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Reflective Essay For English Class 101 – WriteMyPaper net
concluding a paper by Gregor Mendel. Read at the meetings of February 8th, and March 8th, 1865. Experience of artificial fertilization, such as is effected with ornamental plants in order to obtain new variations in color, has led to the experiments which will here be discussed. The striking regularity with which the same hybrid forms always reappeared whenever fertilization took place between the reflective of english same species induced further experiments to how to be undertaken, the object of which was to follow up the developments of the hybrids in their progeny. To this object numerous careful observers, such as Kölreuter, Gärtner, Herbert, Lecoq, Wichura and others, have devoted a part of their lives with inexhaustible perseverance. Gärtner especially in his work Die Bastarderzeugung im Pflanzenreiche , has recorded very valuable observations; and quite recently Wichura published the results of some profound investigations into class, the hybrids of the Willow. That, so far, no generally applicable law governing the formation and development of comparing to oranges hybrids has been successfully formulated can hardly be wondered at by anyone who is acquainted with the extent of the task, and can appreciate the difficulties with which experiments of this class have to contend. A final decision can only be arrived at when we shall have before us the reflective results of detailed experiments made on plants belonging to the most diverse orders. Those who survey the how to make bibliography work done in this department will arrive at the conviction that among all the numerous experiments made, not one has been carried out to such an essay of english, extent and in such a way as to make it possible to determine the number of different forms under which the offspring of the hybrids appear, or to arrange these forms with certainty according to their separate generations, or definitely to ascertain their statistical relations. It requires indeed some courage to undertake a labor of such far-reaching extent; this appears, however, to score on mcat be the only right way by reflective which we can finally reach the chemosynthesis of methane solution of a question the reflective essay of english class importance of which cannot be overestimated in connection with the comparing apples history of the evolution of organic forms. The paper now presented records the results of class such a detailed experiment.
This experiment was practically confined to a small plant group, and is now, after eight years' pursuit, concluded in all essentials. Whether the plan upon which the separate experiments were conducted and carried out was the best suited to chemosynthesis of methane attain the desired end is left to the friendly decision of the reader.  Selection of the Experimental Plants. The value and utility of any experiment are determined by the fitness of the reflective essay material to the purpose for which it is used, and thus in the case before us it cannot be immaterial what plants are subjected to experiment and in essays for great, what manner such experiment is conducted. The selection of the reflective essay of english plant group which shall serve for experiments of this kind must be made with all possible care if it be desired to of good resume avoid from the outset every risk of essay of english questionable results. The experimental plants must necessarily: Possess constant differentiating characteristics The hybrids of such plants must, during the flowering period, be protected from the influence of all foreign pollen, or be easily capable of such protection. The hybrids and their offspring should suffer no marked disturbance in their fertility in the successive generations. Accidental impregnation by foreign pollen, if it occurred during the experiments and were not recognized, would lead to entirely erroneous conclusions. Of Good Resume. Reduced fertility or entire sterility of certain forms, such as occurs in the offspring of many hybrids, would render the experiments very difficult or entirely frustrate them.
In order to discover the relations in which the hybrid forms stand towards each other and also towards their progenitors it appears to be necessary that all member of the series developed in each successive generations should be, without exception , subjected to observation. At the very outset special attention was devoted to reflective the Leguminosae on account of their peculiar floral structure. Software Configuration Research. Experiments which were made with several members of this family led to the result that the genus Pisum was found to possess the necessary qualifications. Some thoroughly distinct forms of this genus possess characters which are constant, and of english class easily and certainly recognizable, and chemosynthesis of methane when their hybrids are mutually crossed they yield perfectly fertile progeny. Furthermore, a disturbance through foreign pollen cannot easily occur, since the fertilizing organs are closely packed inside the keel and the anthers burst within the bud, so that the stigma becomes covered with pollen even before the flower opens. This circumstance is especially important. As additional advantages worth mentioning, there may be cited the easy culture of these plants in the open ground and in pots, and also their relatively short period of growth.
Artificial fertilization is certainly a somewhat elaborate process, but nearly always succeeds. For this purpose the bud is opened before it is perfectly developed, the keel is removed, and each stamen carefully extracted by means of forceps, after which the stigma can at once be dusted over essay with the foreign pollen. In all, 34 more or less distinct varieties of Peas were obtained from several seedsmen and subjected to a two year's trial. In the case of one variety there were noticed, among a larger number of plants all alike, a few forms which were markedly different. Chemosynthesis Of Methane. These, however, did not vary in the following year, and class agreed entirely with another variety obtained from the same seedsman; the seeds were therefore doubtless merely accidentally mixed. All the other varieties yielded perfectly constant and similar offspring; at any rate, no essential difference was observed during two trial years. To Oranges Essay. For fertilization 22 of these were selected and cultivated during the whole period of the experiments. They remained constant without any exception. Their systematic classification is difficult and uncertain. If we adopt the essay class strictest definition of a species, according to which only those individuals belong to score on mcat a species which under precisely the same circumstances display precisely similar characters, no two of reflective essay class these varieties could be referred to one species. According to the opinion of of good resume experts, however, the majority belong to the species Pisum sativum; while the rest are regarded and classed, some as sub-species of P. sativum, and some as independent species, such as P. quadratum, P. saccharatum, and P. Reflective Essay Of English. umbellatum.
The positions, however, which may be assigned to them in a classificatory system are quite immaterial for the purposes of the experiments in question. It has so far been found to be just as impossible to draw a sharp line between the hybrids of species and varieties as between species and varieties themselves.  Division and Arrangement of the Experiments. If two plants which differ constantly in one or several characters be crossed, numerous experiments have demonstrated that the common characters are transmitted unchanged to the hybrids and essays their progeny; but each pair of differentiating characters, on the other hand, unite in the hybrid to form a new character, which in reflective essay, the progeny of the hybrid is usually variable. The object of the experiment was to observe these variations in chemosynthesis, the case of reflective essay class each pair of differentiating characters, and to chemosynthesis of methane deduce the law according to which they appear in successive generations. The experiment resolves itself therefore into reflective essay, just as many separate experiments are there are constantly differentiating characters presented in the experimental plants. The various forms of Peas selected for crossing showed differences in length and color of the stem; in the size and form of the leaves; in the position, color, size of the flowers; in the length of the flower stalk; in the color, form, and size of the chemosynthesis pods; in the form and size of the seeds; and in the color of the seed-coats and of the reflective essay of english class albumen(endosperm). Some of the characters noted do not permit of a sharp and certain separation, since the difference is of a more or less nature, which is often difficult to define. Such characters could not be utilized for the separate experiments; these could only be applied to characters which stand out score on mcat essay clearly and definitely in the plants. Lastly, the result must show whether they, in essay of english class, their entirety, observe a regular behavior in their hybrid unions, and whether from these facts any conclusion can be reached regarding those characters which possess a subordinate significance in the type. The characters which were selected for experiment relate:
To the difference in the form of the ripe seeds. These are either round or roundish, the depressions, if any, occur on the surface, being always only shallow; or they are irregularly angular and deeply wrinkled (P. quadratum). To the difference in average score essay, the color of the reflective of english seed albumen (endosperm). The albumen of the ripe seeds is either pale yellow, bright yellow and orange colored, or it possesses a more or less intense green tint. This difference of color is easily seen in the seeds as their coats are transparent. To the difference in the color of the seed-coat. Bibliography. This is either white, with which character white flowers are constantly correlated; or it is gray, gray-brown, leather-brown, with or without violet spotting, in which case the color of the reflective essay standards is violet, that of the wings purple, and the stem in the axils of the chemosynthesis leaves is essay of english class of a reddish tint. The gray seed-coats become dark brown in boiling water. To the difference in the form of the ripe pods.
These are either simply inflated, not contracted in on mcat, places; or they are deeply constricted between the seeds and more or less wrinkled (P. saccharatum). To the reflective essay difference in bibliography, the color of the essay of english class unripe pods. They are either light to dark green, or vividly yellow, in which coloring the stalks, leaf-veins, and calyx participate.* To the difference in the position of the comparing apples essay flowers. They are either axial, that is, distributed along the reflective essay of english class main stem; or they are terminal, that is, bunched at the top of the stem and to oranges essay arranged almost in reflective essay class, a false umbel; in this case the upper part of the stem is more or less widened in section (P. Score. umbellatum). To the difference in reflective essay, the length of the stem. The length of the research paper stem is very various in some forms; it is, however, a constant character for essay class each, in so far that healthy plants, grown in the same soil, are only subject to unimportant variations in this character. Resume. In experiments with this character, in order to be able to discriminate with certainty, the long axis of 6 to 7 ft. was always crossed with the short one of 3/4 ft. to 1 [and] 1/2 ft.
Each two of the differentiating characters enumerated above were united by essay of english class cross-fertilization. There were made for average score essay the. * One species possesses a beautifully brownish-red colored pod, which when ripening turns to violet and reflective of english class blue. Trials with this character were only begun last year. From a larger number of plants of the same variety only the most vigorous were chosen for fertilization.
Weakly plants always afford uncertain results, because even in for great, the first generation of hybrids, and essay of english class still more so in the subsequent ones, many of the offspring either entirely fail to bibliography flower or only form a few and inferior seeds. Furthermore, in all the reflective essay class experiments reciprocal crossings were effected in such a way that each of the two varieties which in of methane, one set of fertilizations served as seed-bearer in the other set was used as the reflective essay class pollen plant. The plants were grown in garden beds, a few also in how to make, pots, and were maintained in reflective essay of english, their natural upright position by means of sticks, branches of trees, and strings stretched between. For each experiment a number of make bibliography pot plants were placed during the blooming period in of english class, a greenhouse, to serve as control plants for the main experiment in the open as regards possible disturbance by essays for great insects. Among the essay of english class insects which visit Peas the beetle Bruchus pisi might be detrimental to the experiments should it appear in numbers. The female of this species is known to lay the eggs in the flower, and in so doing opens the of methane keel; upon the tarsi of one specimen, which was caught in a flower, some pollen grains could clearly be seen under a lens. Mention must also be made of a circumstance which possibly might lead to the introduction of foreign pollen. It occurs, for instance, in some rare cases that certain parts of an otherwise normally developed flower wither, resulting in a partial exposure of the fertilizing organs. A defective development of the keel has also been observed, owing to which the stigma and reflective essay of english anthers remained partially covered. It also sometimes happens that the pollen does not reach full perfection.
In this event there occurs a gradual lengthening of the pistil during the blooming period, until the essays for great lakes stigmatic tip protrudes at the point of the keel. This remarkable appearance has also been observed in reflective, hybrids of Phaseolus and Lathyrus. The risk of false impregnation by foreign pollen is, however, a very slight one with Pisum, and is quite incapable of disturbing the general result. Among more than 10,000 plants which were carefully examined there were only chemosynthesis a very few cases where an indubitable false impregnation had occurred. Since in the greenhouse such a case was never remarked, it may well be supposed that Bruchus pisi , and reflective essay of english possibly also the make described abnormalities in reflective of english, the floral structure, were to blame. Experiments which in previous years were made with ornamental plants have already affording evidence that the hybrids, as a rule, are not exactly intermediate between the parental species. With some of the more striking characters, those, for instance, which relate to the form and size of the leaves, the pubescence of the several parts, etc., the intermediate, indeed, is nearly always to be seen; in other cases, however, one of the two parental characters is so preponderant that it is difficult, or quite impossible, to essay detect the other in the hybrid. This is precisely the case with the Pea hybrids.
In the case of each of the 7 crosses the hybrid-character resembles that of one of the parental forms so closely that the other either escapes observation completely or cannot be detected with certainty. This circumstance is of great importance in of english, the determination and classification of the forms under which the offspring of the hybrids appear. Henceforth in this paper those characters which are transmitted entire, or almost unchanged in the hybridization, and therefore in apples, themselves constitute the characters of the hybrid, are termed the dominant , and those which become latent in the process recessive . The expression recessive has been chosen because the characters thereby designated withdraw or entirely disappear in the hybrids, but nevertheless reappear unchanged in their progeny, as will be demonstrated later on. It was furthermore shown by the whole of the experiments that it is perfectly immaterial whether the dominant character belongs to the seed plant or to essay of english class the pollen plant; the form of the hybrid remains identical in both cases. This interesting fact was also emphasized by Gärtner, with the remark that even the most practiced expert is of methane not in a position to determine in a hybrid which of the two parental species was the seed or the pollen plant.
The round or roundish form of the seed with or without shallow depressions. The yellow coloring of the seed albumen. The gray, gray-brown, or leather brown color of the seed-coat, in association with violet-red blossoms and reddish spots in the leaf axils. The simply inflated form of the pod. Reflective Essay Class. The green coloring of the unripe pod in association with the software management paper same color of the class stems, the how to bibliography leaf-veins and of english class the calyx. The distribution of the flowers along the stem.
