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A (very long) essay on political communications, French style. Success You? Posted on 19 October 2011 | 12:10pm. The post has just arrived and in it a very nice surprise, the discovery that Jacques Seguela, one-time adviser to President Mitterrand, now close confidant of President and Madame Sarkozy (indeed he intoduced them), and software configuration management something of a legend in French political communications, has dedicated his latest book to little old moi . With apologies for the missing accents here and in the French bits of the long posting which follows the dedication to #8216; Le Pouvoir dans la Peau #8216; (Power in the skin) reads #8216; A Alastair Campbell, mon spin doctor prefere#8217; (three missing accents in one word mes excuses sinceres). So what did I do for this honour, you are asking? Well, perhaps the fact that he asked me to read his book, and write a #8216;postface#8217; assessment both of his writing and of the issues he covers, and success the fact that I said yes, has something to do with it. He says some blushmakingly kind things in his #8216;preface to the postface#8217;, which I will have to leave to French readers of the whole thing (published by Plon).
But for management research paper the largely Anglophone visitors of this blog, I thought some of you might like to success, read the said #8216;postface#8217; in English (apart from the bits where I quote direct from his book). I hope all those students who write asking for help with dissertations will find something quotable in it. Meanwhile I am off to Norway for configuration research paper a conference and a meeting with the essay, Norwegian Labour Party. I#8217;m looking forward to being in the country with the highest #8216;human development index#8217; in management research paper the world, and which showed such a mature response to the recent massacre of Oslo and Utoya. Here is the success you, postface to Le Pouvoir dans la Peau. Jacques Seguela writes about political campaigns and communications not merely as an expert analyst, but as an experienced practitioner. Hence his latest book contains both insights worth heeding, but also enlivening tales of his own experience. He is observer and software management participant; outsider looking in, and insider looking out.
There is essay success much to persuasive dating, look at, not least in France with a Presidential election looming, and the outcome far from essay, easy to predict. We live in a world defined by the pace of change, and whilst the hegel antithesis, velocity of you, that change has not always impacted upon our political institutions, many of which would remain recognisable to figures of history, it most certainly has impacted upon political communications. As Seguela writes: ‘En 5 ans le monde de la communication a plus evolue que dans les cents dernieres annees. #8216; Google, Youtube, Twitter, Facebook have quickly entered our language and paper and cons schools changed the way we communicate, live our private lives, do business, do politics. Success? People do not believe politicians as much as they once did. Nor do they believe the software management research paper, media. So who do we believe? We believe each other. Essay Success You? The power and the political potential of social networks flows from that reality.
Though fiercely modern in small business their application, social networks in some ways take us back to the politics of the village square. They are an electronic word of mouth on a sometimes global scale. This has changed the way people interact with each other and with their politicians. My first campaign as spokesman and success you strategist for Tony Blair was in 1997, three years in the planning after he had become leader of the Opposition Labour Party. Some of the principles of strategy we applied back then would certainly apply to kabul school book report, a modern day election.
But their tactical execution almost certainly would not. Success? Politicians and their strategists have to adapt to change as well as lead it. Seguela gives some interesting insights into those who have adapted well, and those who have done less well. He clearly adores former President Lula of Brazil and you can feel his yearning for a French leader who can somehow combine hard-headed strategy with human empathy in the same way as a man who left office with satisfaction ratings of 87percent. Seguela probably remains best known in political circles for his role advising Francois Mitterrand. Yet wheras I am #8216;tribal Labour#8217;, and could not imagine supporting a Conservative Party candidate in the UK, Seguela came out as a major supporter of Nicolas Sarkozy. Small Phone Plans? I wonder if one of the reasons was not a frustration that large parts of the left in essay France remain eternally suspicious of modern communications techniques and styles which, frankly, no modern leader in a modern democracy can ignore. How he or she adapts to, or uses, them is up to them.
But you cannot stand aside and phone plans imagine the world has not changed. If Lula is success you a star of hegel, this book, so too is success Barack Obama. American elections are of enormous interest to all political campaign junkies, a category in which both Seguela and I would almost certainly qualify. Much is made of Obama#8217;s use of the internet, a relatively new phenomenon in historical terms and antithesis one the you, young Senator used brilliantly in his quest to become President. Yet though it was an accurate expression of his modernity, underpinning its use were some very old-fashioned campaign principles. He used it to turn supporters into activists who both gave funds and also took his campaign materials and ideas and ran their own campaigns for him. Somehow he managed to make one of the kabul, most professional, most disciplined and best funded campaigns in history look like an enormous act of democratic participation.
It was less command and control the model we certainly adopted in 1997 and 2001, Labour#8217;s two landslide victories, easing off a little for essay success our third win in software configuration paper 2005 than #8216;inspire and empower.#8217; #8216;Yes we can#8217; not #8216;yes I can#8217;. Essay You? His supporters were more than supporters. They were an kabul book active part of the campaign, and success of the message. The key to this was something that had nothing to do with politicians and everything to typing, do with science, technology and the internet. Ask me who has had the essay you, most influence on campaigns in recent times and I might be tempted to reply Tim Berners-Lee, the persuasive, man credited with gifting the essay, web to mobile phone, the world. Essay Success? Its implications have been far reaching in virtually all aspects of our lives, politics and political campaigns foremost. The new household brand names of the cyber era have not replaced good policy work, messaging and organisation. But they have become essential components of the execution of them in the campaign. Mainstream conventional media remains important and influential, not least because, bizarrely, in most democracies the thesis synthesis, broadcasters continue to let the press set their agenda for you them.
But a candidate who tries to stand against the tide of georg antithesis synthesis, new media will be making a big mistake, and missing big opportunities. If it has changed so much in the last five years, how much more will it change in the next five years? They will also be making a mistake if they think social media can be managed and massaged in the way that, often, mainstream media have been. The key on you, this I agree totally with Seguela is authenticity. And that should be good news for authentic political leaders and research paper on the pros education in high an authenticity hungry public alike.
The public tend to get to essay you, the point of an election. Seguela has an interesting account of the persuasive essay online, last UK election and in particular the first ever televised Leaders#8217; Debates. Success You? Though I had worked on three campaigns for Tony Blair, I am sufficiently tribally Labour to have answered a call from his successor, Gordon Brown, to go back to help him for his first election campaign as leader in 2011. One of the roles I ended up playing was that of software configuration management research, David Cameron in Brown#8217;s preparatory sessions for the TV debates. These debates mattered, that much was sure. Election planning for Blair, I had always been doubtful about the benefit of such debates in a Parliamentary democracy where our leaders meet each other week in week out in the crucible of the House of Commons. I was worried the media would make them all about themselves, and that the policy issues would be drowned out.
So it proved. You? Yet in a way the public did get to kabul, the point they wanted to. Success? They did not particularly want Labour back after 13 years in power. They did not particularly yearn for David Cameron and a Conservative Party unsure about its direction. Kabul School Book Report? So the essay success you, third party leader emerged through the middle.
Nick Clegg was judged the clear winner by the instant reactions of public and media alike. For a few days he seemed impregnable. Yet come the vote, he did not make a huge breakthrough. It was only because neither Labour nor the Tories could get over the line that Clegg ended up as deputy Prime Minister in a coalition government. Paper On The And Cons In High? The country had not been able to make its mind up, delivered a muddled result and essay success asked the leaders to kabul, sort it out. The leader who came first and essay success the leader who came third did a deal to persuasive essay online dating, do so. I think Seguela is too kind to Cameron.
Any rational assessment of the success you, political landscape before the report, last UK election would have suggested a Tory victory. Labour in success you power a long time; the essay online, economic crash; a Parliament dominated by a scandal involving MPs#8217; expenses; Iraq back in the news because of the official Inquiry; Afghanistan not going well; the press even more strongly in favour of a Tory win than they had been for a Labour win in 1997, and vicious about Brown. Also the success you, Tories had big money to spend on the campaign and Labour did not. Yet Cameron could not secure a majority. Why not? There is no simple answer. The wonder of democracy lies in millions of paper pros of sex education schools, people having their own experiences, impressions and judgements before deciding how to you, cast their vote. But the strategist in me says the simple answer is that Cameron lacked real strategic clarity. I think Sequela would agree that for persuasive essay online dating all the changes that technological and mediatic change has forced upon political campaigns, strategy remains the key. The cyber era has forced campaigners to rethink tactics, but strategy remains more important. He and I are clearly in agreement that John McCain#8217;s appointment of Sarah Palin as running mate, for example, was a tactical masterstroke, but a strategic catastrophe.
Tactically, he excited his base, gave the media a new toy, and momentarily unnnerved his opponent. Strategically he blew a hole through the two central planks of his campaign experience, and essay you being different from George Bush. In putting tactics before strategy, he broke one of the golden rules of management, campaigning. Strategists like rules. We like points of principle to act as anchors. I like the rules in essay success Seguela#8217;s Chapter 5. On vote pour une idee. Pas pour une ideologie.
On vote pour soi. Pas pour son candidat. Small Business Mobile Phone? On vote pour un homme. Essay Success? Pas pour un parti. On vote pour le professionalisme. Pas pour l#8217;amateurisme. On vote pour un projet pas pour le rejet. On vote pour le coeur. Pas pour le rancoeur. On vote pour le futur.
Pas pour le passe. On vote pour le bcbg. Pas pour le bling bling. It is charmingly French that he illuminates the rule about voting for le couer pas pour le rancour to a tale of love and sex. #8216;Si votre femme vous trompe, ce n#8217;est pas en couvrant d#8217;insulte son amant que vous le reconquerez. Mais en lui redonnant envie de vous. La mecanique electorale est le meme, se faire elire c#8217;est se faire preferer.#8217; That may seem glib. But politics is an essay on iphone a human business. It is about feelings as well as policies, emotion as well as reason. People often talk about their political leaders as though in a relationship with them. #8216;He#8217;s not listening #8230; Why on earth did he do that? #8230; I#8217;ve gone off him #8230; Oh, I still like him deep down.#8217; Political leaders sometimes talk of the people in the same way. How many times did I sit in the back of essay success you, a car with Tony Blair, or fly over Britain in a ‘plane and typing on iphone he would look down and essay success you say #8216;God, I wish I knew what they were thinking #8230; Do they still like us?#8217; Back at the time of our first landslide, talk of the country #8216;falling in love#8217; with Blair was widespread.
Today, the biggest accusations of betrayal against georg hegel Blair will often come from those who #8216;fell in love#8217; most deeply at the outset of essay success you, his leadership. Paper On The Pros Education? Perhaps this trend towards relationship politics is being exacerbated by the tendency towards younger leaders. Obama, Cameron, Sarkozy, Merkel these are people who came to essay you, power much younger than their counterparts down the centuries. Seguela, a man of a certain age, remains fascinated by youth and persuasive online its impact. The brand manager in him can barely disguise his glee that Coca Cola, the drink of the young trendy, is 130 years old. You can sense the excitement he felt on meeting the essay success you, young Americans not born when Seguela was advising Mitterrand who had developed Obama#8217;s digital strategy and plans so helped deliver a mailing list of 13m people. The focus on youth also dominates his analysis of the political consequences of the economic crash whose impact runs through these pages, and offers some fascinating factoids half of all Europeans are over 50, whilst three quarters of Algerians are under 25. There are as many people under 30 in essay success you China as in Russia, the US and Australia combined, and in software configuration management research paper India twice as many as in China.
That too is a powerful force of global change, and essay will have its impact on Western politics of the an essay on iphone, future. As to what it all means for the next French elections, I don#8217;t know. But this book provides part of the backdrop, economic and political. It should make interesting reading for anyone involved in essay success you that campaign. Whilst clearly still of the view Sarkozy was and is the hegel thesis antithesis synthesis, right choice for France, (though the you, polls at dating the time of writing indicate he is in a minority) he throws out ideas and success challenges for right and left alike. As traditional lines are drawn, careful reading might provoke candidates and typing on iphone parties to see that they should always be looking to the next new ideas, not merely repackaging the last new, let alone the old. I was in essay you Paris recently as a guest of the left think tank, Terra Nova, and met politicians, advisors, militants, experts, journalists and bloggers.
I came away with some strong impressions. Firstly, virtually everyone told me that President Sarkozy was hugely unpopular, and school book his ratings as low as it was possible to go. Essay You? Yet many of the same people told me he could still win. They know he relishes a campaign. They suspect he may have learned from some mistakes. Incumbency is pros and cons of sex education in high schools a powerful weapon. A comeback is a powerful narrative. And they worried that with the President so unpopular, the economy sluggish, social issues raw, and success the left in power in many parts of France, the PS should have been doing far better in the polls (to which, incidentally, French politicians and media pay far too much attention.) Of course this was pre selection of a PS candidate.
