, when I found myself wanting to know myself better. Business Thinking (bctst). For Okigbo, poetry would always remain a highly personal endeavor. University Experience. Thus, his interest in social and political change in business thinking skills, Nigeria, which is an integral part of many of his works, derived from his belief that it is impossible for the artist to examine his or her own identity in isolation. As Okigbo once stated, any writer who attempts a type of inward exploration will in fact be exploring his own society indirectly. His concern for life experience, social justice was perhaps best expressed in his commitment to the Biafran secession. In July 1967, at the outbreak of the Nigerian Civil War, he enlisted in about literature, the Biafran Army. He was killed in action in university, August 1967. During his lifetime Okigbo published only two collections of poetry: Heavensgate (1962) and about literature Limits (1962). University Experience Essay. His posthumous publications include the collection Labyrinths, with Path of Thunder (1971). Okigbo is perhaps best remembered for the distinct musical style and marathi maze baba beauty of his verse.
Paul Theroux advised readers to listen to Okigbo's poetry in university life essay, order to appreciate it fully, asserting that looking is confusion: what we see in the poem may be an impenetrable mystery, and there are words and phrases in Okigbo's poetry that are nearly impossible to figure out. Listening is simpler and more rewarding; there is music in [his] poetry. Okigbo's practice of technical essay calling fastformula from, infusing poetry with rhythm and song has been imitated by life experience, subsequent African writers. Sunday O. Anozie observed: Nothing can be more tragic to beowulf selfish essay, the world of African poetry in university experience, English than the death of Christopher Okigbo, especially at a time when he was beginning to show maturity and coherence in his vision of art, life and society, and greater sophistication in poetic form and phraseology. Nevertheless his output, so rich and severe within so short a life, is sure to place him among the best and the greatest of our time.
Because Okigbo used myth, ritual, and dense symbolism, critics were initially divided in business skills (bctst), their reactions to his work. Some argued that Okigbo's poems evoke humanity's quest for university experience essay, divinity; others viewed them as an essay attack on Christianity; and a few regarded them as testimonies of Okigbo's social and university experience essay political views, especially those poems concerning the mathematics, cultural and religious alienation of Nigeria during the colonial period. University Life Essay. Regarding the difficulty of understanding Okigbo's poetry, a few critics have suggested that Okigbo was more an aesthete than a poet with a message. Okigbo commented in an interview: I don't think that I have ever set out to communicate a meaning. It is enough that I try to communicate experience which I consider significant. Access our Christopher Okigbo Study Guide for Free. Heavensgate (poetry) 1962.
? Limits (poetry) 1962; published in the periodical Transition. † Poems: Four Canzones (poetry) 1968; published in the periodical Black Orpheus. Labyrinths, with Path of Thunder (poetry) 1971. Collected Poems (poetry) 1986. ?This work was published as a volume in 1964. †This work contains Song of the Forest, Debtor's Lane, Lament of the Fruits, and Lament of the Lavender Mist. Christopher Okigbo with Marjory Whitelaw (interview date March 1965) SOURCE: An interview in maze, The Journal of Commonwealth Literature , Vol. University Life Experience. 9, July, 1970, pp.
28-37. [ In the following excerpted interview, which originally took place in March, 1965, Okigbo discusses such topics as negritude, religion, African culture, and his own poetry .] [Whitelaw]: Christopher, do you think of marathi maze baba essay, yourself as an university African poet? [Okigbo]: I think I am just a poet. A poet writes poetry and once the work is published it becomes public property. It's left to whoever reads it to decide whether it's African poetry or English. There isn't any such thing as a poet trying to express African-ness. Beowulf Essay. Such a thing doesn't exist. A poet expresses himself. What about experience essay poets who express negritude?
Yes, but that is different because it is a particular type of poetry. It is platform poetry. It is platform writing. It is beowulf selfish just like being invited to deliver a lecture on a particular subject. But it is valid as poetry when it is good, because we do in fact have this sort of thing in our own poetry in university life experience, the oral tradition. The poetry of praise, for instance. Platform poetry. You go to a king's palace to praise him, and you build up images in praise of him. That sort of poetry is valid provided it is good. In other forms of poetry … the most regular form that is mathematics written by young African poets, writing in the English language, is in fact written to express, to bring out university experience a sense of an inner disturbance.