The greater length of stem. With regard to this last character it must be stated that the longer of the two parental stems is usually exceeded by the hybrid, a fact which is possibly only attributable to the greater luxuriance which appears in all parts of software management paper plants when stems of very different lengths are crossed. Thus, for instance, in repeated experiments, stems of 1 ft. and essay of english class 6 ft. in example of good, length yielded without exception hybrids which varied in length between 6 ft. and 7 [and] 1/2 ft. The hybrid seeds in the experiments with seed-coat are often more spotted, and the spots sometimes coalesce into class, small bluish-violet patches. The spotting also frequently appears even when it is comparing essay absent as a parental character. The hybrid forms of the seed-shape and reflective class of the [color of the] albumen are developed immediately after the artificial fertilization by the mere influence of the configuration management research foreign pollen. They can, therefore, be observed even in reflective essay of english, the first year of experiment, whilst all the other characters naturally only appear in average score on mcat essay, the following year in such plants as have been raised from the crossed seed. In this generation there reappear, together with the dominant characters, also the recessive ones with their peculiarities fully developed, and this occurs in the definitely expressed average proportion of 3:1, so that among each 4 plants of this generation 3 display the essay of english dominant character and one the recessive. This relates without exception to software paper all the characters which were investigated in the experiments.
The angular wrinkled form of the seed, the green color of the albumen, the white color of the seed-coats and the flowers, the constriction of the pods, the yellow color of the essay of english unripe pod, of the stalk, of the calyx, and of the leaf venation, the umbel-like form of the inflorescence, and how to make the dwarfed stem, all reappear in the numerical proportion given, without any essential alteration. Transitional forms were not observed in essay of english, any experiment. Since the hybrids resulting from reciprocal crosses are formed alike and present no appreciable difference in their subsequent development, consequently these results can be reckoned together in each experiment. The relative numbers which were obtained for chemosynthesis of methane each pair of differentiating characters are as follows: Expt. 1: Form of reflective seed. From 253 hybrids 7324 seeds were obtained in the second trial year. Bibliography. Among them were 5474 round or roundish ones and 1850 angular wrinkled ones. Therefrom the ratio 2.96:1 is deduced.
Expt. 2: Color of albumen.. 258 plants yielded 8023 seeds, 6022 yellow, and 2001 green; their ratio, therefore, is as 3.01:1. In these two experiments each pod yielded usually both kinds of essay class seed. In well-developed pods which contained on the average 6 to 9 seeds, it often happened that all the seeds were round (Expt. 1) or all yellow (Expt. 2); on the other hand there were never observed more than 5 wrinkled or 5 green ones on one pod. It appears to make no difference whether the pods are developed early or later in the hybrid or whether they spring from the main axis or from a lateral one. In some few plants only a few seeds developed in software configuration management research paper, the first formed pods, and these possessed exclusively one of the reflective essay class two characters, but in the subsequently developed pods the normal proportions were maintained nevertheless. As in separate pods, so did the distribution of the comparing characters vary in separate plants. By way of illustration the reflective first 10 individuals from both series of experiments may serve.
As extremes in the distribution of the two seed characters in one plant, there were observed in average score on mcat, Expt. Class. 1 an instance of 43 round and only 2 angular, and another of 14 round and 15 angular seeds. In Expt. 2 there was a case of 32 yellow and only 1 green seed, but also one of 20 yellow and 19 green. These two experiments are important for the determination of the average ratios, because with a smaller number of experimental plants they show that very considerable fluctuations may occur. In counting the seeds, also, especially in Expt. 2, some care is software configuration research requisite, since in reflective essay of english class, some of the seeds of many plants the software configuration research paper green color of the albumen is essay less developed, and at comparing to oranges essay first may be easily overlooked. The cause of this partial disappearance of the green coloring has no connection with the hybrid-character of the plants, as it likewise occurs in the parental variety. This peculiarity is reflective of english class also confined to the individual and is not inherited by the offspring.
In luxuriant plants this appearance was frequently noted. How To Make. Seeds which are damaged by insects during their development often vary in color and class form, but with a little practice in sorting, errors are easily avoided. It is resume almost superfluous to mention that the pods must remain on reflective essay, the plants until they are thoroughly ripened and have become dried, since it is only then that the shape and color of the of good seed are fully developed. Expt. 3: Color of the seed-coats. Among 929 plants, 705 bore violet-red flowers and gray-brown seed-coats; 224 had white flowers and white seed-coats, giving the proportion 3.15:1. Reflective Class. Expt. 4: Form of pods. Of 1181 plants, 882 had them simply inflated, and in 299 they were constricted. Resulting ratio, 2.95:1. Expt.
5: Color of the unripe pods. The number of example of good resume trial plants was 580, of which 428 had green pods and 152 yellow ones. Consequently these stand in the ratio of 2.82:1. Expt. 6: Position of flowers. Among 858 cases 651 had inflorescences axial and reflective essay class 207 terminal.
Ratio, 3.14:1. Expt. 7: Length of stem. Out of 1064 plants, in 787 cases the stem was long, and in 277 short. Hence a mutual ratio of 2.84:1. In this experiment the dwarfed plants were carefully lifted and transferred to a special bed. This precaution was necessary, as otherwise they would have perished through being overgrown by their tall relatives. Even in their quite young state they can be easily picked out by their compact growth and thick dark-green foliage. If now the results of the whole of the experiments be brought together, there is found, as between the number of for great forms with the dominant and recessive characters, an average ratio of 2.98:1, or 3:1. The dominant character can have here a double signification ; namely, that of either a parental character or a hybrid-character.
In which of the two significations it appears in each separate case can only be decided in the following generation. As a parental character it must pass over unchanged to the whole of the offspring; as a hybrid-character, on the other hand, it must maintain the reflective essay class same behavior as in the first generation. Those forms which in the first generation exhibit the average score on mcat essay recessive character do not further vary in reflective essay class, the second generation as regards this character; they remain constant in their offspring. It is otherwise with those which possess the dominant character in the first generation. Of these two -thirds yield offspring which display the dominant and recessive characters in the proportion of 3:1, and thereby show exactly the same ratio as the hybrid forms, while only one -third remains with the dominant character constant. The separate experiments yielded the following results: Expt. 1: Among 565 plants which were raised from round seeds of the first generation, 193 yielded round seeds only, and remained therefore constant in this character; 372, however, gave both round and wrinkled seeds, in the proportion of 3:1. The number of the hybrids, therefore, as compared with the constants is 1.93:1.
Expt. 2: Of 519 plants which were raised from seeds whose albumen was of yellow color in the first generation, 166 yielded exclusively yellow, while 353 yielded yellow and green seeds in the proportion of 3:1. Comparing Apples Essay. There resulted, therefore, a division into hybrid and constant forms in the proportion of 2.13:1. For each separate trial in the following experiments 100 plants were selected which displayed the dominant character in the first generation, and in order to ascertain the significance of this, ten seeds of each were cultivated. Expt. 3: The offspring of reflective essay of english class 36 plants yielded exclusively gray-brown seed-coats, while of the offspring of 64 plants some had gray-brown and some had white. Expt. 4: The offspring of 29 plants had only simply inflated pods; of the offspring of 71, on the other hand, some had inflated and some constricted. Expt. 5: The offspring of 40 plants had only green pods; of the offspring of comparing apples to oranges 60 plants some had green, some yellow ones. Expt.
6.: The offspring of 33 plants had only axial flowers; of the offspring of 67, on the other hand, some had axial and some terminal flowers. Expt. 7: The offspring of 28 plants inherited the long axis, of those of 72 plants some the long and some the short axis. In each of these experiments a certain number of the plants came constant with the essay of english dominant character. For the of good resume determination of the proportion in which the separation of the forms with the constantly persistent character results, the reflective essay class two first experiments are especially important, since in these a larger number of example of good resume plants can be compared.
The ratios 1.93:1 and 2.13:1 gave together almost exactly the average ratio of 2:1. Experiment 6 gave a quite concordant result; in the others the ratio varies more or less, as was only to be expected in reflective of english class, view of the smaller number of 100 trial plants. Experiment 5, which shows the greatest departure, was repeated, and then in lieu of the ratio of essays for great 60:40, that of 65:35 resulted. The average ratio of 2:1 appears, therefore, as fixed with certainty. It is therefore demonstrated that, of those forms which posses the reflective of english class dominant character in the first generation, two-thirds have the hybrid-character, while one-third remains constant with the dominant character. The ratio 3:1, in accordance with which the of methane distribution of the dominant and recessive characters results in the first generation, resolves itself therefore in all experiments into the ratio of 2:1:1 , if the reflective essay of english class dominant character be differentiated according to its significance as a hybrid-character or as a parental one. Since the members of the first generation spring directly from the seed of the hybrids, it is now clear that the hybrids form seeds having one or other of the two differentiating characters, and of these one-half develop again the software configuration management research paper hybrid form, while the other half yield plants which remain constant and receive the essay class dominant or the recessive characters in equal numbers.  The Subsequent Generations From the Hybrids. The proportions in which the descendants of the hybrids develop and split up in the first and second generations presumably hold good for all subsequent progeny.
Experiments 1 and example resume 2 have already been carried through 6 generations; 3 and 7 through 5; and 4, 5, and 6 through 4; these experiments being continued from the third generation with a small number of plants, and no departure from the rule has been perceptible. The offspring of the hybrids separated in each generation in the ratio of 2:1:1 into hybrids and constant forms. If A be taken as denoting one of the two constant characters, for instance the dominant, a the recessive, and Aa the hybrid form in which both are conjoined, the expression. shows the terms in the series for the progeny of the hybrids of reflective class two differentiating characters. The observation made by Gärtner, Kölreuter, and software configuration management others, that hybrids are inclined to revert to the parental forms, is also confirmed by the experiments described. Essay Class. It is seen that the number of the comparing essay hybrids which arise from one fertilization, as compared with the number of forms which become constant, and essay their progeny from generation to generation, is continually diminishing, but that nevertheless they could not entirely disappear. If an average equality of fertility in all plants in all generations be assumed, and how to bibliography if, furthermore, each hybrid forms seed of which one-half yields hybrids again, while the other half is constant to both characters in equal proportions, the ratio of numbers for the offspring in reflective of english, each generation is seen by the following summary, in which A and a denote again the two parental characters, and Aa the hybrid forms. Software Research Paper. For brevity's sake it may be assumed that each plant in essay class, each generation furnishes only 4 seeds. In the tenth generation, for bibliography instance, 2^ n - 1 = 1023. There result, therefore, in reflective of english, each 2048 plants which arise in apples essay, this generation 1023 with the constant dominant character, 1023 with the recessive character, and only two hybrids.
 The Offspring of Hybrids in reflective of english class, Which Several Differentiating Characters are Associated. In the experiments above described plants were used which differed only on one essential character. The next task consisted in ascertaining whether the law of development discovered in these applied to each pair of differentiating characters when several diverse characters are united in the hybrid by crossing. As regards the form of the hybrids in these cases, the experiments showed throughout that this invariably more nearly approaches to score on mcat that one of the two parental plants which possesses the essay class greater number of dominant characters. If, for instance, the seed plant has a short stem, terminal white flowers, and simply inflated pods; the pollen plant, on the other hand, a long stem, violet-red flowers distributed along the stem, and constricted pods; the chemosynthesis hybrid resembles the seed parent only in the form of the pod; in the other characters it agrees with the essay pollen parent. Should one of the two parental types possess only dominant characters, then the hybrid is example of good resume scarcely or not at all distinguishable from it.
Two experiments were made with a considerable number of plants. In the first experiment the parental plants differed in essay, the form of the of methane seed and in the color of the albumen; in the second in the form of the seed, in the color of the albumen, and in the color of the seed-coats. Experiments with seed characters give the result in the simplest and reflective essay class most certain way. In order to facilitate study of the data in these experiments, the different characters of the seed plant will be indicated by A , B , C , those of the pollen plant by a , b , c , and the hybrid forms of the score on mcat characters by Aa , Bb , and Cc . The fertilized seeds appeared round and yellow like those of the seed parents. The plants raised therefrom yielded seeds of four. The results of the of english previously described experiments led to further experiments, the results of which appear fitted to essay afford some conclusions as regards the composition of the egg and pollen cells of hybrids. An important clue is afforded in Pisum by reflective essay the circumstance that among the progeny of the hybrids constant forms appear, and that this occurs, too, in respect of how to make bibliography all combinations of the associated characters.
So far as experience goes, we find it in every case confirmed that constant progeny can only be formed when the egg cells and the fertilizing pollen are of like character, so that both are provided with the material for reflective of english creating quite similar individuals, as is the case with the normal fertilization of pure species. We must therefore regard it as certain that exactly similar factors must be at work also in the production of the constant forms in of methane, the hybrid plants. Since the various constant forms are produced in one plant, or even in one flower of a plant, the essay of english conclusion appears logical that in the ovaries of the hybrids there are formed as many sorts of chemosynthesis of methane egg cells, and in the anthers as many sorts of pollen cells, as there are possible constant combination forms, and that these egg and pollen cells agree in their internal compositions with those of the separate forms. In point of fact it is reflective essay of english class possible to software configuration paper demonstrate theoretically that this hypothesis would fully suffice to account for the development of the hybrids in reflective essay, the separate generations, if we might at the same time assume that the on mcat essay various kinds of egg and pollen cells were formed in the hybrids on the average in equal numbers. In order to bring these assumptions to an experimental proof, the reflective essay of english class following experiments were designed. Two forms which were constantly different in the form of the seed and the color of the albumen were united by fertilization.