Many of the Socialists agreed with my analysis that once they had chosen the candidate, they needed to unite behind that candidate, resist their historic predilection for factionalism, run a campaign that was fresh, energetic and based upon a programme totally focused on the future and one which addressed people#8217;s concerns. They agreed too that the PS could no longer look down its nose at communication, but had to small business mobile, see it not just as an essential element of success, campaigning, but a democratic duty at georg thesis a time when people have so many pressures on essay success, their lives and living standards, and concerns about the world around them. But though they agreed with the analysis, some worried about the Party’s capacity to deliver upon it. Online Dating? The fear of another defeat ought to essay success you, be enough, surely, to deliver on paper on the pros education schools, the first and essential part: unity. As someone on the progressive side of the political divide, I continue to think the French left#8217;s over intellectualisation of essay, politics, its focus on never-ending debate instead of georg antithesis synthesis, agreement around big points and unity behind one accepted leader remains a problem. Essay Success You? I added that I felt the way was wide open for someone to come along and set out, with total honesty and clarity, the book, challenges ahead, the limitations of what one leader or one country can do, but explain the success you, world and book begin to essay success you, shape direction. Research Paper And Cons Education? In other words, what I sensed behind the seeming confusion and rather disgruntled nature of French opinion was a real desire for leadership of essay success, a strategic rather than a tactical nature. There too, there were concerns, not least because of memories of the negative impact on mobile phone, Lionel Jospin’s campaign when he stated – truthfully – that the State could not do everything.
I heard a lot about Marine Le Pen and certainly the polls tell a good story for the leader of the Front National. She has certainly shown she can mount a campaign and get the media to accept a sense of change. When even her enemies refer to essay, as Marine, rather than the on iphone, more toxic Le Pen, that is you something of kabul book, a success. But whenever I have heard her, I have not heard a powerful argument for the future of essay you, France. Small Mobile Plans? So France enters a fascinating period, where not one single person I met predicted the outcome of either first or second round without at least some doubt in their eyes. When things are so tight, communications can make the difference. It is not a dirty word. Essay? I don#8217;t agree with all of small business mobile phone plans, Seguela’s analysis. Essay Success You? I don#8217;t accept that only small business phone, four US presidents radically changed the country. I am not entirely convinced that la pub de la pub is more important than la pub.
I am not sure that David Cameron#8217;s loss of a child had the political impact Seguela thinks it did. I think Brits will be also be surprised at the dominant role he gives in the Tory campaign to his colleague David Jones. I think he overstates how Sarkozy is seen in the world. I agree with him that we need to be cautious about the potential abuse of the internet which has no global governance or regulation to match, but I#8217;m not sure I agree this risks being #8216;en bras arme de l#8217;anarchie#8217;. But it is a book full of understanding of some of the big themes and the small details required for a successful campaigning mindset. He is, as one would expect for someone who has been close to different leaders, clued up on the importance of good chemistry between leader and strategist. Success You? He understands the mobile, importance of body language as well as language. He knows the importance of emotion as well as reason.
He understands how the web is changing politics. One of my favourite phrases is that #8216;life is on the record#8217;. He has a different way of putting it. #8216;Le #8220;off#8221; n#8217;existe plus desormais. Tout ce que vous direz pourra se retourner contre vous.#8217; It is why the whole #8216;droit d#8217;etre oublie#8217; is emerging as a debate. How many of the young men and women today filling the web with pictures and confessions from their private lives may end up running for office one day, and you regretting their openness? On verra. Perhaps I can end where I began, with the changes the social media has brought. At the last election Labour did not do poster campaigns. This was a shame. In previous campaigns we had had some brilliant posters.
But under Gordon Brown, we had very little money for the campaign. The Tories had plenty of it and, as Seguela records, they ran a lot of posters. Thesis Antithesis? One of their most expensive billboard campaigns was of a giant photo of Cameron with an anti-Labour slogan #8216;we can#8217;t go on like this.#8217; Someone noticed that the Tory leader#8217;s face had been airbrushed. This fact became the source of success, thousands of tweets. Then someone set up a website mydavidcameron.com where people could send their own, largely anti-Tory, versions of this poster. These were sent in in their thousands, and georg antithesis many were much better, wittier and more politically devastating than the original. You? I#8217;ll tell you when I knew they had wasted their money when the newspapers carried photos of one giant poster site which had been defaced #8230; Cameron#8217;s hair had been replaced with a painted version of Elvis Presley#8217;s hair, and to the slogan #8216;we can#8217;t go on like this#8217; had been added the words of one of Elvis#8217; most famous songs #8230; #8216;with suspicious minds#8217;. The combination of the internet and wit had reduced the political impact of a hugely expensive campaign to book, zero. That is my final thought as you begin to read Jacques Seguela’s account. It is a quote from a former colleague, Labour MP Hazel Blears #8230; #8216;Campaigning is like sex. If you#8217;re not enjoying it, you#8217;re not doing it properly.#8217; The ego has landed.
fascinating view on the affective, the emotional response of the individual. You? Tories always bang on about how they view what Labour left them as nefast and management research noxious, Labour defends limply- the truly great things we did in fact achieve. The above text would clearly show both miss the essay success you, point. On vote pour le futur. Pas pour le passe. The presidential focus of configuration management, this text On vote pour un homme. Pas pour un parti- may jar greatly with many in this country. T.B was viewed as too much this way by many. Essay? Another masochist ? It#8217;s truly weird. The emergence of report, social media is an interesting development and may, in time, alter the political dynamic.
It is satisfying to be able to debate issues online, particularly important for those on the left who so rarely see or hear progressive opinions in the media. Since joining Twitter I feel better informed and in touch with political issues of the day. Useful campaigning information can be spread quickly and it has the potential to strengthen social bonding between groupings of like minded people. I am surprised how many journalists, media organisations and politicians are active on Twitter. It seems they at least, are aware of its potential and are wary of ignoring its influence.
I suspect much of the antagonism directed towards Nick Clegg was spread through social media. Tenagers don#8217;t generally read newspapers or watch TV news, but they do talk to each other via Facebook. Let#8217;s hope it will make a difference. Since the collapse of widescale union membership, too many natural Labour supporters don#8217;t hear our political message. Most probably read right wing papers and watch Sky TV. Essay Success? We need to online, maximise our reach through new social media to counteract the all pervasive right-wing bias everywhere else. Essay Success You? Norway is an amazing modern country, and how it has used it#8217;s oil and natural resouces for the best of all its people should be a set lesson to any country in kabul beauty report the World.
Efficiency in it#8217;s extraction, and success efficiency in using its resulting wealth. And this group from persuasive essay online dating, Norway here I have always liked since they started up, here with a guest star from Sweden. Royksopp and Robyn, And well done for having respect from La France, but that personally does not surprise me. But the book on sharp end political communication, to essay, tell you honestly, is not up my street. Essay? I am into other things in life, you might have noticed. Anyway, Alastair, isn#8217;t it about time you thought of becoming an MP? Glenda Jackson was older than you when she became one, if I remember right.
Ah yes, just checked, she was about 56, while you are only, ahem!, 54, but without a couple of success, oscars#8230; you total wanks. I know who you are and management everything. You are pathetic in trying to be higher. Higher than what, you tell we banging keyboard in your own worlds. Essay Success You? Need a keyboard to grow vegetibles? Don#8217;t think so somehow. Time, ey?
Who#8217;ll have it? Raised with praise to die? Parentals withering before eyes, heartbreaking before yourself die. Life, who#8217;ll have it? asked? Not by many with sense. Software Configuration Research? To see life#8217;s gymnastics performed, buck over a horse yes or no the normed. More scandanavian, with a 23 windowed VW german Samba minibus, and red riding hood, yes, her and her subliminal hidden story, Grimm from Copenhagen-like, Saw Clarissa Dickson show today brilliant! Especially when she said you would most probably have a glass of wine, while I will partake in a ginger beer. Have wild garlic growing everywhere around here, with those baggy flowers and that smell in the air when you pass them. Essay? Will have to note them so to dig the paper on the pros schools, bulbs when ready.
Gawd knows what garlic strain they be though. After helping Tony Blair to secure a historic third term in office, Alastair Campbell might have hoped to success, make good his long-planned escape from configuration management paper, Downing Street. Blair, and Gordon Brown, had other ideas. Having negotiated Brown’s pivotal role in the 2005 election victory, Campbell then became fundamental in essay success you the transition from one Prime Minister to another.
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Next Plc Profitability Report Essay. Next Plc Profitability Report Essay. Based in the UK, Next is essay a giant retailer with numerous exciting products such as quality clothing, accessories, home products and footwear. Software Paper. There are three main channels through which Next Plc. distributes its products namely NEXT Retail whose chain has more than 500 stores located in essay success you the UK and Eire, NEXT Directory which provides a catalogue for home shopping with more than 3 million active customers and Websites whereby customers from over 60 countries are served. The third man in channel is NEXT International which comprises of approximately 200 franchises located in software configuration diverse regions around the globe. NEXT Sourcing plays the role of designing, sourcing and you buying branded products for the group.
Additionally, Lipsy is exclusively mandated with the paper, role of success designing and selling younger women’s fashion products developed by the group. The Group’s performance over the past financial years has indicated a continuous level of configuration research paper profitability. Indeed, NEXT Plc operates under a primary financial objective of delivering sustainable growth of essay success earnings per share over the long term. This is an important component of increased shareholder value. There has been a consistent increase in pros and cons in high schools earnings per share for the Group over success you the years. Typing. This has been associated with continuous increase in the share price. You. In this report, the georg antithesis, profitability of NEXT Plc is essay analyzed (NEXT Plc Group, 2013).
The report looks at the profitability ratios relating to the Group and small business phone other important ratios affecting profitability. The report also addresses the essay success you, competitors’ performance to ascertain any possibility of the phone, Group’s profits dwindling. The report will also analyze the prospects of the Group in success the industries it operates to establish the possibility of continued profitability. Ratio analysis is typing defined as a tool applied in conducting a quantitative analysis of a company using the available financial statements of the success, company often released periodically say one year period. The current year numbers are used in the calculation of ratios. The outcome is compared with the previous years’ ratios to ascertain the progress of the company. Synthesis. In particular, profitability ratios are important in the calculated based on essay success the various items of the operating entries of the company for a given financial year (MorningStar, 2013). In particular, profitability ratios are important in helping determine the effectiveness with which a company utilizes the available resources in generating profits. Mobile Plans. There are numerous ratios included in the calculation of the profitability of a company such as gross profit margin, net profit margin, return on capital employed and you operating profit margin. The different profitability ratios are calculated using distinct formulas as shown below. Profitability is an absolute measure.
The ratios used to measure profitability try to indicate the extent to which an organization is profitable based on its business operations. Persuasive. Profitability ascertains the whole performance of the company. In the case of NEXT Plc, profitability indicates the extent to which the Group’s performance has been affected the various business activities during the year (MorningStar, 2013). The profits made during the year are compared with the performance of the essay success you, Group during the past years. Through the persuasive essay online, profitability ratios of NEXT Plc, it is possible to determine how effective the company has been in its business operations. Comparison is also made with the essay, previous year on the performance of the company. Based on the information obtained from ratios on profitability analysis, it is possible to establish whether the firm is headed to a positive performance in the future or not. Additionally, profitability ratios are important in ascertaining the level of operational effectiveness of the company. The table below represents various financial ratios and information for kabul beauty NEXT Plc for the years 2010 to 2013: Source: (MorningStar, 2013) Gross profit is the difference between cost of sales and the amount of sales revenue.
Therefore, gross profit refers to the profit before the deduction of indirect expenses. Gross profit margin refers to gross profit expressed as a percentage of the revenue obtained from essay success you sales. Thus Gross Profit Margin = Gross profit * 100/ Sales revenue. From the ratios above, it is evident that NEXT Plc has continuously recorded increasing gross profit margin over the past four years (MorningStar, 2013). Indeed, the ratios indicate that the year 2010 and essay online 2011 recorded a gross profit margin as a percentage of sales of 29.3% on the other hand; the years 2012 and 2013 recorded gross profit margin as a percentage of sales of essay 30.4% and 31.6% respectively.
Higher gross profit margins are preferred over smaller ones. Small Business Mobile Phone Plans. In the case of NEXT Plc, the gross profit margin has been rising over the four years. Essay Success. The ratio is also high meaning that it is highly preferred by investors. The increase in gross profit margin can be attributed to the increase in sales throughout the period. For instance, the financial year ended 2013 saw a sales growth of 9.5%. The growth was recorded from various channels used by the Group in selling its products.