We are trying to cast about for words; whether the critical thinking skills, words are in Ibo or English or in French is in fact immaterial … We are looking for words to university life experience essay, give verbal concreteness, to give verbal life to auditory and visual images … I think this is a separate form of poetry from platform poetry. It just happens that one form is written more here, among English-speaking poets, and one more among French. But the two forms are valid, and maze baba I don't quarrel with negritude…. You say you go back to village festivals—I know you write a great deal about these . Yes, I do. And I do not feel that in fact as a Christian I have ever been uprooted from my own village gods.
We have a goddess and a god in our family, our ancestral gods. And although I do not worship these actively, in the sense of offering them periodic sacrifices, I still feel that they are the people protecting me. But the way in which I think Christianity can be reconciled with this aspect of paganism is that I believe in fact all these gods are the same as the Christian God—that they are different aspects of the same power, the same force. What shape do these gods take in your family? Well, we have a carved idol representing a man, and another carved idol representing a woman, and the man we call Ikenga, and the woman we call Udo. And the man is the father of the entire family, for several generations back; the woman is the mother of the whole family, several generations back. And in a large extended family we have just these two gods, Ikenga and Udo. We offer sacrifices to them periodically.
I am here at Ibadan; I don't live at home at Ojoto. So my parents or my uncles will offer sacrifices to them periodically. And the women of the family will from time to time scrub the walls of the shrine where these gods are housed, with fresh mud (the walls of the university life, shrine would be of a mud mixture, a very satisfactory and inexpensive building substance), and the men of the family will repair the thatched roof to prevent it leaking. And once in a while they offer a white hen, or eggs laid by white hens, or kola nuts, or pods of alligator pepper. Essay. And I feel, you know, that we still belong to these things. We cannot get away from them. This is purely a family shrine, is life essay it? This is a family shrine. We have the ones worshipped by the whole town.
The whole town, for example, worships the python and the tortoise. The python, I imagine, represents the essay literature, male deity, and experience the tortoise represents the test, female deity. And the whole town worships these two idols, and university essay they (the creatures) are sacred to the whole town. I mean they are sacred to their particular shrines, and we cannot kill them. If in beowulf selfish essay, fact you find a python that is dead, you give it a ceremonial burial. Life Experience Essay. Oh, yes. Thinking Test (bctst). This still happens, even now. And Christianity cannot wipe this out. What does the python symbolize, then?
The python represents the university life essay, penis. And the beowulf essay, tortoise represents the clitoris. University Life Essay. One for essay, the male organ and the other for the female. Do you also go to the Christian church? I haven't gone to church for a long time. Neither have I. This is a rather theoretical question … But you think of yourself as a sort of nominal Christian, do you?
I think that over essay the years I have tried to evolve my own personal religion. The way that I worship my gods is in fact through poetry. And I think that each poem I write is a ceremony of innocence, if you like. Coursework. The creative process is a process of cleansing. And since I began actively to write poetry, I have never gone to church.
So I don't think it would be right for experience essay, me to say I am a Christian or I am a pagan. I think my own religion combines elements from both…. Do you think that for a lot of Africans today it is difficult to be African? I don't see why it should be difficult. I don't think there is any culture in marathi maze baba, the world that doesn't have borrowed elements. There is this multivalence in university, all cultures.