The artificially fertilized seeds were sown together with several seeds of both original stocks, and the most vigorous examples were chosen for the reciprocal crossing. Of Methane. There were fertilized: The hybrids with the pollen of AB The hybrids with the essay pollen of ab AB with the pollen of the hybrids. ab with the apples essay pollen of the reflective essay class hybrids. Resume. For each of these 4 experiments the whole of the reflective essay class flowers on 3 plants were fertilized. If the above theory be correct, there must be developed on the hybrids egg and pollen cells of the forms AB , Ab , aB , ab , and there would be combined: The egg cells AB , Ab , aB , ab with the of methane pollen cells AB . The egg cells AB , Ab , aB , ab with the pollen cells ab . The egg cells AB with the pollen cells AB , Ab , aB , and ab . Essay. The egg cells ab with the software configuration management pollen cells AB , Ab , aB , and ab . From each of these experiments there could then result only the following forms: AB , ABb , AaB , AaBb AaBb , Aab , aBb , ab AB , ABb , AaB , AaBb AaBb , Aab , aBb , ab If, furthermore, the essay of english class several forms of the egg and pollen cells of the hybrids were produced on an average in equal numbers, then in essay, each experiment the said 4 combinations should stand in the same ratio to each other. A perfect agreement in the numerical relations was, however, not to be expected since in each fertilization, even in normal cases, some egg cells remain undeveloped or subsequently die, and many even of the well-formed seeds fail to germinate when sown. The above assumption is also limited in so far that while it demands the formation of an equal number of the various sorts of egg and essay of english class pollen cells, it does not require that this should apply to each separate hybrid with mathematical exactness. The first and second experiments had primarily the object of proving the paper composition of the hybrid egg cells, while the third and fourth experiments were to decide that of the pollen cells.
As is shown by the above demonstration the first and third experiments and the second and fourth experiments should produce precisely the same combinations, and even in essay, the second year the comparing apples essay result should be partially visible in the form and color of the artificially fertilized seed. In the first and third experiments the of english dominant characters of form and color, A and B , appear in each union, and are also partly constant and partly in hybrid union with the recessive characters a and b , for essays for great lakes which reason they must impress their peculiarity upon the whole of the seeds. All seeds should therefore appear round and yellow, if the theory be justified. In the second and fourth experiments, on the other hand, one union is hybrid in form and in color, and consequently the seeds are round and yellow; another is reflective of english hybrid in example of good, form, but constant in the recessive character of color, whence the seeds are round and green; the third is constant in the recessive character of form but hybrid in color, consequently the seeds are wrinkled and yellow; the fourth is constant in both recessive characters, so that the seeds are wrinkled and green. In both these experiments there were consequently four sorts of seed to be expected; namely, round and yellow, round and green, wrinkled and yellow, wrinkled and green. The crop fulfilled these expectations perfectly.
There were obtained in the. 1st Experiment: 98 exclusively round yellow seeds; 3rd Experiment: 94 exclusively round yellow seeds. 2nd Experiment: 31 round and yellow, 26 round and green, 27 wrinkled and yellow, 26 wrinkled and green seeds. 4th Experiment: 24 round and yellow, 25 round and green, 22 wrinkled and yellow, 27 wrinkled and green seeds. Reflective Of English Class. There could scarcely be now any doubt of the success of the experiment; the next generation must afford the how to make bibliography final proof. From the seed sown there resulted for the first experiment 90 plants, and for the third 87 plants which fruited: these yielded for reflective class the In the second and fourth experiments the round and yellow seeds yielded plants with round and wrinkled yellow and green seeds . AaBb . From the round green seeds plants resulted with round and essays wrinkled green seeds.
Aab . The wrinkled yellow seeds gave plants with wrinkled yellow and of english class green seeds, aBb . From the wrinkled green seeds plants were raised which yielded again only wrinkled and green seeds. ab . Although in these two experiments likewise some seeds did not germinate, the figures arrived at apples essay already in the previous year were not affected thereby, since each kind of seed gave plants which, as regards their seed, were like each other and different from the others. There resulted therefore from the. In all the experiments, therefore, there appeared all the essay forms which the for great proposed theory demands, and they came in nearly equal numbers. In a further experiment the characters of flower-color and length of stem were experimented upon, and selection was so made that in the third year of the of english experiment each character ought to appear in half of all the plants if the above theory were correct. A , B , a , b serve again as indicating the various characters. A , violet-red flowers; a , white flowers; B , axis long; A , axis short. The form Ab was fertilized with ab , which produced the hybrid Aab . Furthermore, aB was also fertilized with ab , whence the hybrid aBb . Apples Essay. In the second year, for class further fertilization, the hybrid Aab was used as seed parent, and hybrid aBb as pollen parent. Seed parent: Aab ; Pollen parent: aBb ; Possible egg cells: Ab , ab ; Pollen cells: aB , ab . From the fertilization between the possible egg and pollen cells four combinations should result, namely.: From this it is example of good perceived that, according to class the above theory, in the third year of the experiment out of all the plants,
From 45 fertilizations of the for great second year 187 seeds resulted, of which only 166 reached the flowering stage in essay of english, the third year. Among these the to oranges separate classes appeared in the numbers following: There subsequently appeared, the violet-red flower color ( Aa ) in 85 plants, the white flower-color ( a ) in 81 plants, the long stem ( Bb ) in 87 plants, the short stem ( b ) in 79 plants. The theory adduced is class therefore satisfactorily confirmed in this experiment also. For the characters of form of pod, color of pod, and position of flowers , experiments were also made on a small scale and results obtained in resume, perfect agreement. All combinations, which were possible through the union of the differentiating characters duly appeared, and in reflective of english, nearly equal numbers. Experimentally, therefore, the theory is comparing apples confirmed that the pea hybrids form egg and pollen cells which, in their constitution, represent in equal numbers all constant forms which result from the combination of the characters united in fertilization . The difference of the of english forms among the progeny of the hybrids, as well as the respective ratios of the numbers in which they are observed, find a sufficient explanation in the principle above deduced. The simplest case is how to make afforded by the developmental series of essay class each pair of differentiating characters . This series is represented by the expression A +2 Aa + a , in which A and a signify the forms with constant differentiating characters, and Aa the hybrid form of both.
It includes in 3 different classes 4 individuals. In the formation of these, pollen and egg cells of the form A and chemosynthesis of methane a take part on the average equally in the fertilization; hence each form [occurs] twice, since four individuals are formed. There participate consequently in reflective of english, the fertilization It remains, therefore, purely a matter of chance which of the two sorts of pollen will become united with each separate egg cell. According, however, to the law of probability, it will always happen, on the average of many cases, that each pollen form A and essays for great lakes a will unite equally often with each egg cell form A and a , consequently one of the reflective two pollen cells A in the fertilization will meet with the essays for great egg cell A and the other with the egg cell a , and of english so likewise one pollen cell a will unite with an egg cell A , and the other with the egg cell a . The result of the fertilization may be made clear by putting the make signs for the conjoined egg and reflective essay of english pollen cells in the form of fractions, those for the pollen cells above and those for the egg cells below the line. We then have In the first and fourth term the egg and pollen cells are of like kind, consequently the product of their union must be constant, namely A and a ; in average score, the second and third, on the other hand, there again results a union of the two differentiating characters of the reflective stocks, consequently the make bibliography forms resulting from essay class these fertilizations are identical with those of the hybrid from which they sprang. Score Essay. There occurs accordingly a repeated hybridization. This explains the striking fact that the hybrids are able to produce, besides the two parental forms, offspring which are like themselves A/a and a/A both give the same union Aa , since, as already remarked above, it makes no difference in the result of fertilization to which of the two characters the pollen or egg cells belong. We may write then A/A + A/a + a/A + a/a = A + 2 Aa + a.
This represents the average result of the self-fertilization of the hybrids when two differentiating characters are united in them. In individual flowers and in reflective, individual plants, however, the average on mcat ratios in which the forms of the series are produced may suffer not inconsiderable fluctuations. Apart from the fact that the numbers in which both sorts of egg cells occur in the seed vessels can only reflective be regarded as equal on the average, it remains purely a matter of chance which of the two sorts of pollen may fertilize each separate egg cell. For this reason the paper separate values must necessarily be subject to fluctuations, and there are even extreme cases possible, as were described earlier in connection with the experiments on the forms of the seed and class the color of the albumen . The true ratios of the numbers can only be ascertained by an average deduced from the sum of as many single values as possible; the greater the number the more are merely chance effects eliminated. The developmental series for bibliography hybrids in which two kinds of differentiating characters are united contains among 16 individuals 9 different forms, AB + Ab + aB + ab + 2ABb + 2aBb + 2AaB + 2Aab + 4AaBb . Between the differentiating characters of the original stocks A , a and essay of english class B , 4 constant combinations are possible, and consequently the hybrids produce the corresponding 4 forms of egg and pollen cells: AB , Ab , aB , ab , and each of these will on the average figure 4 times in the fertilization, since 16 individuals are included in lakes, the series. Essay Of English Class. Therefore, the participators in the fertilization are.
In the process of fertilization each pollen form unites on an average equally often with each egg cell form, so that each of the four pollen cells AB unites once with one of the forms of egg cell AB , Ab aB ab . In precisely the of methane same way the rest of the pollen cells of the forms Ab aB ab unite with all the other egg cells. We obtain therefore: or. In precisely similar fashion is the developmental series of of english class hybrids exhibited when three kinds of differentiating characters are conjoined in them. The hybrids form 8 various kinds of egg and pollen cells: ABC , ABc , AbC , Abc , aBC , aBc , abC , abc , and each pollen form unites itself again on the average once with each form of egg cell. The law of combination of different characters which governs the development of the hybrids finds therefore its foundation and explanation in the principle enunciated, that the hybrids produce egg cells and pollen cells which in equal numbers represent all constant forms which result from the average score essay combinations of the characters brought together in fertilization.  Experiments with Hybrids of Other Species of essay of english Plants. It must be the comparing to oranges object of further experiments to ascertain whether the law of development discovered for Pisum applies also to the hybrids of other plants. Reflective Essay Of English. To this end several experiments were recently commenced. Two minor experiments with species of example Phaseolus have been completed, and may be here mentioned. An experiment with Phaseolus vulgaris and Phaseolus nanus gave results in perfect agreement.
Ph. Reflective Essay. nanus had together with the dwarf axis, simply inflated, green pods. Ph. vulgaris had, on the other hand, an axis 10 ft. to 12 ft. high, and yellow colored pods, constricted when ripe. The ratios of the numbers in average on mcat, which the different forms appeared in the separate generations were the same as with Pisum. Also the development of the constant combinations resulted according to the law of simple combination of of english characters, exactly as in the case of of methane Pisum. There were obtained: The green color of the of english class pod, the inflated forms, and the long axis were, as in chemosynthesis of methane, Pisum, dominant characters. Another experiment with two very different species of Phaseolus had only a partial result. Phaseolus nanus L, served as seed parent , a perfectly constant species, with white flowers in short recemes and of english class small white seeds in straight, inflated, smooth pods; as pollen parent was used Ph. multiflorus, W, with tall winding stem, purple-red flowers in very long recemes, rough, sickle-shaped crooked pods, and large seeds which bore black flecks and splashes on a peach-blood-red ground. The hybrids had the apples greatest similarity to essay class the pollen parent, but the flowers appeared less intensely colored. Their fertility was very limited; from 17 plants, which together developed many hundreds of flowers, only 49 seeds in all were obtained.
These were of medium size, and essays were flecked and splashed similarly to those of Ph. multiflorus, while the ground color was not materially different. The next year 44 plants were raised from these seeds, of which only 31 reached the flowering stage. The characters of Ph. nanus, which had been altogether latent in the hybrids, reappeared in reflective essay class, various combinations; their ratio, however, with relation to the dominant plants was necessarily very fluctuating owing to the small number of trial plants. With certain characters, as in average score on mcat, those of the reflective essay class axis and the form of pod, it was, however, as in essays for great, the case of Pisum, almost exactly 1:3. Insignificant as the results of of english class this experiment may be as regards the determination of the relative numbers in how to bibliography, which the various forms appeared, it presents, on the other hand, the phenomenon of class a remarkable change of color in the flowers and seed of the hybrids.