The various channels that recorded impressive sales growth included UK full price sales which grew by 5.2%, Clearance Tab which grew by 2.2%, Markdown sales grew by 0.1% and International online grew by 2.0%. There was an an essay increase in operating profits during the financial year ended 2013 to 25.3% indicating an increase of 1.2%. The actual Gross profit margin for the years 2012 and 2013 were as follows: Gross profit margin = [Gross Profit * 100]/ sales revenue. 2012 Gross Profit margin = [1045.3 * 100]/3441.1 = 30.37% 2013 Gross Profit margin = [1125.58 * 100]/3562.8 =31.58% This ratio indicates the profitability after including all the costs.
Net profit margin is the net profits expressed as a percentage of the revenue acquired from success sales. Thus. Net Profit Margin = Net profit (EBIT)* 100/ Sales Revenue. This ratio shows the percentage of turnover represented by net profit. Phone Plans. From the success, ratio analysis above, it is evident that the net profit margin of NEXT Plc recorded a continuous increase throughout the period under consideration. There was an increase in small phone net profit margin of more than 10% since the essay success, year 2010. Such an impressive increase in net profit margin by more than 10% means that there was a profit of more than 10% for every 1 pound of sales. Based on the fact that the net profit margin for the company has been on persuasive online the increase over the past four years, it is therefore evident that NEXT Plc is a profitable firm. The reasons for the increase in net profit margin are similar to the reasons leading to increase in gross profit margin. Nevertheless, the increase in net profit margin is an indication that there were no unnecessary expenses incurred during the period under consideration. Therefore, the overhead expenses remained low throughout the period under consideration.
Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) This ratio represents the profit for the given year as a percentage of the total capital employed during the you, period under analysis. The ROCE of a company is research paper education considered favorable if it is high. Therefore, investors prefer an you increasing ROCE as it indicates continuous profitability for the company during the year under analysis. ROCE seeks to ascertain the synthesis, percentage return from the total capital employed in essay you the business. Hegel Antithesis. Based on ROCE, the you, profits of the firm are measured as a percentage of the total capital employed. This ratio also attempts to establish how effective the firm is in using its assets in georg synthesis generating profits. As a prime ratio, ROCE provides a measure of success main task management indicating a maximization of the capital employed. ROCE = [Net profit (Operating profit) * 100]/Capital employed. The return on capital employed for NEXT Plc shows that there was an increasing return of more than 20% since 2010. This is an indication that the kabul beauty book, company has been generating over 20 pounds for every 100 pounds of capital invested throughout the period under examination (MorningStar, 2013).
This is a ratio measuring the amount of money generated by the firm from every share of stock outstanding. Essay You. The method of calculating EPS is as follows: EPS = Net Profit *100 [#of common shares outstanding]. A profitable company has an EPS which increases annually. This is an essay on iphone exemplified by NEXT Plc which has an increasing value of EPS throughout the four years under analysis (MorningStar, 2013). This is an indication that the company has continuously improved shareholders’ value through the numerous activities undertaken.
It is success also evident that the persuasive, company has a highly valued share in the stock market. This financial ratio is important in expressing the profits earned by a company as a percentage of the total assets available. This ratio is very essential in ascertaining the profitability of the company per very pound or dollar in assets invested. Therefore, the ratio indicates how is essay success you able to generate profits without including the amount of financing obtained through leverage. Kabul Book Report. A well performing company should demonstrate an increasing ability to generate more profits from the assets available. According to you profitability analysis of NEXT Plc, it is evident that the company’s ROA has been growing tremendously over the past years (MorningStar, 2013). Therefore, there has been a tremendous increase in the amount of pounds generated from every pound of assets invested. This ratio measures the amount of sales generated from every dollar or pound worth of assets. Asset turnover is therefore obtained by expressing revenue as a ratio of assets as follows: Asset turnover = Revenue/Assets. In particular, asset turnover is important for growth companies as they need to establish the extent to which their revenue is growing in relation to sales.
The efficiency of a firm is measured by research paper on the and cons education schools asset turnover. This determines how the success, firm is efficient in generating revenue from the assets invested. When a company has a higher asset turnover ratio are considered better as opposed to those with lower ratios. Essay Dating. From the ratios analyzed above, it is evident that NEXT Plc has had an impressive asset turnover ratio over the past years. This ratio has been averaged 1.9 meaning that the company is efficient enough with an ability to generate revenue almost twice the assets invested (NEXT Plc Group, 2013). This profitability ratio measures the net income amount obtained as a percentage of success shareholders’ equity. This ratio reveals the amount of profit earned by beauty book report the company in relation to the amount of equity contributed by you shareholders as indicated in the balance sheet. Indeed, shareholders are interested in seeing that their investment is able to bring about profits by essay online dating generating income (MorningStar, 2013). From the analysis undertaken above, it is evident that there is a very positive return accrued by the equity contributed by shareholders. A Return on Equity of over 200% is an indication that NEXT Plc is a highly profitable company.
The clothing market in essay success the UK has in the recent past indicated a downward trend. Business Plans. The market has been declining at an alarming rate meaning that there are limited opportunities for clothing companies to continue making massive profits. Indeed, there is a high level of essay you co petition in small business mobile phone the UK clothing market to the extent that the major player in the market can no longer expect to make massive profits as it has been the case in the previous years (Giffels, 2012). Indeed, competition has particularly been enhanced by the high employment of technology in essay the production process meaning that such companies have become highly efficient in business mobile plans their production. Additionally, there are other textile companies that have shifted their production centers in regions with cheaper in terms of labor (NEXT Plc Group, 2013). The main players in the UK clothing market still make modest profits in spite of the success, many challenges facing them. Expanding the market horizons in the UK clothing market is typing an essay on iphone not easy based on the fact that each company has to strive in order to sustain its current market share.
Companies that manage to expand every by very minimal levels have to essay work very hard as this is not the easiest of things to do. There are two broad categories of clothes retailers: own-brand clothes retailers and third-party retailers. Some of the small business mobile plans, major players in success the UK clothing market such as Arcadia Group and software Marks Spenser often self own-brand clothes. Similarly, NEXT and Gap companies also sell own-brand clothes. There are other clothes companies which deal with third party clothes. The main players in the third-party clothing include the success, various department stores as well as individual retailers dealing with clothes from pros education in high numerous clothing manufacturers.
Indeed, there is a high level of diversity in essay you the clothing retailing (Giffels, 2012). The sector ranges from retailers dealing with low cost clothes to management those dealing with formal wear, sportswear, as well as boutiques dealing with exclusive designer clothes. The clothes retail sector is much more the same as the other retail sectors. Therefore, the UK clothing retail sector is at the middle level with major players and ample opportunities to you make profits. NEXT Plc’s history dates back to 1864 when J. Hepworth Son founded the company.
The company was first named Gentleman’s Tailors. The founders later decided to buy Kendalls shops in 1981 leading to the establishment of group of paper on the schools shops dealing with women’s wear. The acquisition of Kendalls marked the birth of essay NEXT Plc (NEXT Plc Group, 2013). Currently; NEXT Plc sells clothes which are moderately priced and acts as a trendy street retailer. The main target consumers for NEXT Plc’s clothes are men and women within the 20-40 age brackets. The company also deals with household goods as well as financial services. The analysis of persuasive online dating NEXT Plc’s political, economic, social and technological factors reveals a trend towards ever increasing challenges especially from competitors. Nevertheless, the company continued to register impressive performance. Marks Spencer Group is one of the major competitors of essay success you NEXT Plc Group. Marks Spencer is a major player in the British clothing market with over persuasive 345 department stores. The company also has over 385 food shops spread over UK.
Marks Spencer is also highly effective in regions outside the you, UK market. In fact, Marks Spencer is operational in over 385 places outside the UK market (Giffels, 2012). The operations of Marks Spencer are felt in more than 40 countries such as Indonesia, Russia, China, South Korea, America just to thesis synthesis mention but a few. Marks Spencer’s departmental stores often deal with household items, food and apparel with mid prices. All the products sold by Marks Spencer have the company’s private brands such as per una, portfolio, classic or autograph. Although there are many locations globally dealing with the company’s products, approximately 90% of the sales are obtained from the domestic market in the UK. Indeed, Marks Spencer is the leading provider of men’s and women’s clothing as well as lingerie in the UK. Marks Spencer has been able to capture the UK clothing market owing to its long existence in the market over the past 125 years. Recent financial information reveals that MS is struggling hard in the UK market just like the success, other companies in the same market. The company has not been able to register serious growth rates over paper the past years based on the intense competition level as well as the success, declining economies in the UK and typing an essay the global economy as a whole (MorningStar, 2013).
There is definitely a very tough future for MS in you terms of growth. The recent financial releases by MS indicate a slight growth in profit. However, there is an expected continuous decline in the coming financial years. MS has continued to record very disappointing profits from overseas operations. This is another serious competitor to an essay NEXT Plc. Arcadia Group is a high street company based in UK. Indeed, it is very easy to find Arcadia store in any high street in UK. Arcadia Group is a major retailer of apparel in the UK with over 2500 stores in different parts of the UK alone. Most of these stores are in urban areas. Arcadia Group also operates over 500 franchises located in more than 35 countries globally. Some of these franchises include a Topshop store located in New York.
There are various fashion chains owned by Arcadia Group such as Miss Selfridge, Dorothy Perkins, Evans, Burton and Topman as well as Topshop. Most of the retail shops owned by Arcadia sell housewares and clothing. Normally, the shops offer all the essay success you, seven brands locales within various suburbs. School. With such an impressive record, Arcadia Group provides an intensive level of competition to NEXT Plc in the highly competitive clothing market. This is yet another serious competitor to NEXT Plc. This company’s target is Hip and Modish through its cheap but chic clothing designs. The main target consumers for essay the company’s clothes are men and women aged 18 to 45 years. The company also deals with children’s clothes as well as cosmetics brands developed internally.
HM has recorded fast growth and now has over 2470 stores located in more than 35 countries. The company also provides online shopping in more than 8 countries (Giffels, 2012). Sales from Germany alone account for over 20% sales making it the school book, largest market for essay the company. Although the company does not own its own factories, it is able to purchase goods from georg hegel various locations mainly Europe and Asia. The first store selling women’s clothes owned by the company was opened in 1947 and essay success you was named Hennes. Later on, the company bought a Men’s store called Mauritz Wildforss.
The competitive analysis of NEXT Plc is part of the environmental threats facing the kabul school book report, company. The company currently faces serious threats in terms of the low rate of growth in the UK clothing market as well as the strong competition from essay success numerous players as discussed above. NEXT Plc is trying to undertake various methods in order to ensure that it reaches its current objectives (NEXT Plc Group, 2013). Some of the decisions made by the company include offering products considered to be of high street value which are being manufactured in countries with low labor costs. In such developing countries, the company’s products are also offered at dumping prices making the markets in such countries extremely weak to cause any substantial competition. Competitive force also arise in relation to influence suppliers have on NEXT Plc. Book. However, such influence is minimal owing to the many suppliers available. The customers have substantial influence on the company the sense that if the customers boycott the company’s products, there would be serious implications.
Due to the absence of item specific in clothing, customers can buy from any cloth dealer; therefore, NEXT Plc has to distinguish its products from its competitors through ways such as labeling, pricing, quality, and style. Essay. NEXT Plc faces an intensification of the already stiff competition from new market entrants. Paper On The Of Sex Schools. However, small players cannot pose any serious threat due to capital requirement. There are various strong players outside UK which can easily pose a major challenge to NEXT Plc. Some good examples of serious threats include Donna Karan and Calvin Klein whose massive resources, power and knowledge can allow them to establish serious stores in UK (Giffels, 2012). The current players in success you the UK clothing industry are serious rivals. There are several huge clothes retailers in UK totaling to more than 25,000. When combined with other small outlets, the number is more than 45,000. Small Business Mobile Phone. The many players in the UK market try to outdo each other by being sensitive about the quality, price and service of the products sold. Critical Analysis of NEXT Plc Group. In the midst of the various challenges facing NEXT Plc, profitability is a major goal for the company.
Indeed, the company’s main objective each year is the maximization of shareholder value. The main financial objective of NEXT Plc is on the delivery of sustained growth of EPS over the long term (NEXT Plc Group, 2013). Various strategies form the basis for essay the attainment of the main objective for business phone the company. Success You. For instance, the company aims at improving the range of typing on iphone products provided to the customers. The company also aims at improving the retail outlets in a profitable manner. This dramatically improves the volume of sales as many customers are reached. The company also seeks to improve the number of directory customers alongside their level of essay success expenditure throughout the regions it has stores. Additionally, NEXT Plc has been on a continuous trend towards increasing its online sales from the international consumers. This means more customers can be easily reached.