Africa happens to be a new society, new in critical skills, the sense that people are just beginning to know about Africa. So this multivalence is emphasized. It is just like holding something under a microscope—it becomes enlarged. Africa is now under the world's microscope; everybody sees Africa, and nobody bothers to look at university any other place. I think most Europeans have the idea that if any writer should be 'committed' (to use this literary cliche) it should be the pl/sql, African writers. I mean committed to writing about university life essay social change, about discovery of identity—that is, he should not be working in buddhism and christianity essay, isolation, in an ivory tower; he should not have removed himself from the preoccupations of the people of his own time . Yes, but there isn't any society in which people do not write about social change. Social change is not only experience taking place in Africa; it's taking place everywhere in the world. Yes, but in North America particularly there are writers who feel that the writer has a duty to discover himself rather than to discover the world. Thirty years ago writers like Thomas Wolfe were writing about the great panorama of American life, but today they seem, many of them, to be isolated from their contemporaries, to be concerned with self-exploration. They feel no responsibility whatever to their own society. Buddhism And Christianity. Now the university experience essay, point I want to literature review, make is that we in the West might suppose that (because Africa is under such violent pressures of change) it would be difficult for African writers to.
(The entire section is 2948 words.) Get Free Access to this Christopher Okigbo Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to university life experience, unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay.
We've broken down the business critical thinking (bctst), chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. SOURCE: Christopher Okigbo, in Transition , Vol. 5, No.
22, 1965, pp. 18-20. [ Theroux is an expatriate American novelist, critic, and travel writer who has extensive knowledge of Africa and has set several of his works in Kenya and Malawi. In the following essay, he analyzes the theme of movement in Okigbo's poetry .] Ordeal. Experience Essay. Ending on the edge of new agonies.
Beginning again. And the poet wrapped only in nakedness goes on, deliberately, mostly conscious because he is half-carried by the nightmare winds, half-carries himself with his own home-made, wild, tangled-wood tales. 'Logistics,' says Okigbo in the 'Initiation' section of Heavensgate . (The entire section is 2217 words.) Get Free Access to this Christopher Okigbo Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. John Povey (essay date December 1967) SOURCE: Epitaph to Christopher Okigbo, in Africa Today , Vol.
14, No. 6, December, 1967, pp. 22-3. [ Povey is an English educator, critic, and the editor of African Arts. Maze Essay. In the following excerpt, he surveys Okigbo's works, highlighting the poet's lyricism and life praising his wide emotional range and subject matter .] Okigbo was a far-ranging writer, eclectic, with a poetic strength which moulded the mathematics coursework, apparently piecemeal sources of his inspiration into a personal and sensitive vision. He is acknowledged as an intellectual poet, making the fullest statement through rigidly cerebral images that recall inevitably that old imagist master, Ezra Pound. Yet this assertion.
(The entire section is 1148 words.) SOURCE: Belief and Man's Faith, in his Whispers from a Continent: The Literature of Contemporary Black Africa , 1969. Reprint by Heinemann Educational Books Ltd., 1971, pp. 315-84. [ Cartey was a West Indian critic and educator. In the university life essay, following excerpt, he examines Christian imagery in technical essay fastformula from pl/sql, Okigbo's poems .] The reality of Christopher Okigbo's Heavensgate is life experience not within the realm of nature, but moves through and modifies many Christian ordinances, soaring into the realm of belief and of spirit. The prodigal poet stands a naked supplicant, seeking to elucidate the mystery of the genesis, of his initiation, of his purification. Selfish. Time is not only a linear chronological. (The entire section is university life experience essay 964 words.) SOURCE: Okigbo's Portrait of the Artist as a Sunbird: A Reading of beowulf, Heavensgate (1962), in university life, African Literature Today , No.
6, 1973, pp. 1-14. [ In the coursework, excerpt below, Izevbaye delineates the interplay of sources Okigbo employs in Heavensgate and Limits.] The year 1971 saw the publication by Heinemann Educational Books of Labyrinths with Path of experience essay, Thunder , a collection which is in one respect the final edition of Okigbo's work although, because of the omission of the Canzones and at least two of the later poems, its finality consists not in completeness but in saving editors of Okigbo's poems the trouble of having to decide what the maze, poet actually wrote. (The entire section is 4849 words.) Donatus I. Experience. Nwoga (essay date Spring 1975) SOURCE: Plagiarism and Authentic Creativity in West Africa, in Research in African Literatures , Vol. Essay. 6, No. 1, Spring, 1975, pp. University Experience. 32-9. [ A Nigerian educator and critic, Nwoga edited and compiled Critical Perspectives on technical from Christopher Okigbo (1984).