In Pisum it is research paper known that the characters of the reflective of english class flower- and seed-color present themselves unchanged in the first and further generations, and that the offspring of the comparing hybrids display exclusively the one or the essay of english other of the characters of the original stocks. It is otherwise in the experiment we are considering. Essays. The white flowers and essay the seed-color of make Ph. nanus appeared, it is true, at once in the first generation in reflective, one fairly fertile example, but the remaining 30 plants developed flower-colors which were of various grades of purple-red to pale violet. The coloring of the seed-coat was no less varied than that of the flowers. No plant could rank as fully fertile; many produced no fruit at all; others only yielded fruits from the flowers last produced, which did not ripen.
From 15 plants only were well-developed seeds obtained. The greatest disposition to infertility was seen in the forms with preponderantly red flowers, since out of 16 of these only 4 yielded ripe seed. Three of these had a similar seed pattern to Ph. multiflorus, but with a more or less pale ground color; the of good fourth plant yielded only one seed of plain brown tint. The forms with preponderantly violet-colored flowers had dark brown, black-brown, and reflective essay quite black seeds. The experiment was continued through two more generations under similar unfavorable circumstances, since even among the offspring of fairly fertile plants there came again some which were less fertile and even quite sterile. Other flower- and seed-colors than those cited did not subsequently present themselves. The forms which in the first generation contained one or more of the recessive characters remained, as regards these, constant without exception.
Also of those plants which possessed violet flowers and brown or black seed, some did not vary again in these respects in the next generation; the majority, however, yielded together with offspring exactly like themselves, some which displayed white flowers and white seed-coats. The red flowering plants remained so slightly fertile that nothing can be said with certainty as regards their further development. Despite the many disturbing factors with which the observations had to contend, it is management paper nevertheless seen by reflective essay this experiment that the for great lakes development of the essay hybrids, with regard to those characters which concern the comparing apples form of the plants, follows the same laws as in Pisum. With regard to the color characters, it certainly appears difficult to perceive a substantial agreement. Apart from the fact that from the union of a white and a purple-red coloring a whole series of colors results, from purple to pale violet and white, the circumstance is a striking one that among 31 flowering plants only one received the recessive character of the white color, while in reflective essay of english class, Pisum this occurs on the average in configuration research, every fourth plant.
Even these enigmatical results, however, might probably be explained by the law governing Pisum if we might assume that the color of the flowers and seeds of Ph. multiflorus is a combination of essay of english two or more entirely independent colors, which individually act like any other constant character in the plant. If the comparing apples essay flower-color A were a combination of the reflective essay individual characters A(1) + A(2) + . which produce the software configuration research total impression of a purple coloration, then by reflective essay class fertilization with the management differentiating character, white color, a , there would be produced the hybrid unions A(1)a + A(2)a + . and so would it be with the corresponding coloring of the seed-coats. According to the above assumptions, each of these hybrid color unions would be independent, and would consequently develop quite independently from the others. It is then easily seen that from the combination of the separate developmental series a complete color-series must result. If, for essay of english class instance, A = A(1) + A(2) , then the hybrids A(1)a and A(2)a form the developmental series. The members of example this series can enter into 9 different combinations, and each of these denotes another color: The figures prescribed for the separate combinations also indicate how many plants with the corresponding coloring belong to the series. Since the total is 16, the whole of the colors are on the average distributed over reflective essay each 16 plants, but, as the how to make bibliography series itself indicated, in unequal proportions. Should the color development really happen in this way, we could offer an explanation of the case above described, namely that of the reflective essay of english class white flowers and seed-coat color only appeared once among 31 plants of the first generation. This coloring appears only once in the series, and could therefore also only be developed once in the average in each 16, and with three color characters only once even in 64 plants.
It must, nevertheless, not be forgotten that the explanation here attempted is based on a mere hypothesis, only supported by the very imperfect result of the experiment just described. It would, however, be well worth while to follow up the comparing apples to oranges essay development of color in hybrids by similar experiments, since it is probable that in this way we might learn the significance of the extraordinary variety in the coloring of our ornamental flowers . So far, little at present is known with certainty beyond the fact that the color of the flowers in most ornamental plants is an extremely variable character. The opinion has often been expressed that the stability of the essay of english class species is greatly disturbed or entirely upset by cultivation, and consequently there is an inclination to regard the development of cultivated forms as a matter of chance devoid of rules; the coloring of ornamental plants is indeed usually cited as an example of great instability. Comparing. It is, however, not clear why the simple transference into garden soil should result in reflective essay class, such a thorough and persistent revolution in the plant organism. No one will seriously maintain that in the open country the development of plants is ruled by other laws than in the garden bed. Here, as there, changes of type must take place if the conditions of life be altered, and the species possesses the capacity of fitting itself to its new environment. It is willingly granted that by cultivation the origination of new varieties is favored, and that by man's labor many varieties are acquired which, under natural conditions, would be lost; but nothing justifies the assumption that the tendency to formation of varieties is so extraordinarily increased that the species speedily lose all stability, and their offspring diverge into an endless series of extremely variable forms. Were the change in the conditions the sole cause of variability we might expect that those cultivated plants which are grown for centuries under almost identical conditions would again attain constancy. This, as is well known, is not the case since it is precisely under such circumstances that not only the most varied but also the most variable forms are found. Score Essay. It is only the class Leguminosae, like Pisum, Phaseolus, Lens, whose organs of fertilization are protected by the keel, which constitute a noteworthy exception.
Even here there have arisen numerous varieties during a cultural period of more than 1000 years under most various conditions; these maintain, however, under unchanging environments a stability as great as that of species growing wild. It is average on mcat more than probable that as regards the variability of cultivated plants there exists a factor which so far has received little attention. Various experiments force us to the conclusion that our cultivated plants, with few exceptions, are members of of english class various hybrid series , whose further development in chemosynthesis, conformity with law is varied and interrupted by frequent crossings inter se . Reflective Essay Of English Class. The circumstance must not be overlooked that cultivated plants are mostly grown in great numbers and close together, affording the most favorable conditions for reciprocal fertilization between the varieties present and species itself. The probability of this is supported by the fact that among the great array of average on mcat essay variable forms solitary examples are always found, which in essay of english class, one character or another remain constant, if only foreign influence be carefully excluded. These forms behave precisely as do those which are known to be members of the compound hybrid series. Also with the most susceptible of all characters, that of apples to oranges essay color, it cannot escape the careful observer that in the separate forms the inclination to vary is displayed in very different degrees. Among plants which arise from one spontaneous fertilization there are often some who offspring vary widely in the constitution and arrangement of the colors, while that of others shows little deviation, and among a greater number solitary examples occur which transmit the color of the flowers unchanged to their offspring. The cultivated species of Dianthus afford an instructive example of this. A white-flowered example of Dianthus caryophyllus, which itself was derived from a white-flowered variety, was shut up during its blooming period in essay class, a greenhouse; the numerous seeds obtained therefrom yielded plants entirely white-flowered like itself. Make Bibliography. A similar result was obtained from a sub-species, with red flowers somewhat flushed with violet, and one with flowers white, striped with red.
Many others, on the other hand, which were similarly protected, yielded progeny which were more or less variously colored and essay class marked. Whoever studies the coloration which results in ornamental plants from similar fertilization can hardly escape the conviction that here also the development follows a definite law which possibly finds its expression in of good, the combination of several independent color characters . It can hardly fail to be of interest to reflective essay of english class compare the observations made regarding Pisum with the how to make results arrived at by the reflective essay of english two authorities in this branch of average score knowledge, Köreuter and Gärtner, in their investigations. According to the opinion of both, the hybrids in outward appearance present either a form intermediate between the reflective of english class original species, or they closely resemble either the one or the other type, and sometimes can hardly be discriminated from it. Of Methane. From their seeds usually arise, if the fertilization was effected by their own pollen, various forms which differ from the normal type. As a rule, the majority of individuals obtained by one fertilization maintain the hybrid form, while some few others come more like the reflective essay class seed parent, and one or other individual approaches the pollen parent. This, however, is not the case with hybrids without exception. Sometimes the offspring have more nearly approached, some the one and some the other of the essays two original stocks, or they all incline more to one or the other side; while in other cases they remain perfectly like the hybrid and continue constant in their offspring. The hybrids of varieties behave like hybrids of species, but they possess greater variability of form and more pronounced tendency to revert to reflective essay class the original types. With regard to the form of the hybrids and their development , as a rule an agreement with the observations made in Pisum is unmistakable. It is otherwise with the exceptional cases cited.
Gärtner confesses even that the exact determination whether a form bears a greater resemblance to one or to the other of the two original species often involved great difficulty, so much depending upon the subjective point of view of the observer. Another circumstance could, however, contribute to render the of methane results fluctuating and reflective of english class uncertain, despite the most careful observation and differentiation. For the experiments, plants were mostly used which rank as good species and are differentiated by a large number of characters. In addition to the sharply defined characters, where it is a question of apples to oranges essay greatly or less similarity, those characters must also be taken into account which are often difficult to define in words, but yet suffice, as every plant specialist knows, to give the forms a peculiar appearance. If it be accepted that the development of hybrids follows the law which is valid for Pisum, the series in reflective essay, each separate experiment must contain very many forms, since the number of terms, as is known, increases with the number of the differentiating characters as the powers of three. With a relatively small number of experimental plants the results therefore could only be approximately right, and in single cases might fluctuate considerably. Example Of Good Resume. If, for reflective essay class instance, the two original stocks differ in 7 characters, and 100-200 plants were raised from the average on mcat seeds of their hybrids to reflective class determine the grade of relationship of the offspring, we can easily see how uncertain the comparing apples to oranges decision must become since for 7 differentiating characters the combination series contains 16,384 individuals under 2187 various forms; now one and then another relationship could assert its predominance, just according as chance presented this or that form to of english the observer in a majority of resume cases.
If, furthermore, there appear among the differentiating characters at the same time dominant characters, which are transmitted entire or nearly unchanged to the hybrids, then in reflective class, the terms of the developmental series that one of the chemosynthesis of methane two original parents which possesses the majority of dominant characters must always be predominant. In the experiment described relative to Pisum, in which three kinds of differentiating characters were concerned, all the essay of english dominant characters belonged to the seed parent. Although the terms of the series in their internal composition approach both original parents equally, yet in this experiment the type of the seed parent obtained so great a preponderance that out of each 64 plants of the first generation 54 exactly resembled it, or only differed in one character. It is seen how rash it must be under such circumstances to draw from the external resemblances of hybrids conclusions as to their internal nature. Gärtner mentions that in those cases where the development was regular among the offspring of the hybrids the two original species were not reproduced, but only a few individuals which approached them. With very extended developmental series it could not in fact be otherwise. For 7 differentiating characters, for instance, among more than 16,000 individuals -- offspring of the hybrids -- each of the chemosynthesis two original species would occur only once. Reflective Essay Of English. It is therefore hardly possible that these should appear at all among a small number of experimental plants; with some probability, however, we might reckon upon the appearance in the series of a few forms which approach them. We meet with an essential difference in those hybrids which remain constant in their progeny and propagate themselves as truly as the pure species.
According to comparing Gärtner, to class this class belong the for great lakes remarkably fertile hybrids Aquilegia atropurpurea canadensis, Lavatera pseudolbia thuringiaca, Geum urbanorivale, and some Dianthus hybrids; and, according to Wichura, the hybrids of the Willow family. For the history of the reflective essay evolution of average score on mcat essay plants this circumstance is of special importance, since constant hybrids acquire the status of new species. Reflective. The correctness of the facts is guaranteed by eminent observers, and cannot be doubted. Gärtner had an opportunity of following up Dianthus Armeria deltoides to the tenth generation, since it regularly propagated itself in the garden. With Pisum it was shown by experiment that the essays hybrids form egg and reflective essay of english class pollen cells of different kinds, and that herein lies the reason of the variability of example of good their offspring. In other hybrids, likewise, whose offspring behave similarly we may assume a like cause; for those, on the other hand, which remain constant the assumption appears justifiable that their reproductive cells are all alike and agree with the essay class foundation-cell of the hybrid. In the opinion of comparing renowned physiologists, for the purpose of propagation one pollen cell and reflective essay class one egg cells unite in Phanerogams* into a single cell, which is capable by assimilation and formation of new cells to become an independent organism. This development follows a constant law, which is founded on the material composition and arrangement of the elements which meet in the cell in a vivifying union. If the reproductive cells be of the same kind and agree with the foundation cell of the mother plant, then the example resume development of the new individual will follow the reflective essay same law which rules the mother plant. If it chance that an egg cell unites with a dissimilar pollen cell, we must then assume that between those elements of both cells, which determine opposite characters some sort of compromise is score on mcat effected. The resulting compound cell becomes the foundation of the essay of english hybrid organism the development of which necessarily follows a different scheme from that obtaining in each of the two original species.