One very essential undertaking practiced by NEXT Plc is the management of net and gross margins. This is normally undertaken through appropriate product sourcing based on efficient methods as well as through cost management and control of cost. NEXT Plc also strives to maintain its financial strength by maintaining balance sheet efficiency and secure structure of financing (NEXT Plc Group, 2013). The group is also very much serious on matters related to generation of research paper cash for issuing increased dividends as well as share repurchases. On account of the various profitability undertakings practiced by essay success NEXT Plc, there has been a continuous improvement in small mobile plans sales.
For instance, the recent statement of trading activities during the past 26 weeks up to 27 th July, 2013, NEXT Plc registered grew by 2.3%. The period also registered impressive full price sales in comparison to the anticipated sales. This can be attributed to the reduced sales figure at the end of the season. Essay You. The month of July saw an upsurge of business sales by about 3.7% in comparison to the year 2012 over a similar month. Sales volatility is a major factor affecting the future profitability of essay success NEXT Plc. Indeed, the sales of the company have continuously exhibited sales volatility. The spontaneous nature with which customers are buying products has led to the increased weekly sales volatility. Indeed, there are various short-term events which highly affect weekly variance in sales.
Some of the events affecting weekly changes in sales include school holidays, bank holidays, weather changes, and many other more. Georg Hegel Thesis Antithesis Synthesis. The recent analysis of the trends in the company’s sales and you profitability indicate that consumer environment will change but on very minimal extents. The company’s sales value is anticipated to grow by a range of 1.5% to 3.5%. There is also a reduction in configuration management residual stock leading to success you reduced costs of markdown. Profitability is an essential component of a firm’s existence. Therefore, a firm which does not make profits does not create any value to the shareholders who are the antithesis synthesis, actual owners and/or directors. Profitability ratios are very essential in ascertaining the success you, prospects of the company in research paper on the of sex education in high fulfilling the objectives of the shareholders. Furthermore, profitability enables a firm to essay pursue numerous goals such as expansion.
NEXT Plc is a company interested in recording a continuous growth of the EPS. This is not possible without appropriate strategies to increase the profits acquired by the company. In particular, NEXT Plc has been on the forefront towards increasing shareholder value through various strategies aimed at increasing the sales volume. Some of these strategies include expansion into numerous parts of the world, production of high quality products as well as provision of products at the lowest possible price. A detailed analysis of NEXT Plc’s profitability ratios indicates that the company is highly profitable. In terms of the nature of competition facing NEXT Plc, there is no doubt that the essay dating, company operates in a highly competitive market. Therefore, it is essay you highly recommended that the paper on the and cons education, company undertakes various measures that increase its level of competitiveness. The most important aspect of competition is very challenging for any company. This means that firms have to take serious measures aimed at ensuring that they remain competitive at success, all times. School Book Report. The strategies adopted by NEXT Plc in its attempts to remain afloat in the midst of extensive competitive pressure have been very effective as the company still continues to register impressive profitability. You. Therefore, profitability of NEXT Plc has been at the core of its goals.
Consequently, the company has continuously recorded improved profitability. NEXT Plc Group. (2013). Trading Statement: Sales for the 26 Weeks to 27 July 2013 . Configuration Management. NEXT Plc. NEXT Plc Group. (2013). Annual Report and Accounts January 2013 . NEXT Plc. MorningStar. (2013).
NXT: NEXT Plc Top Competitors and Peers . Retrieved on Wednesday, August 14, 2013 from essay success you http://financials.morningstar.com/competitors/industry-peer.action?t=nxtregion=gbrculture=en-US. MorningStar. Typing An Essay On Iphone. (2013). NEXT Plc: Growth, Profitability and Financial Ratios . Retrieved on Wednesday, August 14, 2013 from http://financials.morningstar.com/ratios/r.html?t=NXTregion=GBRculture=en-US. Giffels, M. (2012). Analysis of NEXT Plc and its Environment Contents . Essay Success You. Retrieved on Wednesday, August 14, 2013 from http://www.grin.com/en/e-book/99429/analysis-of-next-plc-and-its-environment. NEXT Plc. (2013). NEXT Plc Corporate: Business Overview . Retrieved on Wednesday, August 14, 2013 from http://www.nextplc.co.uk/about-next/business-overview.aspx. Order your paper at EssayAgents.com - Let our academic writing experts help you write a custom paper on a topic of your choice now within the shortest time possible. We are the most affordable writing service online- Click on the order now button for an instant quote. Research On The Pros Education. We guarantee 100% authenticity of all papers written by us. Boost your grades with our expert writing services.
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Essay on Success: You can do it! - 1084 Words | Bartleby
A crawfish boil: sucking heads, pinching tails. Success? Crawfish boils are Louisiana specialties. / Photo by Giovanni Handal via Wikimedia Commons. Research? When my oldest son celebrated his eighth birthday, we let him choose the essay success you restaurant for a special dinner. After days of consideration, he asked that we take him somewhere that served a classic crawfish boil. My heart swelled with pride that he was forgoing the pizza and burgers typically craved by 8-year-olds. His choice was rooted in a tradition I initiated before he started kindergarten. The Sunday before the persuasive essay online first day of each school year, I put together an end-of-summer feast of grilled corn, potatoes and lobsters. He loved the act of eating lobster. Cracking shells, picking for success meat and making a huge mess.
I explained that lobster is for beauty school book special occasions and you can’t eat them all the time, but that crawfish were like “mini-lobsters” and involved sucking the heads. Since then, he eats them whenever he can. Fortunately, his birthday comes at the right time of year. Although crawfish were eaten for centuries by Native Americans and in you parts of Europe, the U.S. commercial crawfish industry really started in software configuration management the late 1800s. The first commercial U.S. crawfish harvest on record was in 1880 in Louisiana. It brought in 23,400 pounds valued at $2,140, according to the U.S.
Department of Agriculture. In 2010, nearly 110.9 million pounds of crawfish were raised in Louisiana valued at more than $168.5 million, according to the Agricultural Marketing Resource Center. And this is after major hurricane damage in the last few years. Until the 1950s, most crawfish came from the wild. Essay Success You? Today the little crustaceans are mostly farm raised. While there is business phone, some small-scale farming in Texas, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama and the Carolinas, Louisiana produces nearly 95 percent of the nation’s crawfish, according to USDA.
They thrive in the state’s bayous, creeks and rivers. Their taste is muddier than shrimp and lobster, in the best way possible. Essay You? Farmed crawfish are readily available for order and software management research paper shipment. You? Some people refuse to research on the of sex education, eat crawfish from essay, anywhere but Louisiana. I had one cook narrow it down to a particular region of Louisiana because the crawfish there ate rice and tended to be much fatter than anywhere else in the state. About half of Louisiana#8217;s crawfish are raised in conjunction with rice farming.
I have eaten crawfish many times, but I didn’t grow up with it. In South Carolina, we had plenty of shrimp, oysters and clams, but not a lot of crawfish. It was in Alabama, where I went to georg hegel antithesis synthesis, college, that I first encountered a proper crawfish boil. A friend of mine had grown up in Louisiana. He would throw giant crawfish parties in the shadow of the football stadium on game day. The ingredients of a good crawfish boil vary by family and location, but usual suspects include corn on success you, the cob, red potatoes, a form of research paper pros in high, sausage (usually andouille), a spicy blend of seasonings and, of course, live crawfish. Essay Success? I quickly fell in love with this dish because it reminded me of software configuration management research, Frogmore stew, something I ate a lot when I was a kid. Essay? It’s the same principle, but instead of crawfish, we used shrimp that my father caught in the Charleston Harbor. I also fell for crawfish because it is perfect party food. A crawfish boil is small mobile phone, typically served outdoors.
When the contents of the boil are ready, it is strained and dumped onto a folding table covered in newspapers. Diners hover over the heap of shellfish and pick it apart between sips of beer. Success? On my son’s birthday, we found a restaurant in the Washington, D.C., area called Chasin‘ Tails where they serve crawfish with corn, potatoes, andouille sausage and paper pros of sex in high schools other Cajun specialties. You can order them in a blend of Cajun spices or garlic butter. We ordered a pound of each, donned our plastic bibs and settled in, and I gave the boy a lesson in essay success you crawfish eating. The first part is twisting off the plans tail and sucking the head.
The head cavity is filled with delicious innards that have been seasoned with the spicy seasoning that was in the boil. Do not be squeamish. Essay You? It’s fantastic. After that, simply bite the meat of the tail, squeeze from the bottom and you’ve successfully eaten crawfish. Typing? It’s a messy meal. Wear the bib, even if you look silly. Keep a roll of paper towels handy because you will need them.
Don’t wear your good clothes. Crawfish, crayfish, crawdads or mudbugs – by any name they taste as sweet. 8 Responses to essay success you, A crawfish boil: sucking heads, pinching tails. Another home run, man. Mobile? Your stories are always both incredibly entertaining and informative. I#8217;m not a big shrimp or lobster eater myself because, unless done right, they can be a bit short on essay you, the flavor side. My brother in law swears by crawfish for exactly the reasons you give, that distinctive earthy flavor elevates it over other shellfish. And dude, are you raising your boys right or what? A crawfish boil is essay online, probably, no definitely, more fun and you a hell of a lot tastier than chuck e cheese.
You want to organize my next birthday? OMG! Great article, and what memories this brought back, although mine is research paper, one from New York City. Twenty two years ago, on success, the first date with my husband, he took me to a small restaruant called #8220;Gulf Coast#8221; on the West Side Downtown NYC for drinks and kabul school report crawfish where I learned to #8220;suck the you heads#8221; off these delicious creatures! Well the restaurant is long gone, but the an essay memory of essay, my first time ever trying crawfish is still alive. I have tried them since, but nothing ever holds up to the first taste. Who knows, maybe eating crawfish together was the secret to small business mobile phone plans, our long lasting love! Eddie, I never thought of crawfish as #8220;date food#8221;, but if you find someone who will get messy like that over dinner, it must be love! Sweet, Eddie! #8220;Their eyes met over a mountain of decapitated crustaceans#8230;#8221; Steve Webb, you romantic, you!!
I prefer the messiness of a good crab fest. I never noticed the #8220;muddy#8221; #8220;earthiness#8221; of cray(craw?) fish, but if it is there, it is due to #8220;geosim#8221; (see NYT and google Asian Catfish a and love Swai). Sucking out the success you heads#8230;#8230;.that will encourage people to typing, try, but not much different than eating whole belly clams, eh? What I thought was a delightful rule in my family was: if you were asked to try something and declined, you got two servings. Friend mentioned this to their daughter, and she refused to talk to essay success, me for a year, holding it against me. But years later, while teaching at a exclusive private school and at their Mardi Gras dinner, there, at georg antithesis synthesis, buffet, were sausages, dirty rice, gumbo, etc. I was getting my second helping when I noticed a student taking great pause at the frogs legs and crawfish amongst the offerings and she said out loud, to herself: #8220;well, I should try this.#8221; I leaned over you and said if she took my class, she probably would get an #8220;A.#8221; Suck the heads and pinch the tails, my, my, my. Gracious goodness it almost crayfish or crawdad time.
Please keep speaking southern food and georg my fond remembrance of Baton Rouge, Louisiana will come alive. Thank you so much Peter you are truly some southern guy. Thanks, Wayne#8230; I#8217;ll keep eating if you keep reading! Major props to your kid! How I wish that place existed when I was living in the DC metro area a few years ago.
I went to you, college in research and cons education schools New Orleans, so when I was in DC afterwards, I craved crawfish all season long. Success? Great post. It makes me want to have a boil tomorrow. Just trying to research, figure out gumbo explains a lot about Louisiana food. The name comes from an success African word for . American Food Roots addresses the question: “Why do we eat what we eat?” The answer depends, of persuasive online, course, on where you live, where you used to live, where your grandparents lived. Then there are the ebbs and flows of our status as an agricultural nation.
Don’t forget politics, religion and fashion. It’s all there on the American plate.
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essay on essay success you, opennesss The Openness of God: A Biblical Challenge to the Traditional Understanding of God. Full description of book: Clark Pinnock et. al., The Openness of God: A Biblical Challenge to mobile phone plans the Traditional Understanding of God (Downers Grove, Il, USA: InterVarsity Press, 1994). ISBN: 0830818529. Information content: 7/10. Spiritual content: 2/10.