In the following excerpt, he addresses the issue of plagiarism in Okigbo's poetry, comparing Okigbo's works with those of other poets .] Perhaps I should start in university life experience, the matter of plagiarism with our authentic poet, Christopher Okigbo. Sunday Anozie, in differences between and christianity essay, his book, Christopher Okigbo: Creative Rhetoric , writing of Okigbo's earliest poems, the Four Canzones, talks of the four-movement division in each of the. (The entire section is 1557 words.) Robert J. Stanton (essay date Winter 1976) SOURCE: Poet as Martyr: West Africa's Christopher Okigbo, and His Labyrinths: With Path of Thunder , in Studies in Black Literature , Vol. 7, No.
1, Winter, 1976, pp. 10-14. [ In the following excerpt, Stanton describes how events in university life experience essay, Okigbo's life seem to have informed his poetry and influenced his poetic style .] Okigbo claims the following: I don't think that I have ever set out to differences between essay, communicate a meaning. Experience. It is mathematics enough that I try to communicate experience which I consider significant. [ African Writers Talking , 1972] This rejection of university life, giving meaning to his poetry denies us the use of. (The entire section is essay pl/sql 4924 words.) SOURCE: The Poet and life His Inner World: Subjective Experience in the Poetry of Christopher Okigbo and between buddhism essay Wole Soyinka, in UFAHAMU , Vol. 9, No. 3, 1979–80, pp.
23-41. [ In the following excerpt, Maduakor examines the retrospective quality of Okigbo's poetry and comments on its significance in relation to modern African poetry .] In an interview with Marjory Whitelaw published in 1965, the Nigerian poet Christopher Okigbo made a distinction between what he called platform poetry, and the lyric mode he referred to as the poetry of life, inward exploration. Essay About Literature Review. Platform poetry, he felt, is life experience essay declamatory and rhetorical; but it deserves, nevertheless, the labour of the poets who write. (The entire section is marathi maze essay 3455 words.)
D. S. Izevbaye (essay date Spring 1982) SOURCE: Death and the Artist: An Appreciation of Okigbo's Poetry, in Research in African Literatures , Vol. 13, No. University Essay. 1, Spring, 1982, pp. 44-52. [ In the essay below, Izevbaye examines the ways in which the thinking test (bctst), theme of death influences the form of Okigbo's poetry .] The attempt to understand death and the need to master its sorrow have given birth to various African forms of artistic expression, whether these occur as the ambivalence, often found in funeral songs, [which] helps to adjust the university life experience essay, shock and grief which death brings to the living [Gerald Moore, Africa , Vol. Mathematics Coursework. 38, 1968], or as a representation of the language of the dead in the speech of university, mmonwu , the. (The entire section is 2761 words.) Wole Ogundele (essay date June 1983)
SOURCE: From the Labyrinth to marathi essay, the Temple: The Structure of Okigbo's Religious Experience, in Okike: An African Journal of New Writing , No. 24, June, 1983, pp. 57-69. [ In the following essay, Ogundele argues that Okigbo's religious views, as expressed in his works, were much broader and more autobiographical than critics have considered them to be .] The exact place and function of life experience, 'religion' in Christopher Okigbo's poetry has been until lately, generally misrepresented. The misrepresentation of marathi maze baba, course stemmed from what critics and some writers held, in the last two or so decades, to be one of the imperatives of the then nascent neo-African literature: cultural. (The entire section is 4127 words.) James Wieland (essay date Spring 1984) SOURCE: Beginning: Christopher Okigbo's 'Four Canzones,' in life, World Literature Written in English , Vol. 23, No.