If the compromise be taken to be a complete one, in essays lakes, the sense, namely, that the hybrid embryo is formed from two similar cells, in which the differences are entirely and permanently accommodated together, the further result follows that the hybrids, like any other stable plant species, reproduce themselves truly in their offspring. The reproductive cells which are formed in essay of english class, their seed vessels and anthers are of one kind, and agree with the fundamental compound cell. * In Pisum it is on mcat essay placed beyond doubt that for the formation of the new embryo a perfect union of the reflective elements of both reproductive cells must take place. How could we otherwise explain that among the offspring of the hybrids both original types reappear in equal numbers and with all their peculiarities? If the influence of the egg cell upon the pollen cell were only external, if it fulfilled the role of make a nurse only, then the reflective essay of english result of each fertilization could be no other than that the developed hybrid should exactly resemble the pollen parent, or at any rate do so very closely. This the experiments so far have in no wise confirmed.
An evident proof of the complete union of the contents of both cells is afforded by the experience gained on all sides that it is immaterial, as regards the form of the hybrid, which of the original species is the seed parent or which the pollen parent. With regard to those hybrids whose progeny is variable we may perhaps assume that between the differentiating elements of the egg and pollen cells there also occurs a compromise, in so far that the formation of a cell as the foundation of the hybrid becomes possible; but, nevertheless, the arrangement between the comparing to oranges essay conflicting elements is only temporary and reflective does not endure throughout the life of the of methane hybrid plant. Since in the habit of the plant no changes are perceptible during the whole period of vegetation, we must further assume that it is reflective essay class only possible for the differentiating elements to liberate themselves from the enforced union when the fertilizing cells are developed. In the formation of these cells all existing elements participate in an entirely free and equal arrangement, by which it is only the bibliography differentiating ones which mutually separate themselves. In this way the of english class production would be rendered possible of average on mcat essay as many sorts of egg and pollen cells as there are combinations possible of the formative elements. The attribution attempted here of the essential difference in the development of essay hybrids to a permanent or temporary union of the differing cell elements can, of course, only claim the value of an hypothesis for which the lack of definite data offers a wide scope. Some justification of the opinion expressed lies in research paper, the evidence afforded by Pisum that the behavior of each pair of reflective of english differentiating characters in hybrid union is chemosynthesis independent of the other differences between the two original plants, and, further, that the hybrid produces just so many kinds of egg and pollen cells as there are possible constant combination forms. The differentiating characters of two plants can finally, however, only depend upon differences in the composition and grouping of the elements which exist in the foundation-cells of the same in of english, vital interaction. Even the validity of the law formulated for comparing apples Pisum requires still to be confirmed, and a repetition of the more important experiments is consequently must to be desired, that, for instance, relating to the composition of the hybrid fertilizing cells.
A differential may easily escape the single observer, which although at the outset may appear to be unimportant, yet accumulate to such an extent that it must not be ignored in essay, the total result. Whether the bibliography variable hybrids of other plant species observe an entire agreement must also be first decided experimentally. In the meantime we may assume that in material points an essential difference can scarcely occur, since the unity in the developmental plan of organic life is beyond question. In conclusion, the experiments carried out by Kölreuter, Gärtner, and others with respect to the transformation of one species into another by artificial fertilization merit special mention. Particular importance has been attached to these experiments and Gärtner reckons them among the most difficult of all in hybridization. If a species A is to essay class be transformed into a species B , both must be united by fertilization and average on mcat the resulting hybrids then be fertilized with the pollen of B ; then, out essay of the various offspring resulting, that form would be selected which stood in nearest relation to B and once more be fertilized with B pollen, and so continuously until finally a form is arrived at which is like B and constant in its progeny. By this process the species A would change into the species B . Gärtner alone has effected 30 such experiments with plants of genera Aquilegia, Dianthus, Geum, Lavatera, Lynchnis, Malva, Nicotiana, and score Oenothera. The period of transformation was not alike for all species. While with some a triple fertilization sufficed, with others this had to be repeated five or six times, and even in the same species fluctuations were observed in reflective of english class, various experiments. Apples. Gärtner ascribes this difference to the circumstance that the reflective of english class specific power by which a species, during reproduction, effects the change and transformation of the maternal type varies considerably in different plants, and that, consequently, the periods with which the one species is changed into comparing to oranges, the other must also vary, as also the number of generations, so that the transformation in some species is perfected in more, and in others in fewer generations. Further, the same observer remarks that in these transformation experiments a good deal depends upon which type and which individual be chosen for further transformation.
If it may be assumed that in these experiments the constitution of the forms resulted in a similar way to that of Pisum, the entire process of reflective of english transformation would find a fairly simple explanation. The hybrid forms as many kinds of egg cells as there are constant combinations possible of the characters conjoined therein, and one of these is always of the same kind as that of the fertilizing pollen cells. Consequently there always exists the possibility with all such experiments that even from the second fertilization there may result a constant form identical with that of the pollen parent. Whether this really be obtained depends in each separate case upon average score, the number of the experimental plants, as well as upon the number of differentiating characters which are united by reflective essay of english the fertilization. Let us, for instance, assume that the plants selected for software management paper experiment differed in 3 characters, and the species ABC is to be transformed into the other species abc by repeated fertilization with the pollen of the latter; the hybrids resulting from the first cross form 8 different kinds of egg cells, namely: These in the second year of experiment are united again with the pollen cells abc , and we obtain the series. Since the form abc occurs once in the series of 8 terms, it is consequently little likely that it would be missing among the experimental plants, even were these raised in a smaller number, and the transformation would be perfected already by of english a second fertilization. If by chance it did not appear, then the fertilization must be repeated with one of those forms nearest akin, Aabc , aBbc , abCc . It is perceived that such an experiment must extend the software farther the smaller the number of experimental plants and the larger the number of differentiating characters in of english class, the two original species; and that, furthermore, in the same species there can easily occur a delay of one or even of two generations such as Gärtner observed. The transformation of software management widely divergent species could generally only be completed in 5 or 6 years of experiment, since the number of different egg cells which are formed in the hybrid increases as the powers of 2 with the reflective essay of english class number of differentiating characters. Gärtner found by repeated experiments that the respective period of transformation varies in many species, so that frequently a species A can be transformed into a species B a generation sooner than can species B into how to make bibliography, species A . He deduces therefrom that Kölreuter's opinion can hardly be maintained that the two natures in hybrids are perfectly in equilibrium. Experiments which in this connection were carried out with two species of essay of english class Pisum demonstrated that as regards the choice of the fittest individuals for apples the purpose of further fertilization it may make a great difference which of two species is transformed into of english, the other.
The two experimental plants differed in 5 characters, while at the same time those of species A were all dominant and those of species B all recessive. For mutual transformation A was fertilized with pollen of chemosynthesis B , and B with pollen of A , and this was repeated with both hybrids the following year. With the first experiment, B/A , there were 87 plants available in the third year of experiment for of english class selection of the individuals for further crossing, and these were of the possible 32 forms ; with the essays lakes second experiment, A/B , 73 plants resulted, which agreed throughout perfectly in habit with the pollen parent ; in class, their internal composition, however, they must have been just as varied as the forms in the other experiment. A definite selection was consequently only possible with the score first experiment; with the second the selection had to be made at random, merely. Of the essay latter only a portion of the flowers were crossed with the A pollen, the others were left to fertilize themselves. Among each 5 plants which were selected in both experiments for fertilization there agreed, as the following year's culture showed, with the pollen parent: In the first experiment, therefore, the average score on mcat transformation was completed; in the second, which was not continued further, two more fertilizations would probably have been required. Although the case may not frequently occur in which the dominant characters belong exclusively to one or the other of the original parent plants, it will always make a difference which of the two possesses the majority of dominants. If the essay class pollen parent has the majority, then the selection of forms for further crossing will afford a less degree of certainty than in the reverse case, which must imply a delay in the period of transformation, provided that the experiment is only considered as completed when a form is arrived at which not only example of good resume exactly resembles the pollen parent in form, but also remains as constant in its progeny. Gärtner, by the results of these transformation experiments, was led to oppose the opinion of of english class those naturalists who dispute the stability of plant species and believe in a continuous evolution of vegetation.
He perceives in the complete transformation of one species into another an indubitable proof that species are fixed with limits beyond which they cannot change. Although this opinion cannot be unconditionally accepted we find on the other hand in Gärtner's experiments a noteworthy confirmation of comparing to oranges essay that supposition regarding variability of cultivated plants which has already been expressed. Among the experimental species there were cultivated plants, such as Aquilegia atropurpurea and canadensis, Dianthus caryophyllus, chinensis, and reflective of english japonicus, Nicotiana rustica and paniculata, and of good resume hybrids between these species lost none of their stability after 4 or 5 generations.
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Example 1 REFLECTION ESSAY As I sit down to - Berry College
Parole and Probation Essay Sample. Probation is essay of english, a situation by which the to oranges essay, criminal, having been convicted of a crime, is instead put out on the streets under supervision.(Dressler, 1969) This suspends the given jail sentence, until feedback from the probation could be reviewed. Probation comes from the of english class, latin word probatio , meaning testing period.(Villa Rose, 1979) It is meant as an opportunity for those first time offenders, minors and perpetrators of petty crime to have a second chance and to prevent them from committing unlawful acts again.(Russell, 2006) Those who are under probation live out their sentence as a part of the community, albeit with certain restrictions imposed upon by the Court. These conditions are designed to help integrate the criminal into lawful society and to give them a chance to be responsible citizens. Parole is the shortening of a given sentence due to good behaviour on the part of the convict.(Dressler, 1969) They are reviewed by comparing apples a parole board upon application and reflective of english, if approved, released unto the lakes, community following several restrictions.(United States. Congress. House. Committee on the District of Columbia. Subcommittee on Judiciary and Education., 1989) Any infringement on those restrictions, as well as any unlawful acts, would lead the board to put the convict back in essay of english, jail. Eligibility for parole usually comes after the serving of the minimum sentence, or after the serving of a fixed period. Factors affecting the decision of the parole authority include the nature of the original crime, behaviour in jail and likelihood of breaking the law again.
Other extraneous factors also considered include age, physical and mental health, and degree of willingness to service the apples, community.(NCCD Research Center.) Probation is different from parole in that probation is given at the initial sentencing. It may come with a suspension of jail time, or a combination of it and community service. The aim of probation is the prevention of essay persons to become habitual offenders. Chemosynthesis? Parole is meant to let back into society those offenders that have seen the error of their ways and have the reflective essay of english class, potential to once again be law-abiding citizens.
Probation and parole usually include a system of supervision whereas the client checks in on a regular basis with the parole/probation officer.(Erickson, 1973) Most probation systems aim to isolate the client and bring about rehabilitation in a new environment. Thus, most probationary systems integrate requirements like steady employment, and abiding of local laws as well as having a curfew. The clients are usually confined to a small geographical area, such that the officers would find them easier to monitor. Being a preventive action, some systems usually provide counselling and therapy to special cases.(Klein, 1997) Parole systems also tend to follow the same system as that of probation. Parolees are sometimes first required to spend time in a halfway house, or a small community so that the transition from prison life to the outside would be gradual.(Villa Rose, 1979) Drug and in some cases, alcohol use is also prohibited in a parole/probation system. A steady form of of methane employment and close monitoring of behaviour is also implemented.
Any infringement of thee terms would result in the client being reviewed again by the parole board or the essay class, court. In a report of the department of justice on paper, the statistics of probations systems, we find that about 5 million individuals were supervised as probationers/parolees. The number of those probationers who committed felonies and misdemeanours are statistically equal, at about 49%. The relapse rate of those in parole remain a steady 16% percent, while about 1 in 5 probationers are re incarcerated.(Albanese, 1981) There are also special cases that require corresponding attention from parole/probation systems.
These special cases include drug addicts, perpetrators of violent crimes, those with mental illnesses and sex offenders. In this paper, we will review the different forms of parole/probation systems and how they respond to monitoring and managing sex offenders released into the community. The strengths and weaknesses of each system will be evaluated, and at the end, a proposal for a new system incorporating the research gathered would be formulated. Sexual offenders as a special case. Sexual offenders are often said to be the most loathed of all criminal types. Essay Of English Class? The revulsion for rapists and how to make, molesters proves to be a major factor in the consideration of their rehabilitation and punishment. The stigma of having a parolee/probationer who has committed sex crimes set loose in a community of law-abiding citizens provides a higher degree of difficulty in managing such special cases.(Holmes, 1983) The balance between the concern for the safety of the community and the rehabilitation of the offender usually falls into conflict when related to sex related crimes. The fear of reflective releasing sexual offenders has prompted the enactment of the sex offender registration act in 2004, which gives awareness of any sex offenders living in one’s proximity. Sex offense parole/probation programs.
An example of a program facing these difficulties is the Multnomah County Sex Offender program in Portland, Oregon. The program aims to chemosynthesis of methane, balance out the rehabilitation of the parolees/probationers, and the management of the risk associated with their re entry into society. To achieve this, the program initiates a thorough risk assessment of the offender, looking at court, police and jail records as well as interviews and recognition of the actions taken by the offender in lieu of the crimes in class, order to obtain an assessment on the risk of entering the community. Those perceived to be high risk include offenders who were found guilty of essays serious sexual offenses like rape or child molestation, those with a history of violence, and those who do not respond favourably to treatment and assessment.(Schwartz Cellini, 1997) The program also includes a plan for notification of those people living in proximity of a high risk offender, the neighbours, schools, the police and essay class, churches. To monitor the offender’s actions, surveillance and for great lakes, visits are imposed upon the offender’s house. Interviews with neighbours and community institutions are also initiated to obtain feedback regarding attitude, actions and over all behaviour.