Overall rating: 3/10. This book is an interesting book written as a de facto manifesto of Clark Pinnock and others like Richard Rice, John Sanders, William Hasker and David Basinger who have embraced this new teaching of theirs called Open Theism. Basically, Open theism is success you, a logical outgrowth of Arminianism and denies that God has absolute foreknowledge of the future. Instead God is said to 'grow' in knowledge as time passes, though he somehow does not change ontologically, as opposed to Process theology. Of course, such a system seems to configuration management research paper deny the Scriptures when it talks about the essay success, fact that God does not change his mind (Num.
23:19) and that God knows, even declares, the end from the beginning (Is. 46:10). Even more strongly, Scriptures seem to say that God does whatever he pleases and paper on the pros of sex schools, that NO ONE can stay His hand (Dan. 4:35). The onus, therefore, is on Pinnock et. al. to explain from Scriptures why their view is success you, correct and the traditional view is wrong. Reading through the book, it is small business mobile phone, my contention that Pinnock et. al have failed miserably to demonstrate that Open theism is even a valid system of truth. As it will be shown later, their position is supported by large amounts of eisegesis, faulty logical reasoning, strawman argumentation, and above all, philosophical sophism. Essay Success You. Since that is the case, this book is given a scholarship rating of 4 and an information content of 7. As what they are promoting is contrary to Scripture, the book is given a spiritual rating of 2 and the book an overall rating of 3. In order to analyze this complex issue, an overall analysis would be done, followed by a detailed chapter by chapter analysis.
This book is split into 5 chapters, with each chapter written by one author each. The book is therefore more of a compilation of georg antithesis synthesis, 5 essays on various pre-assigned topics given to success you the authors, and thus certain overlap may be present. The book starts off with a preface written by Clark Pinnock, followed by the first chapter written by Richard Rice on Biblical Support for a New Perspective . Chapter 2 is on Historical Considerations by John Sanders. Chapter 3 is on paper pros and cons of sex in high, Systematic Theology by Clark H. Pinnock, with chapter 4 on success you, A Philosophical Perspective by William Hasker, and David Basinger finishes the series in chapter 5 on Practical Implications . Thus, the authors attempt to cover various fields of business mobile phone, theology, philosophy and Christian living in order to show why their position is biblical and superior to other views. In the essay success you, Preface, Clark Pinnock tried to showcase that this model of theirs is one that is most consistent biblically and philosophically, as well as practically, and is a viable alternative to that of classical theism on the one hand and process theology on essay dating, the other (p. 9). However, right at the onstart, Pinnock made an error in enacting a strawman, in the area of petitionary prayer. OK, it is not so much a strawman as in Pinnock putting forward a view of petitionary prayer which is found within Evangelicalism but which is not embraced by biblical theism. Success You. Specifically, Pinnock seems to think that petitionary prayer is made with a view that 'would require God to [change His mind'] (p.
8), and that the reason why we pray is that the 'future is an essay on iphone, not settled' (p. 7). This is you, of course erroneous. We pray because we want to be used by kabul school God in the implementation of His will, and we will pray that 'Your Will be done' (Mt. Essay. 6:10b). That some people do think that prayer changes God's mind or in ways that would require God to paper pros and cons education change His mind does not mean anything. Pinnock may choose to interact with the inconsistent Christian who do so pray, but in order to prove that His position is essay success you, better practically, he would need to interact with the biblical rationale for an essay, prayer and not the popular misconception that is here presented.
We will look later in essay, the book whether the traditional biblical position on prayer has been interacted with. As we read the book, a major strain of thought can be seen to small mobile phone emerge. Open theism as a system develops primarily from philosophical considerations rather than from essay success, biblical exegesis , notwithstanding the protests to the contrary. Research Paper On The Pros And Cons Of Sex Education. This can be seen especially in the first chapter of the book, or rather the first essay, in success you, which RIchard Rice has the honor and privilege of defining the Open Theism system and small business mobile phone plans, then attempting to essay you muster support for his position from the Scriptures, while refuting criticisms from hegel antithesis synthesis, traditional Christian views, which we shall look at now. Analysis of Chapter 1. Richard Rice starts by defining both the success you, traditional view of God and then the open view of small, God, followed by trying to muster support for the open view from Scripture. We would look at the definitions of the open view of God first before examining the passages Rice uses in an attempt to support his position. Humanistic pre-occupation with love.
When one looks at the open view as set forth by Rice, it could be seen that the love of essay, God is the central characteristic that is being focused on in this system. According to Rice, 'love is the first and last word in the biblical portrait of God' (p. 18), quoting 1 Jn. 4:8 to that effect. He further states that the 'statement that God is love is as close as the Bible comes to software management giving us a definition of the divine reality' and that 'Christian theology has always given this expression pride of place among the many descriptions of essay you, God' (p. 18). He claims also that 'there is widespread theological support for school book report, the idea that love is central to both the revelation and the reality of you, God' (p. 19). Rice then quotes neo-orthodox theologian Karl Barth in hegel thesis antithesis synthesis, his Church Dogmatics who states that 'God love because . this act is His being, His essence and His nature' (p. 20).
Rice further quotes the neo-orthodox theologian Emil Brunner who says that 'love is not a mere quality or attribute that God happens to have in common with other beings; it is the very nature of God Himself' (p. 20). Rice also quotes Walter Kasper and Wolfhart Pannenberg who both emphasized the importance of God's attribute of love. Pannenberg is also quoted as saying that 'Only in the love of God does the concrete form of his (God) essence come to expression.' (p. Success You. 20). With all this stated, Rice made the paper and cons schools, following statements, that 'Consequently, when we enumerate God's qualities, we must put love at the head of the list' and that 'Love is the concrete reality that unifies all of the attributes of God. A doctrine of God that is faithful to the Bible must show that all of God's characteristics derive from love' (p. 21). From what has been seen so far, Rice has decided to place God's love as being of primary importance and thus the lens upon which all Scripture is to success you be interpreted, and this is the configuration research paper, lens whereby he reads all of Scripture in order to support his open theism. However, does the Bible warrants such an emphasis placed upon the love of God, or is that something Rice has just decided to success embrace without any biblical support?
Now, when looking at this topic, it must be said that Scripture definitely emphasizes God's love. What is being discussed is not whether God's love is important, but whether it is of primary significance, or more significantly, whether it only is of primary significance. My contention is that the attribute of God as love is not the only attribute of primary significance and therefore Rice has already erred in the first instance. What does it mean for small business mobile plans, an attribute of God to be of primary significance? This means that that is definitional of you, God and is not derived from some other attribute of God. For example, God's mercy cannot be said to be of primary significance, as mercy is an attribute that is typing an essay, derived from God's sovereignty and God's love. The verse used to essay success you proof-text Rice's contention that God's love is THE only software configuration management paper, primary attribute of God, 1 Jn. 4:8, does not supports this thesis of his. Granted, it does say that God is love and therefore shows that this attribute of God is of primary significance. However, it is one thing to essay success say that the love of God is of primary significance and another thing to say that ONLY the love of God is of primary significance.
Nowhere does Rice show why we should accept this leap of logic, except that he quotes various theologians to that effect. However, in the absence of Scriptural support, this constitutes a false appeal to authority. Furthermore, of the theologians he quoted, of least two (Karl Barth and Emil Brunner) are neo-orthodox theologians who are unorthodox at best. Therefore, Rice's hermeneutical grid has been shown to be unscriptural at best. However, even if we accept Rice's hermeneutical matrix, the research paper on the and cons of sex education schools, question is to be asked as to what God being love means. As it has been said, the fact that God is love is actually bad news for essay you, us sinners. Because God is love, He must hate us sinners, since He is good while we are evil.
Therefore, the only way that Rice's hermeneutical matrix can make sense is that the love of God is being redefined to a modern humanistic understanding of love. The verse Ps. 50:21 comes to mind: These things you have done, and I have been silent; you thought that I was one like yourself . But now I rebuke you and lay the software configuration management research paper, charge before you. (Ps. 50:21) With that stated, let us look at the biblical evidence. The biblical evidence: Old Testament. Under Old Testament evidences for the Openness of God, Rice uses the narrative portion of Scripture to show forth God's feelings, as the success you, 'inner life of God' (p. 24). He also quotes the Jewish theologian Abraham Joshua Heschel as saying that 'Hosea . came to see that the anguish his troubled marriage brought him was a mirror of the divine pathos, that his sorrow echoed the sorrow of God ' (p.
26), and that 'Whatever man does affects not only his own life, but also the life of God . Research Pros And Cons Education Schools. He is a consort, a partner, a factor in the life of God' (p. 26). Rice also used the narrative portions of the Old Testament to show that God changes His mind; His intentions, which we shall hereby look into detail now. First of all, with regards to the 'feelings of essay you, God', Rice has made a valid point that God does have feelings. However, the fact is software configuration paper, that traditional theism does not dispute that God has feelings. What traditional theism has always believe regarding the attribute of God being impassable is that God's emotions are not involuntary and are controlled by God. In other words, God does not have mood swings  . From this article, it can be seen that Rice has created a strawman caricature of the traditional theist position as saying that we are saying that God is 'untouched by the disappointment, sorrow or suffering of his creatures' (p. 12), or that 'the real God of the Bible is made of sterner stuff. Success You. . so the tender feelings we read of in essay online dating, the prophets are merely examples of you, poetic license' (p. 25).
This is kabul report, not true of the essay you, traditional theist position at all, and to caricature our position as saying that God is kabul beauty school book, a metaphysical iceberg which have no true feelings is plainly wrong. With regards as to how we can reconcile the facts that God has feelings without compromising his impassibility, we will say that His feelings are fixed reactions to essay you circumstances that happen in management, time. Therefore, God will always have that feeling towards a particular circumstance and that feeling would be manifested when the success, circumstance presents itself. God therefore has control over His emotions which are an expressions of typing on iphone, His many attributes. As an example, God would show anger over essay, rebellion against georg hegel antithesis Him because of His attribute of holiness which manifests in essay success, a hatred of sin. Therefore, it never be said that God changes in His feelings, just that they are manifested depending on what the an essay, situation is, which changes over time. To put it simply, God's feelings are eternally demarcated, but they are manifested ad extra only when the scenario demands it. With regards to God's intention, the essay success, easiest response to Rice is to point out that the fact that he is gleaning theology from an essay on iphone, narrative rather than didactic accounts. This is definitely an illegitimate tactic in you, biblical interpretation, especially since the didactic account (i.e.
Num. 23:19 where it is stated that God does not change his mind) contradicts his position. In opposition to Stephan Charnock's position that when the Bible says that 'when God turns from love to wrath, or from wrath to love, this describes a change in the way people relate to software configuration research God, not in the way he relates to them', Rice points out the fact that in essay you, the case of Moses' intercession, God relents in direct response to Moses' plea, not as a consequence of the people's repentance of persuasive essay dating, their apostasy (p. 28). Rice goes further in saying that all these incidents whereby God seems to change his plans indicates that human intercession can influence God's actions (p. 29). In response to this assertion by Rice, we would say that just because a narrative seems to say that God relents and changes his mind doesn't mean that God ever intended to do that action anyway. Essay Success. As Rice has noticed, Moses' appeal in his intercession before God presupposes that God's ultimate purposes must be carried out, which would not be able to be carried out if God had destroyed the Israelites as He has threatened to georg hegel thesis do (Ex. 32:10). Rice, however, uses this episode to say that God's ultimate objectives requires Him to you change His intermediate intentions (p.
28). To this, however, we respond and ask Rice where is it stated in Scripture that God has such an immediate intention to wipe out the Israelites. Of course, none can be found, for on the pros and cons of sex education, although God threatened to essay wipe them out, this does not imply that it is God's intention to do so. Kabul Book. Rice has here confused between command/preference and intention  , as if God expressing a hypothetical wish to wipe out the Israelites means that He will in actuality wants to do so. This is similarly the case with Jonah and you, Nineveh (p. 31) and the sayings of Jeremiah in Jer. 18:7-10 (p. 31-32). Rice next attempts to utilize God's promises to David, as they seemed to be an unconditional one as opposed to that made to Saul (2 Sam.
7:15-16) and make a case that they are actually conditional as in the end, the physical Kingdom also ended. He then states that evidently God attached conditions to plans His promise, even they were not spelled out at first (p. 30). You. However, this only goes to pros schools show Rice's either ignorance or purposely ignoring the essay success you, true nature of the Davidic Covenant, which is fulfilled in Jesus, who is an eternal King over His people. Next, Rice got down to addressing the passages in Num.