2, Spring, 1984, pp. 315-27. [ In the following essay, Wieland examines Okigbo's early poetry, arguing that the Four Canzones contains the essential elements of all his works .] It is unfortunate that Christopher Okigbo's first serious poems, Four Canzones (1957–1961), have become separated from the rest of his poetry, for they are contiguous with it, providing a fine prelude to the more substantial poetry of Labyrinths and Path of Thunder . It is apprentice work but it is important, offering an introduction both to the metaphysics that. (The entire section is 4200 words.) John Haynes (essay date Spring 1986) SOURCE: Okigbo's Technique in 'Distances I,' in selfish essay, Research in African Literatures , Vol. 17, No. Experience Essay. 1, Spring, 1986, pp. 73-84.
[ In the essay below, Haynes analyzes Okigbo's poem Distances I, offering a line-by-line account of its meanings and techniques .] The following commentary deals with Distances I from the point of view of Christopher Okigbo's handling of reference, allusion, textual unity, and speech acts. But I begin with some preliminary remarks by marathi maze essay, way of justification, since Okigbo's work has been the subject of much polemic. He is said to be obscure, un-African, and elitist and to rely too heavily on an unassimilated modernism derived from the American. (The entire section is 3995 words.) SOURCE: Christopher Okigbo and the Growth of Poetry, in European-Language Writing in Sub-Saharan Africa, Vol.
2 , edited by university life essay, Albert S. Gerard, Akademiai Kiado, 1986, pp. 750-54. [ In the essay below, Egudu characterizes Okigbo as the most significant poet of his generation .] Christopher Okigbo is obviously the most significant poet of [1960s Nigeria] not only because of his national relevance but also because of his artistic excellence. He can rightly be described as the poet of Nigerian history, for there is a movement in his work which parallels that of the history of Nigeria from her contact with the white man to the early stages of the civil war, when Okigbo died.
(The entire section is 1618 words.) Elaine Savory Fido (essay date 1986) SOURCE: Okigbo's Labyrinths and the Context of Igbo Attitudes to the Female Principle, in selfish, Ngambika: Studies of Women in experience, African Literature , edited by Carole Boyce Davies Anne Adams Graves, Africa World Press, Inc., 1986, pp. 223-39. [ In the differences between buddhism and christianity essay, following excerpt, Fido traces Okigbo's treatment of university essay, female characters in his poetry and links Okigbo's view of women to Igbo tradition and review familial influences .] Igbo culture is a complex entity, and university life essay the boundaries which define it are diffuse. Igbo people have intermarried with peoples along their borders, and the colonial intrusion and its aftermath has so changed things that it is hard even for scholars bent on. (The entire section is maze essay 5949 words.) Anafulu, Joseph C. Christopher Okigbo, 1932–1967: A Bio-Bibliography. Research in university life experience, African Literatures 9, No.
1 (Spring 1978): 65-78. Combines an extensive bibliography of Okigbo's work with a brief biography. Lindfors, Bernth. Okigbo as Jock. In When the Drumbeat Changes , edited by Carolyn A. Parker and Stephen H. Arnold, pp.
199-214. Washington, D.C.: African Literature Association and Three Continents Press, 1981. An account of Okigbo's school years which focuses on technical essay from his athletic achievements. (The entire section is 707 words.) Christopher Okigbo Homework Help Questions. As is true in university experience, other poems by Christopher Okigbo, repetition plays an marathi maze important role in creating the rhythm of the “Newcomer” poem that begins with the words “Time for university essay, worship.” Repetition. The temporal setting of Christopher Okigbo’s poem “The Passage” – specifically, whether the mathematics coursework, events the poem describes are supposed to life experience, take place before or after Nigeria achieved. Christopher Okigbo’s poem “The Passage” displays a number of striking literary devices and stylistic techniques, including the following: Use of a trochee in place of an expected iamb at the. Christopher Okigbo once suggested that the speaker of his poem titled “The Passage” resembles Orpheus, the maze baba essay, famous figure of Greek myth and legend. Some resemblances between Okigo’s speaker.
The polemical stance of experience essay, Elaine Fido in technical essay calling, her essay “Okigbo's Labyrinths and university life essay the Context of Igbo Attitudes to beowulf selfish essay, the Female Principle” might be characterized in a number of life experience essay, ways, including the.