A provision of the program also calls for class, the use of a polygraph to assess the offender. To rehabilitate the offender, the program employs psychological treatment, counselling and facilitates discussion between the offender and the victim.(United States. General Accounting Office. Chemosynthesis Of Methane? United States. Congress. House.
Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Crime., 1996) The program also acts as a facilitator to obtain knowledge about sex offenders in the area via the sex offenders registration act. The Multnomah County Sex Offender program illustrates the paranoia associated with perpetrators of sexual crimes. Reflective Essay? They are essentially marked in the society the try to rehabilitate in, shunned by people in the community and essays, watched the majority of the time. The polygraph testing and surveillance may look to some as an reflective essay of english class invasion to apples, privacy.
The program takes great pains to safeguard the public against the offender, giving a smaller amount of reflective essay of english class attention as to how to rehabilitate the person. Another institute, which has programs for the rehabilitation of parolee/probationary sex offenders, is the Rehabilitations and re-entry division of the Texas department of Criminal Justice. The institute offers two very comprehensive rehabilitative programs that focus directly on the offender. It aims to root out the psychological causes of sexual crimes through counselling and cognitive therapy. The program aims to let the offenders have the management paper, tools to help control their urges. The development of interpersonal relations as well is significant as to sufficiently provide a moral foundation upon full mergence into society. This program operates upon of english class, the assumption that the urges that compelled the perpetrator to commit the act will always be there, what rehabilitation could do is to supply methods of control to regulate those urges and channel them tin ways that are acceptable to the law.
Other states utilize a variety of means to corral sex offenders in their vicinity. In California, the use of electronic tagging devices both to monitor subject’s forays outside the allotted area and to pinpoint the exact location via GPS has proven to be an effective mechanism for separating the public from the parolees/probationers. The methods utilized by both federal and state government isolate the comparing apples to oranges, parolee/probationer of a sex crime from the essay, society.(Henderson) This in essence defeats the aim of the parole/probation system, because it refuses the subject a chance to fully integrate with society.(Sacks, Logan, Connecticut. Dept. of Correction., 1979) the labelling and registration schemes, although necessary and effective at trying to essay, prevent sexual crimes, also tends to further alienate the offender from essay of english, society, effectively branding them as outcasts. The sex offender registration act also makes this stigma against sex offenders a nationwide phenomenon, further increasing concerns about them mingling in public. In formulating a new approach to sex offender parole/probation management, one must look at the factors and intentions that compose it. The concern for of good, public safety must not be the only consideration. Additional thought must be given as to how the offender can leave the crimes behind, and start anew as an accepted member of society.
Ideal Parole/probation program for reflective essay, sex offenders. An ideal scenario for the management of chemosynthesis of methane such cases would be to have greater personal interaction between the parole/probation officer and the offender. Class? In order to achieve this, the authorities must make it a point to set a small maximum number of cases for a particular officer to comparing essay, hold. Routine checks, as well as surprise visits from officers who have achieved a certain degree of familiarity with their clients would reduce the reflective of english class, risk of the offenders feeling that they are and will always be under suspicion. The building of trust between officer and convict would provide additional motivation for apples, keeping themselves in check.
Steady counselling would also be a prime priority, both within days prior to class, parole/probation and also within the duration. Management Research? Counseling designed to pinpoint the cause of essay of english class why the offender performed the crime would be crucial in the offender’s rehabilitation. Chemosynthesis Of Methane? Awareness of reflective essay of english class what the average score, offender’s act did to the victim and the impression that the offender was responsible would facilitate the development of guilt and regret. Integration of an individual in a community would be hampered if underlying suspicions and fears are there. Thus, a system by which the community is not simply notified, but instead has a bigger hand in integrating the parolee/probationer in the society. By breaking down the suspicion barrier and gaining familiarity, the community may get to see the convict not merely as a sex offender, but instead as a real person. By helping the community accept a person who is an outcast, the essay of english, program would in how to make, effect help the outcast realize that he/she is reflective, a person. The program could involve the apples, local church in surrounding the perpetrator with an atmosphere of acceptance and reflective essay class, welcome, not of suspicion and distrust. Dialogue between the parolee/probationer and the members of the community should be encouraged, both to allay any fears and also to rehabilitate the offender. Supervision of sex offenders would entail surveillance.
This would ideally come in the form of visits, searches, and contact. Regulation of Internet access, alcohol consumption and movement at night would also be helpful in reducing the risk of a relapse. A schedule polygraph test, about once a month, would also be helpful, although this should come with the parolees consent. The facilitation of discussion between offender and victim is configuration, also a good factor to incorporate in the program. The acceptance of guilt and the hope for change are strong motivations by which a sex offender could utilize to start anew. An essential part of the program would also include a creative and productive outlet by which the parolees could use.
These may be in the form of choirs, art classes, book discussions or even simply a walking club. Any effort to incorporate the offender to join a group, however small would send the message that the people around him support his decision to change. The role of this type of program would be the prevention of recurrence of crime by trusting that the offender has the willingness to change. We can see that as alternatives to hail, both parole and probationary systems still have some effect on the convict. The millions that are able to have a second chance is reason enough to balance out the few that do commit crime again. Parole an probation offers ways in which a criminal could be used to essay of english, better society. In sex offender cases, the affectivity of system is reduced by the reluctance of the community to open its doors and trust a fellow human being. The associated stigma against sexual; offenders make parole/probation systems for them problematic. This, instead of being resolved by existing programs, is instead highlighted, thus further propagating the atmosphere of fear. A new type of program should face head on the need for rehabilitation and the fact that this rehabilitation will occur in apples to oranges essay, a community. The community must learn to reflective essay, accept these people, and also realize their responsibility in average score on mcat, giving them a second chance to be good citizens once more.
The cloud of fear must be lifted, the essay, distrust lessened so that those deserving of second chances would not be denied by the same society they are trying to rejoin. The criminal justice system should see that prevention of future crimes from these paroles and probationers starts not with keeping them away from society. Rehabilitation for these people starts from to oranges essay, making them realize the error of their ways, the hope that they could start anew, and the justification that the society they are coming back to would still regard them as human beings. Albanese, J. Reflective Essay? S. (1981). Is probation working? : a guide for managers and methodologists. x, 180 p. Dressler, D. (1969). Score On Mcat Essay? Practice and theory of probation and parole. 347 p. Erickson, R. J. Reflective Essay Of English Class? (1973). Paroled but not free. xiii, 129 p.
Henderson, D. Treating sex offenders. Holmes, R. Comparing To Oranges? M. (1983). The sex offender and the criminal justice system. xiii, 236 p. Klein, A. Essay? R. (1997). Alternative sentencing, intermediate sanctions, and probation. xvii, 432 p. NCCD Research Center. Parole in bibliography, the United States, Uniform parole reports. Reflective Essay Of English? (pp. v.). [Washington] ;: Dept. of Justice, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration. Russell, C. (2006). Alternatives to prison : rehabilitation and other programs. 111 p.
Sacks, H. Comparing? R., Logan, C. H., Connecticut. Dept. of Correction. (1979). Does parole make a difference? , 120 p. Schwartz, B. K., Cellini, H. Of English? R. (1997). The sex offender : new insights, treatment innovations and legal developments : volume II. xviii, various pagings. United States. How To Make? Congress.
House. Essay Class? Committee on the District of apples essay Columbia. Subcommittee on Judiciary and Education. (1989). D.C. Board of Parole–power and authority over prisoners : hearing before the Subcommittee on Judiciary and Education of the Committee on the District of Columbia, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, second session, on H.R. Reflective Essay Class? 1792 … June 30, 1988. iii, 63 p. United States. General Accounting Office., United States.
Congress. House. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Crime. Comparing Apples To Oranges Essay? (1996). Sex offender treatment : research results inconclusive about what works to reduce recidivism : report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Crime, Committee on essay of english, the Judiciary, House of Representatives. 23 p. Villa, R. J., Rose, S. (1979). The probation manual. 1 v. (various pagings). Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Parole and Probation.
essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Parole and Probation. Probation is a court ordered sanction being served by the person while under supervision in of methane, the community. Community programs are used to reflective essay of english class, help retain control over criminals and to example, help… Probation and reflective essay of english class, Parole.
1. What did Cesare Beccaria, the Enlightenment thinker, mean when he said that a punishment should fit the crime? A The severity of punishment should parallel the severity of essay the… Determining Conditions of Probation. Conditions of probation and parole are primary factors that have an effect on an offender’s post-prison life. When determining conditions of essay of english class probation and parole, the offenders’ background plays a very…
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Sample Reflective Essay - Example #1 - English Program - CSU
974 Words Essay on the Problems of Old Age. The old age is an integral part of reflective essay class, human life. It is the evening of life. It is unavoidable, undesirable, unwelcome and problem- ridden phase of life. But it is really interesting to note that everybody wants to live a long life, but not to be old. It is ironical that however undesirable the old age, it is bound to example of good resume come in life.
A man is compelled to of english class go through the pains and pleasures of this age like the other phases of life before making an exit from this mortal world. An old man is of methane full of reflective essay of english class, experiences and even though experiences are of immense help to the younger generation, he is taken as an unwanted burden. He himself is caught in a terrible feeling of redundancy. Thinking of old age visions of loneliness and neglect emerge in mind. The picture becomes all the more awesome with the failing health and illness. Comparing Apples. A sense of despair glooms over all his pleasant feelings. Though it is true that no stage of life has its ever smooth sailing and every stage has its attendant problems, those of reflective of english class, old age are more difficult and insurmountable because the physical strength and mental capability required to cope up with the adverse situations of life are immensely reduced.
The situation becomes all the more difficult when one finds himself/herself left alone without anyone to average score on mcat essay attend him. Image Source : upload.wikimedia.org. Essay. Indeed the loneliness and neglect associated with the configuration management research paper old age is a rather recent phenomenon. It is the outcome of break up of the tradition of joint family system. Growing urbanisation and fast moving modern life have contributed to the problem. Furthermore, the erosion of moral values has also aggravated the situation.
Earlier, when life was simpler and values counted for more, those who reached a ripe old age held an of english enviable place in society where they could really release and enjoy the twilight years of of good, life. They commanded great respect, regard, love and attention and were taken as source of inspiration, guidance and experience for the younger generation. These words of Elbert Hubbard are true to the situation, #8220;where parents do too much for reflective of english class, their children, the children will do not much for themselves.#8221; Every phase of life has its own problems which require prudence, wisdom, courage and strength to attend to. In childhood and youth one has parents and other close elderly kith and kin to help, cooperate and guide. Besides, one himself is full of example resume, energy, strength, stamina and essay class, courage. But the situation takes a reverse turn in the old age. Average. For his every work he needs someone to help. He becomes dependent to others largely due to his physical infirmity. Essay. He is, in fact, filled with a feeling of emotional insecurity. He wants someone to lakes take care of his needs and share his feelings. But in this materialist society, everybody is short of time.
Nobody has enough time for him. Even his own children, to whom he dedicates his life and his earnings, do not find time for class, him. The problem gets accentuated especially as the world ceases to make have any resemblance to what the elderly were once accustomed to and changes at a bewildering pace with every passing moment. Essay Of English. Debilitating body and failing health, make things worst. Having rendered service for a lifetime, the body parts appear to have become tired and weak. He becomes highly vulnerable to ailments-minor or major.
Diseases both minor and major always follow them and their waking hours are preoccupied with symptoms and pills, diets and therapies. Regular medical aid and assistance becomes routine at this stage of life. Besides, social security and emotional support are terribly needed. A feeling of loneliness adversely affects their mental health which shows through some physical problems. In recent times, insecurity of the old, particularly in metropolitan cities, has emerged as a matter of average on mcat, grave concern. Usually, they are alone with servants to take care of them.
After some time, the servants become familiar with everything in the household, they rob them of all their belongings, often become cruel enough to kill them and ran away. The news of such incidents are frequent in national dailies. The problem of loneliness and isolation is the gift of reflective of english class, modern society. The society forces an old person to live like an how to make island. Often he faces the loss of spouse and old friends. In fact, during the essay of english class old age one is faced with multi-dimensional problems. One of the major problems is the financial constraint which is really more difficult in case of those old persons who are not entitled to any social security and have no source of income, completely depending on their spouse or children.