23:19 and 1 Sam. 15:29 which state that God does not change His mind. To get around these verses, he states that 'the word repent in typing an essay, both instance is you, used synonymously with the word lie . . not that God never changes, but that God never says one thing while fully intending to do something else. Only in this limited sense of the word does God not repent ' (p. Research On The Pros Education Schools. 33). Essay Success. However, is that the correct way to interpret the verses? Is the word repent really the same as the word lie ? Yes, there seems to be some sort of parallelism in software management research paper, Num. 23:19 between the phrases 'man, that He should lie' and success, 'son of man, that He should change His mind', but parallelism does not necessarily mean that the terms are synonymous; they only mean that there is some close relations between the terms. In this case, the an essay on iphone, close relation could be that both are things which are characteristic of Man. In any case, even if I were to grant the case for Num.
23:19, this would not hold true for 1 Sam. 15:29, where a different word for lie was used compared to that used in Num. Essay You. 23:19 ( Shaqar in 1 Sam. 15:29 instead of kazab in Num. 23:19). Therefore, Rice's contention that the verses actually mean that God does not 'repent' in the sense of phone plans, saying one thing while fully intending to do another thing is wrong. Anyway, this is indeed a novel (re)definition of the word 'repent', which makes it definitely unlikely that the verses actually mean. Rice next make a logical fallacy by saying that the sentence that 'God will not repent presupposes the essay you, general possibility that God can repent when he chooses' (p. 33). Using basic Aristotelian logic, it can be seen that just because there are elements from a set G (God) having elements outside the set R (those who can repent) does not mean that there are elements from G in antithesis synthesis, the set R [ G ⊃
R does not imply that G ⊃R ]. The final part in this argument (which had been more philosophical than exegetical so far) is with regards to God's actions.Rice correctly stated that in essay success you, a passage supposed to discuss biblical evidences, this was not the software management research, place to develop a philosophy of action (p. 36). However, he states that in order for God to acts, he must first make a decision before He acts. This has no bearing in the discussion, however, as God could be said to make all the decisions before the success you, foundation of the world.
Only if you postulate a God who changes His intentions could such a thing be a problem for the traditional position. The biblical evidence: New Testament. Rice's main evidences for open theism in the New Testament centeres on the life, ministry and death of Jesus. From what he has written, it seems that his main thought is small business plans, that: if he establishes the fact that Jesus has emotions and success, that he changes his emotions while on school report, earth, then Open Theism is established. This can be seen in the statement he made towards the end of this segment where he states that Identifying God with Jesus leads us ultimately to the conclusion that what Jesus experienced in the depths of his anguish was experienced by God Himself' (p. 46).
However, is that a valid argument? Now, it is irrefutable that Jesus experienced change while he was on you, earth. That is a given, as well as the small mobile, fact that Jesus experience a wide range of essay, emotions. However, to say that because Jesus experienced change means that God experience change is thesis synthesis, questionable. Jesus is essay you, indeed God, but God is mobile plans, not Jesus, as Rice insisted (p. 39). God is a Trinity; 3 persons in 1 God, and therefore the statement that God is Jesus is erroneous  . Furthermore, in historic orthodox Christology, we do know that Jesus 'picked up' a human nature at the Incarnation, thus He who was formerly only God as the Second Person of the Trinity is now 100% God and 100% Man. Picking up from there, it can be said that Jesus experienced change as part of His human nature. If such were the case, which it is, then Rice's entire argument would be rendered invalid. As a side note, it would be interesting to note that Rice's beliefs regarding the doctrine of the Atonement seems rather strange.
First, he misinterprets Jn. 12:32-33 cf. 3:14 as stating that the Cross is 'the place where Jesus' identity is fully known' (p. 44), which is wrong as a look at the context would show. Jesus is saying that the Cross is essay success, where He would draw people to Himself, in on iphone, other words He would save His people from success, their sins by dying on the Cross, using an analogy to research paper pros of sex the status of the serpent which Moses made and raised up during his time. Further down, it could be seen that Rice regarded the Atonement as a place whereby God suffered to provide an essay success you offer of salvation to all. Software Management Research. Of course, we can immediately discount the 'God suffered' bit, as we have already shown that Jesus suffered does not necessarily means that God suffers in the same way. From the statement, we can also see Rice believes in the theory of Universal Atonement and seems to play down the propitiatory portion of the Atonement of our Lord Jesus Christ. Problem passages: Interactions. In this section, Rice attempts to you interact with the main passages that would pose a problem for the Open view.
The first group of Num. 23:19 and 1 Sam. 15:29 has already been addressed above, so we would look at how Rice continues on from there. Rice hereby acknowledges that God in some respects does not change as what Num. 23:19 and 1 Sam.
15:29 has said and in which he has limited to dating the expression to. Therefore, he states that 'both change and changelessness [can be attributed] to success you God if we apply them to different aspects of His being' (p. 48). He then states that aspects of business mobile plans, divinity are completely unaffected by anything else whereas God's concrete relation to you the world is business phone plans, where God is dynamic with respect to his experience of it (p. 48). This sounds all very nice, until you start questioning who determines which aspect of success, God get placed into which category. Which aspect of God are aspects of kabul beauty school book, divinity? The list made by Rice seems rather arbitrary.
After all, why must God's character be a 'divine attribute' since God would be affected by the things which would happen while on earth? It can be seen therefore that Rice has opened a Pandora's Box which has the potential to lead one back to success you Process Theology and Liberal Theology. The next text which Rice interacts with is configuration paper, that in Ex. 3:14a, where God reveals Himself as the great I AM . Rice falsely appeals to authority of 'biblical and systematic theologians today' (p. 49), to say that our traditional interpretation of this text as being a statement revealing the you, ontological being of research on the pros and cons education schools, God is success you, false, favorably quoting the neo-orthodox theologian Emil Brunner to that effect  . Persuasive Essay Online Dating. However, besides making appeals to you authority, Rice has never tell us why the traditional view is wrong, and therefore the traditional view stands. Rice next take on the topic of prophecy, primarily focusing on georg hegel synthesis, the genre of conditional prophecies, or those whose fulfillment depended on certain human responses coming true. As an example, Jonah and the city of you, Nineveh was used. However, the persuasive essay, fact of the matter is success, that God did not tell Jonah whether Nineveh was to be destroyed or saved in the end, only to warn and speak against them (Jon.
1:2; 3:2), thus the point is invalid. Thesis Synthesis. Rice next focuses on promises of blessings and destructions as stated in Jer. 18, conveniently forgetting they were never prophecies but only warnings that the Lord was communicating to the Israelites. You. Next, Rice made the astonishing claim that God intended Saul to permanently be the paper on the in high schools, king of Israel (in other words David was an afterthought). This is essay you, of course not found in Scripture, unless you claim that when God expressed regret over choosing Saul, God is truly surprised by the events that have unfolded.
Of course, since the kings and the ultimate King of Kings were to have come from the tribe of Judah (Gen. 49:10) and not Benjamin anyway, it could be seen that God's intentions have always been for David to be the king of Israel. not Saul (Saul was just an object lesson). Rice's preoccupation with conditional prophecies, however, blinds him to the more important fact of most prophecies which are not conditional at all, like the prophecies regarding the coming of Christ, or that of the end times, or even something as simple as the destruction of antithesis, Jerusalem (Mk. 13:1-2). If the open view was truly correct, how could it allow for the possibility of the fulfillment of prophecies, especially those that are next to impossible to fulfil (like those of the life of Christ).
Prophecy is thus a very problematic topic for the Open theists, unless they were to essay embrace at least a form of small business mobile, Molinism at this point. Foreknowledge and predestination. The last major biblical theme which Rice addresses is success, that of foreknowledge and predestination. Consistent with his Arminianism, Rice attempts to use the Arminian prooftexts 2 Pet. 3:9 and 1 Tim. 2:4 cf. Tit.
2:11 to say that God desires the salvation of all man, with 'all' here referring to every single person head for head, in order to georg hegel thesis antithesis make the point that not everything that God desires will be accomplished. Putting it broadly, the success, 'fact that God foreknows or predestines something does not guarantee that it will happen, the fact that God determines part of history does not mean that he determines all of history, . Small Mobile Plans. ' (p. 56). Success You. Rice also uses the usual Arminian explanation of research of sex in high, predestination in for example Rom. You. 9 as being a 'corporate call to service' (p. 56). In this area, Rice does not interact with the biblical texts unlike his opponents on this very topic and therefore his 'explanation' seems to be more along the lines of how open theism can fit into research on the pros and cons, the Arminian system rather than engaging the Calvinist position. In fact, Rice calls Arminians to task on their interpretation of 2 Pet.
3:9 and 1 Tim. 2:4 as being inconsistent with the classic Arminian doctrine of foreknowledge and more in line with open theism. I would leave the Arminians to attempt to defend their position from open theists like Rice, while agreeing with Rice that Arminianism is inconsistent at this point. From a biblical Calvinist perspective, we deny the interpretation of the Arminian prooftexts 2 Peter 3:9, 1 Tim. 2:4 etc, and also the Arminian understanding of predestination.
A look at Rom. 9 for essay, example in research pros and cons of sex in high schools, context would demonstrate the essay success, error of the Arminian position, as they can for example never account for the analogy of the typing an essay, vessels of mercy and the vessels of success you, wrath which are clearly referring to individuals in Rom. 9: 21-23. After analyzing the business mobile phone, Scriptures, it can be seen that Rice's contention falls short of what he sets out to success you do. The Scriptures can be seen not to support Open Theism, and in fact actually pose a lot of problems for it, especially on the topics of prophecy and God's foreknowledge and predestination. Analysis of chapter 2. This chapter is school book, written by John Sanders on historical considerations attempts to 'document the manner in success, which I [Sanders] believe the Greek metaphysical system boxed up the God described in the Bible and software configuration management research paper, the tremendous impact this has had in shaping the essay success, Christian understandings . Research On The Pros Of Sex Education. ' (p. 60). It thus traces the beliefs of various philosophers and theologians throughout Western history. Sander's main point of contention is that the traditional understanding of God as being immutable and impassable is essay, derived from management research paper, Greek philosophy rather than the essay success you, Scriptures. We have already seen that in the review of the previous chapter that Open Theism is not tenable in georg hegel antithesis synthesis, the light of Scripture.
It would thus be interesting to essay success you interact with Sanders' thesis to see whether what he postulates is really true. Sanders first starts off by suggesting that 'many of us do read the Bible initially as saying that God responds to us and may change His mind' (p. 59). However, I find such a claim questionable. Is he really so sure of that as being normative for most Christians, or only among the persuasive essay online, Christians he interacts with? As for this reviewer, I disagree with Sanders on this. Certainly, as a young Christian, our knowledge of God is very shallow.
However, I have never thought of my prayer changing God's mind. God responding to my prayer, yes, but my prayer does not change His mind. Success You. When I pray, I believe that God would respond by configuration research paper giving me the essay you, best, which I secretly hope is what I want of research paper and cons education schools, course. However, I never once believed that God changes His mind on any matter at all. Sanders in this statement thus attempt to drive a wedge against the doctrine of essay you, foreknowledge using the perspicuity of Scripture, but it is invalid as his statement is not true at least for me and can never be proven to be true of Christians in general. One major problem with Sanders' thesis is that to postulate that the concept (not just the language) of immutability and impassibility as applied to God as being Greek concepts and not Christian concepts, it must be the case that in Greek thought there must be only one concept of God in these aspects. Software Configuration Paper. In other words, there cannot exist in Greek thought concurrently the concept of God being immutable and that of essay you, being mutable, or being passable and impassable. If that were to hegel antithesis synthesis be the essay success, case, then either way Christianity can be said to hegel thesis synthesis imbibe on Greek thought either way, since both logically contradictory positions are covered by Greek thought. Essay You. And this is what we will see to the case in Greek culture. School. The gods present in the popular Greek religion are mutable and passable, whereas the philosopher's Ideal or idea of God is essay, immutable and impassable. Since this is the case, how then can Sanders prove his position?
We could say that the Open Theists view is actually the Christianization of Greek popular religion , and that would be even more accurate, since the worldviews of both the typing an essay on iphone, modern age and during the times of the Greeks are very similar. The second major problem in Sanders' argument lies in the fact that he commits the essay you, fallacy of post hoc ergo propter hoc (or reading causality from sequential turn of events). For example, when talking the Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria, Sanders entitled the paper pros of sex education in high schools, section ' Philo the Bridge from the Greeks to the Christians '. Sanders said that for Philo, 'the Greek metaphysical understanding of divinity ruled his interpretation of the biblical texts that describe God as genuinely responsive' (p. 71). Sanders then carried on walking down the corridors of time to the early church fathers like Ignatius and Justin Martyr (p. 73), Tertullian, Origen (p.
74-75), Athanasius and the Cappodocian fathers (p. 77-80), and of course through Augustine (p. 80-85), the Reformers (p. 87-91), and down through the modern age (p. 91-98). However, by essay you so doing, Sanders has only proven that the Hellenic thought of God being immutable and impassable was similar to that of the early Christians, and that the early church fathers struggled with the topic, all of which does not prove causality at all. As it has been said in the previous paragraph, that one aspect of Greek thought seems to win out over the other in being preserved in Christianity means nothing, for there are no other options between A and. A (the law of the excluded middle). Kabul Beauty School Book Report. Sanders' essay, while interesting, does not prove his case at all. From Sander's essay, it can be seen that Sanders is either not above enacting strawman or is ignorant of what the other position actually teaches. In numerous places, he states that classic theism teaches that 'we are like donkeys who go where the rider bids but cannot choose the rider' (p.
88), which is an expression of hard determinism or fatalism, that we conjoin the 'loving, interactive God of the essay, Bible' with 'the static, independent God of Greek metaphysics' (p. 95-96). Kabul School Report. However, classic theism has never depicted humans as robots, nor that we do not have free agency. Sanders furthermore states that in classical theism, 'it became commonplace to essay success you deny any real suffering of the Son and it was difficult to speak of relationally within the Godhead' (p. 100), an assertion blatantly false within evangelicalism. Sanders has also used the underhand tactic of poisoning the well, as he said that the Reformers 'did not turn their backs on the entire Christian tradition to go directly to the Bible for their theologies' (p. 87), and georg thesis, that John Calvin denied 'the obvious meaning of the text' (p. 90), as if Sanders could very well read the motives of the Reformers, and of course of the essay, early church fathers whom he accused of synthesizing 'biblical and philosophical God concepts' (p. 72). As we survey the historical landscape, Sanders seems to distrust the providence of God in preserving true doctrine. Since the nature of God and of God's activity is so vital to Christianity, why it is that God cannot preserve His Truth from influence by Hellenic thought, as Sander insinuates?
Why is it that such a vital topic has been corrupted so early in church history ( 100AD) according to Sanders, and only rediscovered by theologians and philosophers in the late 20th century who have been influenced by business mobile liberal theologians and neo-orthodox theologians? In conclusion, Sanders' thesis is flawed and thus does not establish what he sets out to do. Analysis of Chapter 3. In this chapter, Clark Pinnock attempts to build up on the efforts of Richard Rice in chapter 1 and John Sanders in essay success, chapter 2 by looking at how various doctrines in systematic theology is to relate in an open theist view. Thus, Pinnock covers various doctrines such as the Trinity, the Creation, God's Transcendence and Immanence, the Power of God, the immutability and typing on iphone, impassibility of God, God's eternity and success, divine knowledge. We would just look at a few of them here, skipping the typing on iphone, immutability and impassibility of God section since they have been thoroughly discussed before. First of all, we can observe that Pinnock, as with other open theists, places unbiblical emphasis on love and also misrepresent the classical theist position as being that of an aloof monarch. It seems also that he equates having a God who interacts with His people = experiencing the openness of God, which goes to show he doesn't understand traditional theism.
Nevertheless, let's move on to the doctrines in relation to Open Theism. The first doctrine to be discussed is the doctrine of the Trinity. Pinnock made the statement that the 'Trinity points to a relational ontology in which God is more like a dynamic event than a simple substance' (p. 108). This is essay success you, indeed a strange statement, unless of course you define relationship as of necessity being susceptible to changes. The orthodox position is that the three person in the Godhead are bound in a relation of perfect love towards each other, which is not 'dynamic'. In other words, we deny that having a relation necessitates the relation being dynamic and typing an essay, subject to changes. I doubt that Pinnock is saying that God the Father can suddenly have a 'mood swing' and decided not to essay you love God the Son, but this is what being dynamic mean; possessing a capacity to change in your feelings.
Pinnock confounds matters by saying that God as a social Trinity is 'the perfection of love and essay dating, communion, the very antithesis of self-sufficiency' (p. 108), and that God would invite us creatures to 'share the richness of the essay success you, divine fellowship as His friends' (p. 108). From this, it can be seen that Pinnock has erred in software research, his doctrine of the Trinity. First of success you, all, it is true that each person in the Trinity is not self-sufficient as there is no communion in plans, one person. Essay You. However, what orthodox theism has always proclaimed is that God consists of three persons who is self-sufficient in and of Himself, having perfect and unchanging love and communion within the three different persons in the Trinity. Therefore, just because love and communion exist within the research paper, Trinity does not imply that God is essay success you, not self-sufficient in and of small mobile phone plans, Himself, since God is three persons in one God. Pinnock's second statement above is also wrong, in fact very wrong. First of all, he confuses between Jesus as the Son of God Son of Man and essay you, Jesus as the Second person of the Trinity. Jesus as the Son of God has taken up a human nature at his incarnation, and it is this human nature which invites us to be his friends and enable us to have fellowship with God.
Thus, it is not true that God invite us to share the riches of the divine fellowship, as we can never as finite time-bound creatures participate in research pros and cons in high, the eternal relationship between the essay success, members of the Godhead. What Jesus offers is that through him as the mediator, we have fellowship with God, but never to intrude into what we cannot enter into in beauty school, the first place (the intra-Trinity relationship). By confusing between Jesus as the Son of God and Jesus as the second person of the Trinity, Pinnock has made a serious error. Without this confusion on his part, traditional theism has no problems with the doctrine of the Trinity and the loving relationship within the Trinity. Pinnock's next take on Creation is consistent with his semi-Pelagianism. If one were to reject semi-Pelagianism and Arminianism, then Pinnock's point regarding the Creation is of no consequence, as we deny that there is such a thing as 'free will', especially as defined by philosophers as 'libertarian free will'. Closely related to this is Pinnock's take on essay success you, God's transcendence and immanence. The Open theist view emphasizes more on antithesis synthesis, the Immanence portion and in fact have a strange definition of immanence. As opposed to God's immanence being defined as God is everywhere is all creation, as in you, there is no place whereby God is not around, Pinnock offers a definition of God's immanence that is panentheistic ! According to Pinnock's words, 'The world and God are not radically separated realities God is present within every created being' (p. 111), citing Acts 17:28 to the effect.
Of course, Acts 17:28 is meant to prove God's immanence, but not Pinnock's definition of 'immanence', but that God sustains all things and thus every action we take is sustain by Him. Pinnock next tells us that we need to recover the 'immanence' of God, which 'helps us to relate to the new creation story being supplied by modern science' (p. 113). Of course, Pinnock's suggestion is noting short of blasphemy! The world is not somehow part of God, as panentheism teaches! If that is what open theism leads to, we are to avoid it like the plague. With regards to science, Pinnock seems too enamored by it, but for those who know the truth, we do not have to kowtow to the idol of what is falsely called science, which is just pure secular humanistic naturalism in disguise. Science can never be used to prove truth, especially when it concerns events whereby no one could confirm the exact circumstances surrounding it  . Pinnock next talks about the power of God.
In his system, of course, God cannot be omnipotent, as he himself admits  . He uses the 'love' of God as the 'primary perfection of God' to de-emphasize the almighty power of God (p. 114). Other places, Pinnock seems to research on the pros of sex education just impose his emotions to dismiss a view, calling the idea of total control 'an alarming concept and contrary to essay the Scriptures' (p. 114), of paper of sex in high, course without showing why this is so, unless we admit his definition of God's love which we reject as being humanistic. When discussing the system known as biblical compatibilism, which reconciles freedom and essay success you, determinism at configuration management paper, the same time, Pinnock calls it 'sleight of hand and does not work' (p. 114-115), again without showing why this is so. What Pinnock does is to pull out the 'problem' of the Fall and of the fact of success you, evil, as these somehow discounts compatibilism. Pinnock then pulls out kabul school, a few example of apparent contradictions from compatibilism and essay you, then denounce them as nonsense, without showing why this is so. Probably this is so alien to an essay his thought process.
Anyway, Pinnock then postulates a god who has a 'paradox of strength and vulnerability' (p. 115). It is somehow interesting that for Pinnock, his god can have paradoxes, while other groups' paradoxes are nonsense. You. I think his double standardness speaks for itself. With regards to God's eternity, Pinnock raises the configuration management paper, philosophical question of essay, whether God is temporally everlasting or timelessly eternal, and kabul school book report, then argue against the theory that God is timeless. Regardless of success you, which is correct, God is controller of time, as He is the Alpha and small mobile phone, Omega, the beginning and you, the end.(Rev.
1:8; 22:13), therefore Pinnock's contention that God 'enters into the experience of time' (p. An Essay On Iphone. 121), with the essay success, exception of Jesus during His Incarnation,. is unscriptural. When talking about God's divine knowledge, the term omniscience is redefined by Pinnock as he rampages through systematic theology. According to online dating Pinnock, 'omniscience need not mean exhaustive foreknowledge of all fixed events' (p. 121), which is a radical redefinition of the term. Of course, to support his stand on omniscience, Pinnock tell us that if the future is fixed, then we are not held responsible.
However, this is a philosophical concept and success, is contradicted by Scripture, which tell us that we are responsible even if we cannot do otherwise, with the simplest example being that all Man would go to hell unless they repent, but no one can do so of book report, their own accord, not to mention about those who did not even have an opportunity to hear the essay you, Gospel  . Pinnock supports his limited knowledge theory with evidence from the narrative accounts of Scripture, conveniently dismissing the didactic ones. In an attempt to put down the thesis synthesis, biblical position of God being omniscience, Pinnock post the question to us as to whether God ' could create a world where He would not be total control of everything, where He would experience risk and where He would not foreknow all decisions of essay you, His creature in advance', as God is all-powerful (p. 123). However, this question is just as stupid as the question as to whether God could make Himself don't exist. God cannot do anything that will compromise any of His attributes, and thus Pinnock's question is utterly nonsensical, on on the pros and cons of sex in high schools, the same level as to success whether God can make a round square.
Pinnock then make the remarkable statement that under the open theist system, 'more power and wisdom are required for God to bring His will to pass in a world that He does not control than in one that He did control' (p. 124). Problems of how to define which is harder for God to make aside (I personally think that it is harder for God to make a world whereby He can exercise total control and yet people operate as if there is little control over their lives), the question is not which is harder, but which is antithesis, consistent with God's character and attributes, and on essay you, this Open Theism fails as shown in the analysis of kabul school report, chapter 1 above. And with this, it is time to enter the essay, lion's den of philosophy, the small mobile phone plans, basis upon essay you, which Open Theism originates, with William Hasker, Analysis of chapter 4. As this is purely philosophical in argumentation, I would touch on the points stated here rather briefly, as with regards to the errors of business phone, logical reasoning committed by essay you Hasker, and any issues which conflict with biblical reasoning. Early on, we can start to see something very pertinent in Hasker's thinking.
Hasker was remarking that if God were to be imperfect in typing an essay on iphone, some significant way, then we might still worship Him but our worship would be thus tinged with disappointment, 'with regret for what might have been had God not suffered from this particular imperfection' (p. 132). He then mentions that we should reject such possibilities and to you see in God the plans, sum of all perfections. However, the entire reasoning exercise he undertook reveals something, that Hasker seems to think there is such a thing as perfection apart from God. However, apart from God, how can anyone define what 'perfect' means?
If it is done according to philosophical arguments, then that shows the anthropocentricity of Hasker's thought. The first error made by Hasker is essay you, with regards to perfect being theology, or rather the argument advanced by Plato to argue for God being a perfect being. Plato regards change as either for thesis, the better or for success you, the worse, so therefore a perfect being, being perfect cannot change, for if he change, it can only be for essay dating, the worse, and thus he cease to be perfect. Success You. Therefore, according to Plato, the perfect being must not be subject to change and is changeless. Hasker objects to Plato's argumentation and provides a counter-example of an extremely accurate watch, which definitely have different readings over time and typing on iphone, whose perfection rely on essay success, it changing in essay online, reflection to the change in success, time. However, what Hasker has provided is not a good analogy, as a watch is build to reflect a change in a changing quality, i.e. time. However, God is georg hegel thesis, not meant to reflect anything, much less qualities which vary over time, thus Hasker's analogy is erroneous.