People of this consumer culture do not have sufficient money to provide financial support to their parents; neither do they take it as their moral responsibility. This situation is really unfortunate and needs to be addressed properly. Added to this is the depressing anxiety of not knowing just how far ahead one must plan or for how long one is configuration research paper forced to dependent financially on his children to meet his requirements. This brings more despondency to him. This plays havoc with the lives of the elderly. The picture is really grim in the twilight years of the life which ought to have been the best years of a person#8217;s life, when man is reflective free from every kind of responsibilities. In fact, it is an appropriate time for him to enjoy life without care and software management research, concern. He finally has time to live-#8220;sit in shade/reliving the good old times/letting bad memories fade.#8221; Keeping in mind these words of Henry Ward Beecher, #8220;There is no friendship, no love, like that of the parent for the child,#8221; we should be sincere and caring enough to essay of english class take care of them when they most need it, but not pamper them. Welcome to example of good resume Shareyouressays.com! Our mission is to reflective essay provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Essay.
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English 111: A Personal Reflection | Dan Walsh s Semester Portfolio
essay modern thought New York Review of Books, 12 June 2003. Galileu, Número 149, Decembro 2003. Harper's Magazine, January 2004. literaturkritik.de, Nr.7, Juli 2004. Freitag 34, 13.August 2004. The Globe and Mail, 11. September 2004. The aspects of things that are most important for us are hidden because of their simplicity and of english class familiarity. (One is unable to example notice something - because it is always before one's eyes.) The real foundations of essay of english, his inquiry do not strike a person at all. - And this means: we fail to be struck by what, once seen, is most striking and most powerful.
Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations, #129. The eighteenth century used the word Lisbon much as we use the word Auschwitz today. How much weight can a brute reference carry? It takes no more than the name of a place to mean: the collapse of the most basic trust in chemosynthesis, the world, the grounds that make civilization possible. Learning this, modern readers may feel wistful: lucky the age to which an earthquake can do so much damage. The 1755 earthquake that destroyed the city of Lisbon, and several thousand of its inhabitants, shook the Enlightenment all the way to East Prussia, where an unknown minor scholar named Immanuel Kant wrote three essays on the nature of earthquakes for the Kšnigsberg newspaper. Of English Class? He was not alone. The reaction to the earthquake was as broad as it was swift. Voltaire and Rousseau found another occasion to quarrel over on mcat essay it, academies across Europe devoted prize essay contests to it, and the six-year-old Goethe, according to several sources, was brought to doubt and consciousness for the first time. The earthquake affected the best minds in Europe, but it wasn't confined to them. Popular reactions ranged from reflective sermons to eyewitness sketches to average essay very bad poetry.
Their number was so great as to cause sighs in the contemporary press and sardonic remarks from Frederick the Great, who thought the cancellation of carnival preparations months after the disaster to be overdone. Auschwitz, by contrast, evoked relative reticence. Philosophers were stunned, and on the view most famously formulated by Adorno, silence is the only civilized response. In 1945 Arendt wrote that the problem of reflective essay of english class, evil would be the fundamental problem of postwar intellectual life in Europe, but even there her prediction was not quite right. No major philosophical work but Arendt's own appeared on the subject in English, and German and French texts were remarkably oblique. Historical reports and eyewitness testimony appeared in unprecedented volume, but conceptual reflection has been slow in coming. It cannot be the case that philosophers failed to notice an event of this magnitude. On the contrary, one reason given for configuration management research the absence of reflective class, philosophical reflection is the magnitude of the chemosynthesis of methane task. What occurred in Nazi death camps was so absolutely evil that, like no other event in human history, it defies human capacities for reflective understanding. Average? But the question of the uniqueness and magnitude of Auschwitz is itself a philosophical one; thinking about it could take us to Kant and Hegel, Dostoevsky and Job.
One need not settle questions about the relationship of Auschwitz to other crimes and reflective class suffering to take it as paradigmatic of the sort of evil that contemporary philosophy rarely examines. The differences in intellectual responses to the earthquake at Lisbon and the mass murder at Auschwitz are differences not only in the nature of the configuration research events but also in our intellectual constellations. What counts as a philosophical problem and what counts as a philosophical reaction, what is reflective essay urgent and make bibliography what is academic, what is a matter of memory and what is a matter of meaning - all these are open to change. This book traces changes that have occurred in our understanding of the reflective essay class self and configuration management paper its place in the world from the early Enlightenment to the late twentieth century. Taking intellectual reactions to Lisbon and reflective Auschwitz as central poles of of methane, inquiry is reflective class a way of locating the beginning and end of the modern. Focusing on points of doubt and crisis allows us to examine our guiding assumptions by examining what challenges them at points where they break down: what threatens our sense of the sense of the of good resume world? That focus also underlies one of this book's central claims: the problem of evil is the reflective of english class guiding force of of good, modern thought. Most contemporary versions of the history of philosophy will view this claim to be less false than incomprehensible.
For the problem of evil is thought to be a theological one. Classically, it's formulated as the question: How could a good God create a world full of innocent suffering? Such questions have been off-limits to philosophy since Immanuel Kant argued that God, along with many other subjects of classical metaphysics, exceeded the limits of human knowledge. If one thing might seem to of english unite philosophers on both sides of the Atlantic, it's the conviction that Kant's work proscribes not just future philosophical references to of methane God but most other sorts of foundation as well. Essay Class? From this perspective, comparing Lisbon to Auschwitz is merely mistaken. The mistake seems to lie in accepting the eighteenth century's use of the word evil to refer to both acts of human cruelty and instances of human suffering. That mistake might come naturally to a group of theists, who were willing to give God the responsibility for both, but it shouldn't confuse the rest of us. On this view Lisbon and Auschwitz are two completely different kinds of events. Lisbon denotes the sort of thing insurance companies call natural disasters, to remove them from the sphere of human action. Example Of Good? Thus human beings are absolved of responsibility not only for causing or compensating them but even for thinking about essay them, except in pragmatic and software configuration research paper technological terms.
Earthquakes and essay class volcanoes, famines and average essay floods inhabit the borders of human meaning. We want to understand just so much about them as might help us gain control. Only traditional - that is, premodern - theists will seek in reflective class, them significance. Auschwitz, by contrast, stands for all that is meant when we use the word evil today: absolute wrongdoing that leaves no room for account or expiation. Initially, then, no two events will strike us as more different. If there's a problem of how to, evil engendered by Lisbon, it can occur only for the orthodox: how can God allow a natural order that causes innocent suffering? The problem of evil posed by Auschwitz looks like another entirely: how can human beings behave in of english class, ways that so thoroughly violate both reasonable and rational norms? It is how to bibliography just this sense that the problems are utterly different which marks modern consciousness. The sharp distinction between natural and moral evil that now seems self-evident was born around the Lisbon earthquake and essay of english nourished by Rousseau.
Tracing the history of that distinction, and the ways in which the problems refused to stay separate, is one aim of this book. A central reason for locating the modern as beginning at Lisbon is precisely for its attempt to divide responsibility clearly. Close look at that attempt will reveal all its irony. Though the philosophes perpetually accused Rousseau of nostalgia, Voltaire's discussion of the earthquake left far more in God's hands than did Rousseau's. And when Rousseau invented the modern sciences of history and psychology to chemosynthesis of methane cope with questions the earthquake brought to the surface, it was in reflective of english, defense of comparing essay, God's order. Ironies notwithstanding, the consciousness that emerged after Lisbon was an attempt at maturity. Reflective Essay? If Enlightenment is the courage to think for oneself, it's also the courage to assume responsibility for software configuration research the world into which one is thrown. Radically separating what earlier ages called natural from moral evils was thus part of the meaning of modernity. If Auschwitz can be said to mark its ending, it is for the way it marks our terror. Modern conceptions of evil were developed in class, the attempt to bibliography stop blaming God for the state of the world, and to take responsibility for it on our own.
The more responsibility for evil was left to the human, the less worthy the of english species seemed to take it on. Essays For Great? We are left without direction. Returning to intellectual tutelage isn't an option for many, but hopes for growing up now seem void. The history of philosophy, like that of nations or individuals, should teach us not to take for granted the intersection of assumptions where we find ourselves standing at particular moments in time. Learning this is a crucial part of the self-knowledge that was always philosophy's goal. But history of philosophy achieves such knowledge only reflective of english class, when it is score sufficiently historical. More often, the history of philosophy is approached as if our constellations and essay of english categories were self-evident. Resume? In broadest terms, we probably agree with Comte's view of intellectual history as progressing from theological to metaphysical to class scientific ages. On such a view, thinkers whose world was shattered by example of good resume, the Lisbon earthquake would confirm all conviction in Enlightenment naiveté.
At best, their reaction seems quaint, a sign of intellectual immaturity befitting an era that found itself on the border between theology an of english, metaphysics. If one believes the world is ruled by a good an powerful father figure, it's natural to expect his order to be comprehensibly just. Jettison that belief, and whatever expectations remain are unresolved residues of childish fantasy. Thus the intellectual shock waves generated by Lisbon, when noticed at all, are seen as the birth pangs of a sadder but wiser era that has learned to live on its own. This view, I will argue, is itself a historical one, for nothing is easier than stating the problem of evil in software configuration research paper, nontheist terms. One can state it, for essay class example, as an argument with Hegel: not only is the for great real not identical with the rational; they aren't even related. To make this observation, you need no theory. Any observation of the world that continues for more than a couple of minutes should do. Reflective Essay? Every time we make the essays lakes judgment this ought not to have happened, we are stepping onto a path that leads straight to the problem of evil. Note that it is as little a moral problem, strictly speaking, as it is a theological one.
One can call it the essay of english point at essays for great lakes which ethics and reflective essay metaphysics, epistemology and score aesthetics meet, collide, and throw up their hands. At issue are questions about what the class structure of the essay world must be like for us to think and act within it. Those questions will quickly become historical. For what most demands explanation is not how moral judgments are justified, but why those that are so clearly justified were disregarded in the past. When one begins to of english class seek explanation, one can end in anything from myth, like the comparing to oranges Fall, to metaphysics, like Hegel's Phenomenology. Whats important is that the place one begins is perfectly ordinary. I believe it is the essay of english place where philosophy begins, and threatens to chemosynthesis stop.
For it involves questions more natural, urgent, and pervasive than the sceptical epistemological quandaries conventionally said to drive modern philosophy. It's possible to begin to worry about the difference between appearance and reality because you notice that a stick looks refracted in a pool of water, or because a dream is so vivid that you want to grasp one of its objects for a moment or two of sleepy half-consciousness. But you wake in your bed, slap your face if you have to, pull the stick out essay, of the water if you're really in doubt. Were the problem of evil that easy to dispel, the massive effort spent in for great lakes, hundreds of years of philosophy would be in reflective essay of english class, need of explanation. The picture of modern philosophy as centered in epistemology and driven by the desire to ground our representations is so tenacious that some philosophers are prepared to bite the bullet and declare the configuration management research effort simply wasted.
Rorty, for example, finds it easier to reject modern philosophy altogether than to reflective essay of english reject the standard accounts of for great, its history. His narrative is more polemical than most, but it's a polemical version of the essay of english story told in most philosophy departments in the second half of the twentieth century. The story is one of tortuously decreasing interest. Philosophy, like some people, was prepared to accept boredom in exchange for certainty as it grew to middle age. What began as metaphysics - the description of the basic structures of reality - ended as epistemology: the attempt to track if not to ground the foundations of our knowledge. On literary grounds alone, the narrative is management research paper flawed, for it lacks what is central to reflective dramatic movement anywhere: a compelling motive. Comparing? Except for the anachronistic desire to distinguish themselves from natural scientists, it's a narrative of essay, philosophers who act without intention. The ground for earlier metaphysical inquiries is nearly as opaque as the motives for their successor. In both cases, great thinkers simply got stuck out of sheer curiosity investigating very general questions about the way things are. Example Resume? There is no good reason for the history of of english class, philosophy to have consisted in this story: as Descartes himself knew, none but madmen ever really think all our representations might be dreams. Throughout the Critique of Pure Reason Kant wrote that something must account for the inexhaustible effort that philosophers devote to a subject that brings no results.
He thought the labors could not be guided by of good resume, pure speculation alone. They are too hard and too frustrating to essay class be driven by purposes and problems that are not urgent. Kant's conclusion that speculative labors are moved by practical ends should not be read narrowly. For the last thing I wish to argue is that in addition to epistemology, the history of philosophy was also concerned with ethics. It was, of average score, course, as contemporary work on essay class, the history of ethics has shown well. But the problem of evil shows the hopelessness of essays for great lakes, twentieth-century attempts to divide philosophy into areas that may or may not be connected. To see this, we needn't consider explicitly holist authors like Spinoza or Hegel. Reflective Class? The most sceptical of empiricists himself should give pause. Score? Which miracles did Hume want us to question?
Which customs did he want us to keep? Is he more concerned with sympathy or with substance? - Is Anna Karenina about love more than justice? - Twentieth-century philosophy is not unique in its ability to confuse puzzles with problems. Even Socrates did it sometimes; it's an ability that may be part of the essay impulse to average on mcat essay question opinion with which philosophy begins. Medieval philosophy revealed how questions not merely of life and death, but of eternal life and death, could turn into quandaries about substance. The dangers of sophistry and scholasticism are present in the possibility of philosophy itself.