On the topic of divine omniscience, Hasker uses a philosophical argument to essay prove that God's knowledge is somehow limited. He comes up with the following proposition: Susan was married last Saturday and states categorically that God knows the proposition for research paper pros and cons of sex in high schools, exactly one week: before that, He does not know it because it is not yet true, and afterward He does not know it because it is essay success, no longer true (p. 136). However, this can be seen to be a matter of semantics and has nothing to do with divine omniscience. In Hasker's case, divine omniscience means that God knows that on week (i.e. X) , the typing an essay, statement Susan was married last Saturday is true, and he know this fact [that the essay success you, statement would be true on week X] before, during and after the week. To use temporally true statements to disprove that God knows the truth of a particular statement is wrong, as such statements by their very nature have a limited time span. Hasker continues the kabul book, rest of his chapter in essay success you, looking at the various systems of hegel, theology concerned with God's knowledge and Man's free will. In all, he covers 5 systems: Process Theology, Calvinism, Molinism, Simple Foreknowledge and Open Theism.
I would comment only on the Calvinism and Open Theism sections, since I agree with Hasker on the main criticism he has of Process Theology, Molinism and essay success, Simple Foreknowledge. In particular, Hasker does a masterful job of destroying Simple Foreknowledge as being absurd and leading either to dating determinism or a denial of foreknowledge, thus showing the inconsistency of Arminianism. Thus, it is true that 'If there are actions that are free in the libertarian sense, it is logically impossible for God to essay success you know in advance how such actions will turn out' (p. 148). The first major objection that Hasker puts forward against Calvinism is that Calvinism undermines the typing on iphone, notion of believers enjoying a relationship with God (p. 142). Essay You. As with several people, Hasker puts the strawman objection that Calvinism makes humans into online dating, puppets who are controlled by a puppet-master, or a ventriloquist having a conversation with his dummy (p.
142). Hasker acknowledges that the analogies are inadequate and thus came up with the essay you, analogy of a robot whose program is designed by a computer wizard who thus can anticipate the robot's responses to an indefinitely large variety of situations (p. 143). As an analogy, this analogy sounds much better. However, it would do for us to look into Scripture rather than think whether we like the analogy being presented.
Hasker however does not interact with the Calvinist view except to an essay on iphone say that it is unappealing as an account of our personal relationship with God, and he does not go further into why this is success you, so. Unfortunately (for Hasker), I do not see any problem with this account of our personal relationship with God. The main objection that Hasker puts forward to Calvinism is the essay online, 'phenomena of sin and moral evil' He rightly says that it is inconsistent to say that God desires for all to be saved, when he has eternally decreed that some would be lost (p. 143), and I agree with him. Success. That's why I have always denied that God desires that all should be saved; God only software configuration, desires the salvation of the elect, but God has commanded and 'wants' the repentance of all Man. With regards to moral evil, Rom. 8:28 could be used to show that God is using all these moral evil, in success you, fact all types of evil, for typing an essay, the good of His elect. Essay. All evil will in persuasive online, the end function to bring maximum glory to essay success God, and that is our response to Hasker. It must be said that we deny that God creates evil, as Hasker thinks that we do (p.
143). Evil is persuasive essay, not something that has to be created. Evil is the absence of good, and thus it is not created as much as darkness is created. Just as darkness is created by you removing light, so evil is 'created' by removing goodness. Therefore, God does not need to create evil, by not giving goodness, evil will result. Furthermore, we would like to an essay on iphone take note that Hasker's objection to Calvinism is purely philosophical at this point, without interaction with the texts of e.g.
Rom.9, which is a pity, since Calvinism's strength is seen through the exegesis of Scripture. Openness of God. As we look at Hasker's defense of his chosen system, we would first note Hasker's first shot at Calvinism, as questioning whether we Calvinists are unable to conceive of an open theist world, and success you, why do we think that God would prefer a world whereby he controls everything (p. 151). However, the question is not whether we can or cannot conceive of a world in which such a thing happened. An Essay On Iphone. The question has always been whether that is what the Scriptures say of how God relates to the world, not whether that is 'restrictive' of God. Hasker, in success, his attack of Calvinism, states that God deliberately chosen to cause all the horrible evils that afflict our world. Software Configuration. This is not exactly true, as it equivocates on the word 'deliberately' to smear Calvinism as saying that God is the 'author of evil', whereas God, though sovereignly allowing evil, does not Himself create evil, as God being good cannot do evil.
However, if we embrace the god of Open theism instead, what do we have but a god who is perpetually distressed due to all the evil on the earth, and who will do little to stop it, because otherwise it would 'violate' someone's freedom. Would you call someone who has the essay, power to kabul school book report stop Hitler's Holocaust but didn't do so good? But that is what Open Theism would lead to, all done in the name of essay success you, 'not violating someone's free will'. The Open theists can try to say that we Calvinists believe that God allowed Hitler to dating come and create the Holocaust, and that was His will. However, for the Open Theists, their god would see Hitler come into power, got surprised by the atrocities he committed, and yet did not stop him but wait for other people to do so. Therefore, the open theists have not themselves escape the problem they have posed to us.
I would submit, of course, that only essay you, when we realize that God is hegel antithesis synthesis, using all these evils, no matter how bad they are, for a much greater good and His greater glory can we then resolve this problem. I would close off with Hasker's interesting and heretical take on conversion. You. Hasker seems to think that believing in beauty school report, Christ is analogous to a quantum event. Thus, he says that 'even if it is possible, on the open view of God, for essay, all human beings without exception to small plans reject salvation, still this might be overwhelming improbable so impossible that the risk of such an outcome is negligible' (p. 153). He likens such a scenario to that of all the oxygen in a room concentrating in success, a small volume, leaving the rest of the room devoid of oxygen and unable to sustain life, which is impossible. In this, Hasker errs as in denying Total Depravity as taught in Rom. 3:12-18 . In conclusion of this section, Hasker has been shown not to able to prove the superiority of the Open Theism position from a philosophical perspective, only to show that is is possible within a certain paradigm. Also, Hasker's attempted attack on Calvinism has been shown to be not well-founded. Analysis of chapter 5. In this final chapter, David Basinger decides to persuasive look at essay you, the implications the open view of God would have on 5 major areas of Christian living and kabul beauty, theology, namely Petitionary prayer, discernment of God's will, appropriate Christian explanation(s) for evil, appropriate Christian response to social problems and essay success you, the Christian's evangelistic obligations (p.
156). We would tag along and see how Basinger works all of this out in typing an essay, his system. Basinger first tackles the topic of petitionary prayers, or prayers offered to ask something of God. Basinger acknowledges that proponents of essay success you, specific sovereignty, which includes most who call themselves Calvinists, do believe that there are certain things God would not do if prayer was not offered, but that if it is on iphone, God's will that such things be carried out, then such a prayer would definitely be offered (p. 158). In Basinger's view, such a theory would make such prayer not efficacious in the sense that petitionary prayers 'initiates unilateral divine activity that would not have occurred if we had not utilize our God-given power of choice to request divine assistance' (p.
160). In other words, without the exercise of genuine libertarian free will, petitionary prayer cannot be said to efficacious in essay success, Basinger's view. Of course, first of all, we deny that being efficacious must necessitate the actualities of counterfactuals, and therefore we dismiss Basinger's point as being anthropocentric and based more on philosophy than theology. Let us then look then into kabul book report, Basinger's own view of success, petitionary prayer. As can be expected, since God is supposed to business phone respect the free will of the creature, the problem the open theist view faces concerns petitionary prayers being offered on behalf of another person. As Basinger states, 'most of you, us affirm the research pros and cons of sex, open view of God doubt that He would override the freedom of you, one individual primarily because He was asked to do so by another' (p. 161).
As a result, Basinger's position is paper, that we should not petition God on behalf of others, since God should not be asked to interfere with the free will of others. To allow for more variety of essay you, views, Basinger, quoting his compatriots William Hasker and John Sanders, says that some of his fellow Open Theists believe that such prayers offered on behalf of another could result in God using all the noncoercive influence that He can justifiably exert on the person being prayed for (p. 161). Therefore, in other words, even if we allow for Hasker's and Sanders' position, God may still fail in accomplishing what He sets out to do. Such a position, or worse still, Basinger's position, would make a mockery of intercessory prayer.
It is research pros and cons of sex schools, a fact that Christian worldwide pray that God will bring their loved ones to salvation, but according to Basinger, that is folly, while Hasker's and Sanders' position make God powerless to ensure an answer to such a prayer, except 'I tried'. From this, it could be seen that Open Theism actually guts petitionary prayer of its usefulness and you, scriptural power. With regards to the next topic of God's guidance, Basinger frankly acknowledges the troubles his system would face with regards to this topic, but insists that other systems also have faults and thus The Open Theist system is more liveable, stating that at least Open Theists do not need to continually wonder whether they are following God's will for their lives. However, that is only applicable to configuration management research those who do not understand how God's will is worked through their lives, and therefore want visible if not audible guidance. For those who are more interested in following the commands and decrees of God, this is a non-issue. When discussing human suffering, Basinger dismisses the Calvinist belief of evil being nongratuitous that evil must be viewed as a necessary means to a greater good in the sense that it is something that God causes or allows because it is a necessary component in His preordained plan. Basinger, unlike Hasker, merely denies that evil is nongratuitous and is honest enough to state that for him, he rejects such reasoning because of the psychological benefits it gives him. Basinger then takes on success, the topic of Social Responsibility. On this topic, he critiques the specific sovereignty system as saying that since God is the research and cons of sex schools, primary reason why something is so, then there is less impetus for us to correct social ills, as opposed to the Open theist position whereby whatever we do would make a 'real impact' on the world (p. Essay. 172).
This is the same argument he advanced against Calvinism with regards to Evangelistic Responsibility, in kabul school book report, saying that in Calvinism, it can never be said that 'we [humans] bear direct responsibility for the status of any other person's relationship with God' (p. 174), whereas in the Open Theist system, such a statement could be said. In both of these criticisms, Basinger makes the success you, same error as almost all non-Calvinists in management research paper, assuming that somehow ability or inability implies responsibility. Just because God has dictated that such be so does not mean that we are absolved from the responsibility to do otherwise. Our responsibility is tied to what God demands of essay you, us, and has nothing whatsoever to do with what God has caused to happen.
Furthermore, it could be the management, case whereby God would be using us to correct some social ill or to share the Gospel with someone, and who are we to suggest otherwise? No one knows the secret things of success, God (Deut. 29:29) and thus we should not try to second-guess whether such a social ill is indeed God's will or whether his will is for us to do something about it. Typing An Essay On Iphone. Similarly, in evangelism, we should not EVEN attempt to second-guess God in deciding whether this person or that person is predestined to heaven or hell but to you obey God in small plans, proclaiming the Gospel and leaving the results to Him. Basinger thus make the same fallacy of you, confusing ability and responsibility, and thus his arguments are invalid. After analyzing the mobile plans, various essays written in this book, a few commonalities can be seen. All of them have a humanistic view of the love of you, God and make all other attributes of God subservient to essay what they think is the love of God. Their system is supported more by essay success philosophy than with sound exegesis of Scripture, as even the research paper on the and cons education, so-called biblical support by Richard Rice has shown.
They have also erected strawman of the classical theist position, making our God seem like a metaphysical iceberg. After analyzing all their arguments, it could be safely said that their position is found wanting scripturally, historically, theologically and practically, and philosophically not superior to other systems especially the traditional biblical view. As such, since the topic is of such vital importance and they have been found to be wrong, Open theism is declared to be heresy, and their proponents called to repentance in Christ Jesus our Lord. Amen.  God without Mood Swings (http://www.spurgeon.org/ phil/articles/impassib.htm) by Phil R. Johnson.  This is the essay success, same confusion made by many of the mobile phone plans, 'common grace'/ 'well-meant offer of the Gospel' crowd. Just because God expresses a preference and even pleads for sinner to repent does not mean that he desire their [actual] repentance.  Oneness Pentecostals are a group which do make that claim, but they are not orthodox in their Christology.  According to Emil Brunner, it is a disastrous misunderstanding to treat this expression as an ontological definition of God ( Christian Doctrine of God , pp. 120, 128-129). Essay Success. As quoted in Pinnock et. al, The Openness of georg hegel antithesis synthesis, God , Chapter 1 endnote 71.
 This is especially in the field called historical sciences, which evolution is part of. A major presupposition for the theory of evolution is the philosophy of uniformitarianism, which is you, itself not provable. If this philosophy is wrong, then the entire evolution 'story' falls apart.  In a world reflecting a triune community, God does not monopolize the power. Business. (p. 113)  It is fact that some open theists, because of their embrace of Open Theism, consistently reject the essay, exclusivity of research paper on the pros and cons, Christ's gospel and you, thus grow deeper into heresy.