What is new is not these dangers but a fragmentation of the reflective essay of english subject that would have been foreign to philosophers from bibliography Plato to Nietzsche. This very fragmentation may prevent us from seeing the essay problem of evil for what it is. The fact that the world contains neither justice nor meaning threatens our ability both to act in the world and to example of good understand it. The demand that the world be intelligible is a demand of practical and essay of theoretical reason, the average ground of thought that philosophy is essay class called to provide. The question of whether this is an ethical or a metaphysical problem is as unimportant as it is undecidable, for in some moments it's hard to view as a philosophical problem at all. Stated with the right degree of software, generality, it is but unhappy description: this is our world. If that isn't even a question, no wonder philosophy has been unable to give it an answer. Essay Of English? Yet for most of its history, philosophy has been moved to try, and its repeated attempts to formulate the problem of evil are as important as its attempts to respond to it. Let me summarize the claims for which I will argue.
1. Eighteenth- and nineteenth-century philosophy was guided by the problem of evil. Like most short statements, this one is too simple. Nevertheless, I intend to example of good resume show that as an organizing principle for reflective essay of english class understanding the history of philosophy, the score on mcat problem of evil is reflective of english better than alternatives. It is more inclusive, comprehending a far greater number of texts; more faithful to their authors â stated intentions; and more interesting. Here interest is not merely an aesthetic category, important as that is, but also an explanatory one, which answers Kant's question: What drives pure reason to efforts that seem to have neither end nor result?
2. The problem of evil can be expressed in theological or secular terms, but it is fundamentally a problem about the intelligibility of the world as a whole. Thus it belongs neither to ethics nor to metaphysics but forms a link between the two. 3. The distinction between natural and of methane moral evils is itself a historical one that developed in the course of the class debate. 4. Two kinds of standpoint can be traced from the early Enlightenment to the present day, regardless of what sort of evil is in question, and make each is guided more by ethical than by epistemological concerns. The one, from Rousseau to Arendt, insists that morality demands that we make evil intelligible. The other, from Voltaire to Jean Amery, insists that morality demands that we don't. My own sympathies tend toward the former line of views, while acknowledging the force of the latter. This allows me, I hope, to reflective class answer the objection that is most troubling: the problem of evil facing the eighteenth century was so different from our own that comparing them involves not just conceptual but moral confusion. Comparing Lisbon to Auschwitz can seem not mistaken but monstrous, for it risks either viewing the latter as one more or less natural disaster, thus excusing the architects; or comparing the Creator to how to bibliography criminals of the worst sort.
It is hard to reflective of english say which is worse: contemplating the redemption of the commandant of Auschwitz or the violation of images of apples to oranges, God even atheists want to retain. For this reason, apart from essay of english class isolated remarks, the two events have been left to stand as symbols for chemosynthesis the breakdown of the worldviews of their eras, and the question of how we got from one to the other has not been addressed. If some uneasiness about of english understanding seems right to preserve, I trust it will shape inquiry rather than preclude it. Among the many things this book will not offer is a definition of evil or criteria for average score essay distinguishing evil actions from those that are simply very bad. Of English? This might be a task for a book of ethics, but the problem of evil concerns something else. To describe that problem, one might ask: what's the difference between calling one action evil, and another, a crime against humanity? They can often be interchanged. But a crime is something for which we have procedures - at least for punishing, if not for preventing. To say this is to say that a crime can be ordered, fit in some manner into the rest of our experience. To call an action evil is to suggest that it cannot - and that it thereby threatens the trust in the world that we need to orient ourselves within it. I will argue that evils cannot be compared, but they should be distinguished.
What happened on September 11 was one kind of how to, evil; what happened at Auschwitz was another. Getting clear about the differences will not put an end to evil, but it may help prevent our worst reactions to it. To lament the loss of absolute standards for judging right and wrong ought to be superfluous a century after Nietzsche, but someone seems to do it every day. Nearly anyone who ever taught a humanities course will have met students who discovered that words like good and evil are out of date, since used by different cultures in different ways. What may have gone unnoticed is that while few today will claim certainty about essay general ethical principles, most are quite certain about particular ethical paradigms. Loss of certainty about the general foundations of value has not affected certainty about particular instances of it; perhaps quite the contrary. Three centuries ago, when foundations were said to be more solid, public torture to death was widely accepted. Today it is pretty universally condemned regardless of differences over principle.
As Rwanda or Bosnia can show us, universal condemnation may be worth next to nothing. My point is about the relation not of theory to practice, but of general principle to particular paradigm. Essay? There may be no general principle that proves torture or genocide wrong, but this does not prevent us from taking them to be paradigmatic of evil. I therefore assume that we have such examples, and that they change over time, without any interest in giving justification, or even criteria, for of english class them. Even if we lack general principles of the kind we imagine other ages to have cherished, this is enough for of methane my purposes. Since I do not think an intrinsic property of evil can be defined, I am, rather, concerned with tracing what evil does to us. If designating something as evil is a way of marking the fact that it shatters our trust in reflective class, the world, its that effect, more than the cause, which I want to examine. Comparing? It should follow that I have even less intention of solving the problem of evil than I do of defining evil itself. Reflective Of English Class? My interest is, rather, to explore what changes in of methane, our understanding of the problem of evil reveal about changes in our understanding of reflective class, ourselves, and of our place in of good, the world. I proceed on the increasingly shared assumption that examining the history of philosophy can be a way of engaging in reflective essay of english class, philosophy itself. Software? Traditional intellectual history might proceed by chronicling successive thinkersâ accounts of evil, and tracing sources and patterns of influence.
Traditional philosophical studies might evaluate the success of competing accounts and try to offer a better one. Reflective Class? My goal is another entirely: to use different responses to for great lakes the problem of evil as a means of essay, understanding who we have become in the three centuries that separate us from the early Enlightenment. This book began as the study of an interesting topic oddly ignored in the historiography of philosophy. It soon threatened to explode all confines. If I am even close to correct, the problem of evil is so pervasive that an exhaustive and systematic treatment of it would require an exhaustive and systematic treatment of most of the history of average score on mcat, philosophy. Merely listing the right names can seem hopeless. Reflective Of English? Instead of resume, attempting such a project, Ive made several choices that eschew it. First, Ive limited my discussion to the period beginning with the Enlightenment, and dated the Enlightenment as beginning in of english, 1697, with the publication of Bayle's Dictionary. There are good reasons for dating it earlier. One would be to explore gnostic imagery in the person credited with fathering modern philosophy, René Descartes. Descartes's evil demon is not a thought experiment but a threat.
Unlike its pale heir, the brain in how to bibliography, the vat, the devil was a real concern. What if the world were created by a Being whose whole purpose was to cause us torment and illusion? God knows it sometimes looks that way. If the absence of Descartes may seem troubling, that of Spinoza may be worse. Both are clearly crucial for understanding later discussion of reflective of english class, these problems, but then, so is Plato.
One could easily spend a lifetime studying the problem of evil and be no better for it. Instead, I have chosen to restrict discussion to its development from the beginning of the period in comparing to oranges essay, which we began to be most recognizably who we are. If history, as Bayle wrote, is the history of crimes and misfortunes, attempts to make sense of it are doomed not just to falsehood but to ridicule. It's a choice, but not an arbitrary one, to view the reflective class Enlightenment as beginning under pressure to prove Bayle wrong. Even within these confines, this study cannot be exhaustive, and to mark this I have chosen nonchronological form. Though my interest is in the development of ideas such as those that link Rousseau's second Discourse to for great Arendt's Eichmann in Jerusalem, I have explored such development thematically. So I have grouped thinkers according to the views they hold about the nature of appearances: is there another, better, truer order than the one we experience, or are the facts with which our senses confront us all that there is? Is reality exhausted by reflective essay, what is, or does it leave room for all that could be? Dividing philosophers according to their stance on one large question is rough division, and configuration research paper produces odd alliances. Among philosophers who insisted on finding order in addition to the miserable one presented by experience, I include Leibniz, Pope, Rousseau, Kant, Hegel and Marx. Among those who denied the reality of anything beyond brute appearances, I discuss Bayle, Voltaire, Hume, Sade and Schopenhauer.
Nietzsche and Freud cannot be fit into either division, however broadly construed, but raise sufficiently similar questions to deserve their own chapter. As I argue in the final chapter, the twentieth century presents particular philosophical problems. The fragmentation of tradition will be reflected in fragmentary responses illustrated by Camus, Arendt, Adorno, Horkheimer and Rawls. Grouping philosophers this way overlooks many crucial differences between them. But it's no cruder than the division of thinkers into reflective class, rationalists and empiricists, a schema with which it is partly coextensive.
The latter will seem more natural to those who believe that the guiding questions of modern philosophy are questions about the theory of knowledge. If these are your main concern, you will group philosophers according to whether they believe the main source of knowledge to be reason or experience, and will view other differences between them as incidental. Yet this division was not obvious to Kant, who is make bibliography credited with overcoming it, or to Hegel, the modern philosopher who devoted most thought to the history of essay of english, philosophy itself. For the Critique of Pure Reason, the first controversy in the history of philosophy concerns appearance and reality: are ideas or experience the final court of appeal? This question takes us through the history of philosophy all the way back to Plato. The worry that fuelled debates about the difference between appearance and reality was not the fear that the world might not turn out to be the for great lakes way it seems to us - but rather the fear that it would. Many of the reflective essay of english class thinkers discussed in chapter 1 would reject each other's company.
But despite occasional elements of melancholy, all are united by some form of hope for a better order than the one we experience. Those in chapter 2, by contrast, share a brilliant, cheerful bleakness that concluded with Schopenhauer's stupendous pessimism. Nietzsche and Freud maintain a sort of average on mcat, heroic scorn toward discussions of the subject that preceded their own, and reflective essay any straws we might be tempted to clutch thereafter. The thinkers chosen to illustrate twentieth-century thought about evil display humility born of a sense of for great lakes, fragility and reflective essay of english awe. Thinkers can be grouped in terms that belong to metaphysics (how do they view the reality of to oranges, appearances?) as well as terms that come from psychology (do they make room for a fundamentally hopeful stance toward the world?). I will argue that the problem of reflective of english, evil requires thought about both.
The way we organize philosophical discourse is not the most important thing challenged by the problem of evil, but it is surely the easiest to change. In general, I focus on major figures in the canon. This underlines the fact that the problems discussed are not peripheral to the tradition but basic to the work of its most central thinkers. Were this an ordinary history of software research, philosophy, it would be irresponsible to describe the transition from Kant to Hegel without discussing Fichte and Schelling, or to move from Hegel to reflective essay class Marx without addressing Feuerbach. Chemosynthesis Of Methane? I have done both, and probably things that are worse. My interest is less in tracing causal connections between authors than in showing how certain general developments make sense. For this, it should be enough to choose samples of reflective of english class, work that were particularly exciting and how to make important, in essay, the hope that they will illuminate the rest. But hundreds of rich and influential texts will thereby be ignored, and choices could have been made differently. The only consolation for the resulting inadequacy is the way in which it confirms my initial claim: the history of philosophy is so steeped in the problem of evil that the question is not where to begin but where to stop. An attempt to be complete would be doomed to failure from the start.
Should this book open lines of inquiry, rather than exhaust them, it will have achieved its goal. I have called this an alternative history of philosophy because its aims are as different as its style and methods. One aim, in the felicitous expression of an anonymous reader, is to reorient the discipline to the real roots of philosophical questioning. Make Bibliography? I am grateful for the metaphor, which allows me to argue that, in some form or other, the problem of evil is the root from class which modern philosophy springs. Of Methane? Once brought to life, philosophical discourse can grow on its own, and its branches may extend or tangle in essay of english, all directions. Thus entire schools of thought could develop that have little to do with the essays lakes questions raised here.
Kant and Hume and Hegel all raised questions that would lead philosophers reading them centuries later to think about relationships between language and world, or the foundations of knowledge. But if, as I argue, those questions are less central to the heart of their thought than was previously assumed, we must come to view our own philosophical landscape differently. This book is not merely intended to be of interest both to those who are professional philosophers and those who are not, but to show that throughout most of its history, philosophy itself was of interest both to those who were professional philosophers and those who were not. Like many others, I came to philosophy to study matters of life and death, and was taught that professionalization required forgetting them. The more I learned, the more I grew convinced of the opposite: the history of philosophy was indeed animated by the questions that drew us there. Thus I have written in a manner that should be open to essay class those without formal philosophical training, keeping notes and other scholarly apparatus to a minimum.
In the spirit of management, that Enlightenment, then, in which Lessing and reflective of english class Mendelssohn co-authored essays for international prize contests on example, the relations between poetry and metaphysics, Kant wrote for the eighteenth-century version of the New York Review, and Sade begged to have volumes of Rousseau sent to him in the Bastille, this book is written in tentative hope.